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The LTF-631 High Speed Dielectric Cure Adviser was active to beam the abating behavior of Aggregate Abstraction Admixture (BMC). Aggregate Abstraction Admixture is about of identical absolute to Sheet Abstraction Admixture (SMC), abandoned in aggregate form, appropriately the appraisal of allegation can additionally be activated to SMC. The abstracts from dielectric cure ecology (DEA) audibly indicates:



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This commodity introduces and analyzes abstracts for log(ion viscosity) and abruptness of log(ion viscosity), which announce the accompaniment of cure. The plots affectation acclimatized features, including minimum ion viscosity, best abruptness of log(ion viscosity) and the time to an adopted end of cure.

In adjustment to be concise, log(ion viscosity) will be referred to as log(IV) and abruptness of log(ion viscosity) will artlessly be accepted as slope.



Electrical appliance (σ) has both abundance absolute (σDC) and abundance abased (σAC) constituents. In an aquiver electric field, σDC is a aftereffect of the breeze of adaptable ions, while σAC is a aftereffect of the circling of anchored dipoles. These two responses action as electrical elements in alongside and are added calm as adumbrated below:

Resistivity (ρ) is the changed of appliance and is represented as:



From its accord to conductivity, resistivity additionally has both abundance absolute (ρDC) and abundance abased (ρAC) constituents. The levels of polymerization or crosslink density, which are measures of cure state, accept an appulse on both automated bendability and the movement of ions, and thus, access ρDC.

Subsequently, the appellation Ion Bendability was devised to highlight the accord amid automated bendability and ρDC. Ion bendability (IV) is represented as:

While the austere analogue of ion bendability is abundance absolute resistivity, ρDC, for ease, it is accessible to use ion bendability to call resistivity in general, which has both abundance absolute (ρDC), as able-bodied as abundance abased (ρAC) constituents. Nonetheless, it should be acclaimed that cure accompaniment and automated bendability chronicle best finer to abundance absolute resistivity, ρDC, which is accurate ion viscosity.

In a lot of instances, the transformation of log(IV) is relational to the transformation of automated bendability afore gelation and still indicates cure state, alike afterward gelation. A artifice of Ion bendability is an accessible adjustment through which to portray the advance of cure. In basal form, Figures 38-1 and 38-2 affectation the behavior of a adumbrative thermoset with one temperature access footfall and one temperature authority step.

Figure 38-1. Archetypal ion bendability behavior of thermoset cure during thermal access and hold.

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Figure 38-2. Ion bendability ambit and abruptness of ion bendability of thermoset cure during thermal access and hold.

Initially, as temperature rises, ion bendability drops due to the thermoset acceptable added aqueous and as a result, beneath resistive. The acknowledgment amount increases alongside the temperature of the material. At a point, the acceleration in ion bendability consistent from polymerization overwhelms the bead in ion bendability consistent from ascent temperature. This point is the ion bendability minimum, which additionally happens at the time of minimum automated viscosity.

Following the minimum point, ion bendability rises steadily until the absorption of unreacted monomers lessens and the acknowledgment amount drops off. Subsequently, the abruptness of ion bendability additionally dwindles until finally, ion bendability will accept aught abruptness already cure has absolutely ceased.

Four Critical Points are acclimatized of the dielectric cure curve:

Figures 38-1 and 38-2 body the acclimatized behavior of abating thermosets back temperature boring ramps to a authority value. Back the absolute beneath assay is about isothermal, the acknowledgment is somewhat different, as can be apparent in Figure 38-3.

Figure 38-3. Ion bendability ambit and abruptness of ion bendability of thermoset cure during isothermal processing.

In this instance, CP(1) is either not meaningful, or occurs at t = 0, anon afterward the appliance of heat, back absolute flows to accomplish acquaintance with the sensor. Minimum ion bendability additionally takes abode at t = 0, or anon afterwards, back the access of cure is immediate.

For isothermal cures, CP(3) and CP(4) are apparently the aforementioned as for access and authority conditions.

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Samples of BMC were positioned on disposable Mini-Varicon sensors, as apparent in Figure 38-4, afresh aeroembolism and convalescent in the Lambient Technologies LTP-250 MicroPress. This accessories activated burden and calefaction for detached runs at 130 °C, 140 °C, 150 °C, 160 °C and 170 °C. Beforehand tests had pinpointed 100 Hz as an optimum action abundance for cure monitoring.

Figure 38-4. Mini-Varicon sensor.

An LTF-631 High Speed Dielectric Cure Adviser abstinent the dielectric backdrop of anniversary sample, back the cure time for these samples is beneath two minutes. The altitude breach was 100 ms/data point and a activate on the LTP-250 started abstracts accretion at a connected point in the compression cycle.

The abstracts was aggregate and stored appliance Lambient Technology’s CureView software, which was acclimated afresh afterwards to accomplish Critical Point assay and presentation of the findings.

Figures 38-5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 affectation abstracts from the cures of BMC at 130 °C, 140 °C, 150 °C, 160 °C and 170 °C, in that order. For anniversary cure, log(IV) and abruptness reflect the accepted behavior of Figure 2. This arrangement of plots acutely indicates the adeptness of dielectric cure ecology to beam the aftereffect of temperature on cure

Figure 38-5. 130 °C BMC cure abstracts at 100 Hz.

Figure 38-6. 140 °C BMC cure abstracts at 100 Hz.

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Figure 38-7. 150 °C BMC cure abstracts at 100 Hz.

Figure 38-8. 160 °C BMC cure abstracts at 100 Hz.

Figure 38-9. 170 °C BMC cure abstracts at 100 Hz.

As would be advancing for a thermally angry reaction, the log(IV) curves acceleration and abrade at a greater clip as temperatures rise. The ion bendability minimum— CP(2)—and the aiguille slope—CP(3)—also appear beforehand at college temperatures.

Moreover, the aiguille amount of CP(3), which is affiliated to the best acknowledgment rate, grows with temperature. Afterward the accretion of this data, CureView was able to abstract the Critical Points that characterize anniversary cure and accredit absolute allegory of their behavior beyond the temperature range.

Figure 38-10 overlays the log(IV) and abruptness curves for 140 °C, 150 °C and 160 °C in a ample format. For clarity, the abstracts for 130 °C and 170 °C is omitted. This allegory highlights the acuteness of dielectric cure ecology to variations in cure arising from clashing temperatures.

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Figure 38-10. Overlay of 140 °C, 150 °C and 160 °C BMC cure abstracts at 100 Hz.

As anticipated, the best amount of abruptness increases with action temperature, advertence the accord amid acknowledgment amount and temperature.

Critical Points that are acclimatized of anniversary cure are displayed in Table 38-1, with the afterward notes:

Table 38-1. Critical Points from BMC cure monitoring.

As advised in Figure 38-11, the times to adeptness anniversary Critical Point are lower for cures at hotter temperatures, which is advancing in thermally angry reactions.

Figure 38-11. Critical Point time vs. cure temperature for BMC.

The time to Critical Point 2—CP(2)—is the point back the BMC has the everyman automated viscosity. This advice is frequently accessible in anecdotic the ideal time to administer compression to clasp out voids, consolidate the layers of a coat or ample a mold.

The time to Critical Point 3—CP(3)—specifies the moment of the speediest reaction. Afore CP(3) the acknowledgment is quickening, as temperature rises from the exotherm and alien heating. Afterwards CP(3) the acknowledgment decelerates, as the arrangement grows and monomers are depleted. While CP(3) is not the gel point, CP(3) is frequently acclimated as a signpost affiliated with the gel point.

The time to Critical Point 4—CP(4)—is the time to a user authentic abruptness blame end of cure. Accurate end of cure takes abode back the acknowledgment ceases and the absolute is no best fluctuating; at this point, the abruptness is zero.

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The acknowledgment may go on at a absolute low akin for a diffuse period, so for applied reasons, a small, non-zero abruptness is about designated, with a amount depending on the requirements of the application.

Figure 38-12 indicates the way in which the best amount of abruptness increases with temperature. Again, this accord is predictable, back the acme of CP(3) is a about admeasurement of the best acknowledgment rate.

Figure 38-12. Amount of best abruptness vs. cure temperature for BMC.

Temperature measurements, which alter with the thermal environment, agreement of the mold, aggregate of absolute and added factors, accept occasionally been acclimated to beam cure through circuitous methods. In fact, a cardinal of brands of thermoset abating ovens present their use of thermocouples for absolutely this purpose.

Conversely, dielectric cure ecology (DEA) anon measures absolute properties—ion viscosity, in particular—that announce cure, carrying absolute acumen in absolute time. Due to the artlessness and repeatability of DEA, manufacturers of BMC and SMC apply dielectric cure ecology in their affection ascendancy departments.

Samples of anniversary accumulation of BMC or SMC are activated at a controlled temperature. Critical Points, such as those abundant in Table 38-1, characterize the ion bendability ambit and these Critical Points are logged to adviser bendability in the material.

Satisfactory batches of BMC or SMC will accept Critical Points that abide aural a attenuated range. After-effects alfresco this ambit announce a action that could be out of control, meriting analysis or remediation. In this way, a architect can advocate the affection of approachable material.

Likewise, molders of end articles appliance BMC or SMC can assay admission absolute to analysis that it will cure as anticipated. Some accept acclimatized reusable dielectric sensors in their molds to adviser and almanac the processing of anniversary part, accruing a accomplishment history for statistical affection control.

The absolute time advice offered through dielectric cure ecology opens up the anticipation of bankrupt bend action control. Manufacturers of molded thermosets apply timers to administer back articles are convalescent and may be removed from a press.

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This archetypal convenance allegation annual for accepted aberration in action temperature and added factors that accept an appulse on cure. To be cautious, demold time is called to ensure that all genitalia are good, with the aftereffect that some genitalia may be convalescent best than is required. Over abounding bags of parts, the use of timers wastes abundant amounts of time, accomplishment and productivity.

One abstraction of bankrupt bend action ascendancy active the accouterments of Figure 38-13 at a aggregation that produces bartering SMC products. A reusable dielectric sensor was anchored in the lower mold. The sensor was coated with cast absolution above-mentioned to the loading of anniversary allegation of SMC, afterwards which the 2000-ton columnist was closed. Upon analysis end of cure, the dielectric cure adviser automatically delivered a arresting to accessible the press.

Figure 38-13. Closed-loop action ascendancy with dielectric cure monitoring.1

Figure 38-14 illustrates the administration of cure time during the assembly of about 1,000 parts. A anchored timer would accept been set for 60 abnormal to agreement 100% acceptable parts. In comparison, bankrupt bend ascendancy with dielectric cure ecology lowed boilerplate columnist aeon time to 50 seconds1. This abridgement of 10 abnormal would accept adored $70,000/year/press in activity costs alone.

Figure 38-14. Administration of SMC cure time for 1000 parts.1

Dielectric cure ecology (DEA) allows for the ascertainment of aggregate abstraction admixture (BMC) cure in absolute time, and the abstraction of Critical Points quantify the acclimatized appearance of the reaction. Critical Points accredit absolute allegory of the cure of abstracts beneath altered conditions. The ion bendability abstracts demonstrates the absolute alternation amid temperature and amount of cure.

As the alone address able to admeasurement cure accompaniment in absolute time beneath absolute action conditions, dielectric cure ecology offers the adeptness to aftermath class after-effects that are anon applicative in accomplishment processes.

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This advice has been sourced, advised and acclimatized from abstracts provided by Lambient Technologies.

For added advice on this source, amuse appointment Lambient Technologies.

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