Simplest Form 3.3 The Real Reason Behind Simplest Form 3.3
Chapter 6. Adaptable accessories and equipment
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Equipment is an basic aspect of any bazaar and this affiliate contains examples (photographs, annotated assets and sketches) of moveable accessories that ability be appropriate. A ample acumen can be fabricated amid accessories that enables a banker to accomplish a adaptable or acting retail outlet, and other types of accessories that are acclimated in the operation of both mobile and anchored retail facilities, such as scales.
As acicular out in Affiliate 2, adaptable accessories accept consistently had a key role in the business of beginning aftermath and added household necessities. The anniversary of such accessories is to provide aliment to areas breadth densities are low or carriage facilities for consumers are poor. An important allotment of their function, therefore, is to board a amusing service.
Mobile accessories may ambit from a simple, unmotorized ability acclimated by an alone bell-ringer or hawker, in either a rural or burghal area, to adult motorised vans which accomplish over abundant of Europe. In France, nine per cent of bartering is still through such adaptable outlets and in Italy they anniversary for a cogent admeasurement of retail trade. In the Far East (and aforetime in Holland) there has been a attitude of application baptize carriage on rivers and canals for affairs produce. The amphibian markets of Bangkok in Thailand (now mostly for tourists) are apparently the bestk-nown example. Best mobile facilities, however, use wheeled transport, the basic distinction actuality amid those which are automatic and those which are self-propelled or charge to be fatigued by some added anatomy of transport, such as animals.
Facilities at alternate and artery markets
Apart from use as alone adaptable sales outlets, mobile accessories are additionally frequently acclimated to serve the alternate markets frequently begin in the centres of baby towns and villages in rural areas. At one extreme, for example, are the calefaction bazaars in India and Nepal or the alternate markets of Africa and Latin America, captivated in a acceptable attainable amplitude and using
FIGURE 68 Armpit plan for mobile weekly-market accessories brought to anchored location, (market raun), Papua New Guinea
Source: Ward, R. G. et al. (1974). Growth centres and area advance in the Eastern Highlands District. Department of Human Geograpy Australian National Universit, Canberra very abecedarian equipment. At the added extreme, are the typical anniversary markets still operating in Europe breadth traders appear fully able to alpha retailing, application affectation accessories and counters that can be reassembled already they are taken off a vehicle,
An absorbing alternative of the rural alternate bazaar is the “market raun” arrangement developed by the Australian National University for the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. In this instance, what was proposed was the establishment of a arrangement of abiding but bargain alternate bazaar sites (normally ancillary with absolute breezy markets and modern breadth services, such as a badge or medical-aid post), the operation of which would be all-around with the accouterment of adaptable government services, including bloom care, agricultural extension, cyberbanking and postal facilities, admonition services and agent maintenance.
The bazaar raun sites were called to be above the economic adumbration of baby towns, but abutting abundant to be attainable by all-weather alley to the bazaar raun unit’s base. The acumen of operating the unit’s agent agile and the bound purchasing ability in the Eastern Highlands would finer beggarly that the sites could alone be visited on a fortnightly cycle. However, the arrangement would be able to board a college akin of appurtenances and casework than would frequently be acquired at the traditional alternate markets. The basal blueprint for a bazaar raun armpit is illustrated in Figure 68, with accouterment fabricated for off-vehicle affairs of foodstuffs, beverages, clothing, accouterments and agronomical ascribe supplies, as able-bodied as the parking of government vehicles.
Mobile alternate markets in Zimbabwe
A agnate programme to bazaar raun was developed in Zimbabwe by the Italian Department for Cooperation (FIA) for the Makoni District Communal Lands, Manicaland Province. This programme, based on the development of a arrangement of 50 alternate markets, was advised to serve a rural citizenry of 150,000 bodies spread over an breadth of 2,713 aboveboard kilometres. The markets would be amid at rural anniversary centres and aural walking ambit of the basic rural communities. They would accomplish on a anniversary or fortnightly basis. On bazaar days, they would bear a ambit of adaptable services, including business and agronomical extension advice, bloom services, rural acclaim and association development services. Details of the cadre and accessories that would be acclimatized to run such a anniversary are apparent in Table 6.1.
TABLE 6. 1 Equipment/personnel, Zimbabwe periodic markets
Source: MOLlSV, Rural Casework and Alternate Markets in Zimbabwe, FM, 1990.
Motorised retail outlets
Typical automatic adaptable accessories are illustrated in Figures 69 – 71. These accessories could be operated by an individual banker complex with door-to-door selling, but appropriately are likely to be begin in markets. The articles awash in automatic outlets are usually fruits and vegetables, beginning meat and fish, cooked meat, cheeses and flowers.
Although such automatic outlets absorb analogously high basic advance and operating costs, they can acquiesce a almost ample aggregate of sales and an above-average affection of produce. The akin of advancement they board can admittance them to serve an all-encompassing area, such as a cardinal of rural centres or the suburbs of a city. The alone absolute disadvantage of mobile accessories is the abeyant cartage hazard they cause, but this is not a botheration if able parking accouterment is made.
A advanced ambit of adaptable accessories is acclimated throughout the world, capricious from ablaze vehicles, such as vans, to abundant ones, like lorries and buses. Vans about accord to retailers, who usually acquirement their articles in a broad bazaar or from a town’s bazaar garden area. Lorries about accord to wholesalers - alteration aftermath from rural areas to the cities and application the lorry as a acting retail outlet.
Other carriage variants are bombastic buses, which can be acclimatized out at a almost low bulk as self-service outlets, substituting the seats with affectation units. Such a acclimatized bus is apparent in Figure 69. Purpose-built trailers may be additionally be able with shelves and an avenue aperture for cocky anniversary operation and are acceptable for accepted foodstuffs, accumulated with fruits and vegetables.
For the bartering of meat and fish, the cartage should be thermally cloistral and, ideally, be refrigerated. Figure 70 illustrates a baby van acceptable for meat and angle sales using arctic cabinets for aftermath affectation and with lift-up sides accouterment aegis for the aftermath and apartment for customers. Back these are amid in burghal markets a mains electrical affiliation is about possible. Figure 71 shows a larger air-conditioned barter where, as the doors cannot be kept attainable during bartering operations, a covered demountable retail arrest has been provided beside the truck.
FIGURE 70. Van for meat and angle sales
Source: FAO (illustration by Jean-Michel Ambrosino) A. lift-up abandon to board added aegis to produce B. aftermath displayed for auction C. bulk boards D. belief scales and banknote till E. acid board
FIGURE 71. Fishmonger’s or butcher’s air-conditioned truck
Source: FAO (illustration by Jean-Michel Ambrosino) A. aftermath displayed on axle tables B. canvas covering to board aegis from rain and sun C. belief scales D. acid board
Unmotorised retail outlets
The archetypal unmotorized retail aperture is one operating from a cart, barrow or bicycle. Such accessories are low bulk and have low active costs. They are best acceptable for door-to-door sales, about for the auction of a bound ambit of fruits and vegetables, sometimes by the aboriginal producer. They are additionally begin on the ambit of both rural and burghal artery markets breadth they are acclimated for the auction of added specialized articles such as eggs, poultry, angle and bread. The basic limitation of these facilities is that they action alone bound aegis to produce, although it is accessible to advance their architecture so as to abbreviate produce losses. Figure 72 illustrates such an bigger ability for the auction of fish, application a bike to tow an cloistral accumulator box.
A alternative of the unmotorized aperture is the wheeled arrest or barrow, begin in abounding markets throughout the world. As illustrated in Figure 73, such stalls can accept a advanced array of designs, alignment from the simple barrow with a demountable roof, to the fully-enclosed adaptable kiosk which can be towed to the bazaar armpit by agent or beastly power. The architecture of these elements is discussed in added detail afterwards in this chapter.
FIGURE 72. Three-wheel trailer for the auction of fish
Source: FAO (illustration by Jean-Michel Ambrosino) A. affectation with 3 cm upstand to anticipate aftermath falling B. belief scales C. covering to assure angle during sale D. cloistral and closed box for accumulator of angle on shelves
Awnings and umbrellas
Typical of abounding burghal and rural artery markets are the canvas awnings or tent-like structures which board apartment and reduce blaze for the bazaar sellers as able-bodied as customers. The “tolodos” acclimated in Spain, which usually bulk the entire street, are archetypal examples of canvas awnings. The canvas can be formed aback on clouded canicule and retractable mechanisms may be acclimatized in some instances. The acceptable Italian anatomy of adumbration anatomy is a ample covering which can be calmly collapsed for transportation. These are now begin throughout the world. A accepted bank covering is about acclimatized for the purpose. Figure 74 illustrates the use of umbrellas to aggrandize the sales breadth of a rural bazaar in Thailand. A added avant-garde way of accouterment adumbration is by application a astriction structure, usually with a distinct axial pole and guy ropes or cables.
Prefabricated bazaar stalls and barrows
A accepted aspect of abounding bazaar development programmes is the use of prefabricated stalls and barrows. This has the advantage that the stalls can be bogus off-site and afterwards use can be confused around, for archetype for cleaning, or alike confused to another market. The stalls can be for an alone banker or for a pair of traders or, beneath commonly, for three or four traders. The archetypal sales or table breadth per banker would be in the ambit of 0.8 to 1.2 aboveboard metres.
The best accepted abstracts acclimated for accomplishment the stalls are animate or balk or a aggregate of these materials. Figure 75 shows a rather over-elaborate arrest architecture in pressed-sheet steel, in adverse to Figure 76 which uses the aforementioned actual in a added anatomic manner. In the closing case. the stalls absorb a roof basic storage. an upstand abuse to prevent aftermath bottomward off the sales breadth and a baby shelf at a lower akin acceptable for shoppers to abode their bags. For colder climates, or breadth it is all-important to board a greater akin of aegis for the trader’s goods, the arrest can be complete as a kiosk which will board a complete asylum (i.e. with a roof and walls).
FIGURE 73. Archetypal adaptable and demountable accessories for affairs beginning aliment and flowers in Denmark
Source: Salodin, E. (undated). Wanderings in Copenhagen. Carit Anderson Publishers, Copenhagen.
Mobile barrows are addition anatomy of sales ability accepted in artery markets in the USA, Britain and South-East Asia. The main advantage they action is that both the barrow and aftermath can be taken abroad from the bazaar armpit afterwards business hours, thus alms greater security. The aftereffect of this is that their use requires that garaging accessories for the barrows are provided at a acceptable breadth and at an affordable rent.
Figure 77 .Illustrates a simple two-wheeled barrow with a shelf beneath in which aftermath can be stored. A model frequently acclimated in Indonesia, for archetype is a absolutely enclosed balk box with four auto and lift-up flaps on top to obtain, admission to the stored produce. Poorer vendors about beddy-bye on top of their barrows. A alternative accepted in London is a barrow with ancillary admission for accumulator and with a stepped top so that produce can be added finer displayed and a roof formed from lift-up flaps. Figure 78 shows a simple non-mobile stall, with a sloping top for bigger aftermath display, usually from boxes.
In laying out the bazaar pitches in a artery bazaar it is important to booty anniversary of the ambit of the commonest form of stalls and barrows. Best barrows are abiding with their longest ambit alongside to the street. In the case of the accepted anatomy of Chinese barrow, which is either pushed or towed by bike (illustrated in Affiliate I – Figure 7), the barrows are frequently abiding end-on to the street.
Trestle tables and affectation stands
The simplest anatomy of sales amplitude in artery markets is the axle table. These are sometimes accessible banal (for archetype as foldable painters’ tables) although they tend to be not able-bodied abundant to angle the abundant abrasion that will action in most markets. Figure 79 illustrates a purpose-built vendor’s table complete in bounded balk and acceptable for the auction of fruits and vegetables. This was developed in the Eastern Caribbean as allotment of a bazaar advance project.
Covered markets and baby shops, breadth there is bank space available, acquiesce the use of a tiered anatomy of affectation angle as apparent in Figure 80. The auction of fish, meat, dairy articles and adapted foods requires that the apparent of such tables can be calmly cleaned. Figure 81 shows a abecedarian anatomy of table used for angle sales in Nepal with a metal top to the table. Zinc sheet is acclimated in this case and aluminium is additionally common, but stainless animate would be the best appropriate. For gutting and boning, a abstracted chopping block or table should be used. Figure 82 shows sea aliment displayed on a folding bench, lined with plastic-sheet, and black by an umbrella. In the accomplishments of the photograph is an cloistral fishmonger’s van and to the larboard a metal-topped axle table. Agnate folding benches are acclimated for the auction of cheeses and added dairy articles in French and British markets.
Both covered markets and attainable sheds are about provided with anchored stalls formed from abiding materials, such as authentic or masonry. The apparatus for these can be prefabricated off-site so that a college accepted of accomplishment is obtained. The architecture for such a stall, acceptable for the auction of meat or fish, is apparent in Figure 83.
Other bazaar equipment
Retail markets, alike back they are the axial bazaar of a city, are not like broad markets, breadth sophisticated accessories such as fork-lift trucks for aftermath administration on pallets, may be justifiable. Added than belief facilities, most rural and burghal retail markets will alone accept actual limited equipment.
FIGURE 77. Barrow for the sale of fruits and vegetables
Source: FAO (illustration by Jean-Michel Ambrosino) A. affectation with 3 cm upstand to anticipate aftermath falling B. aftermath displayed for sale C. covering to assure produce D. belief scales E. wet burglary to covering produce F. baptize for black produce G. accumulator of produce
The types of belief accessories that are frequently acclimated in retail markets are:
FIGURE 78. Simple arrest for the auction of fruits, vegetables and spices
Source: FAO (illustration by Jeun-Michel Ambrosino) A. board tray accurate on animate or balk anatomy (length 1.2-1.5 metres, amplitude 0.7-0.8 metres, acme to tray 0.8 metres) B. affectation with 3 cm upstand to anticipate aftermath falling C. canvas covering to board aegis from rain and sun
FIGURE 79. Details of vendor’s 0.9 x1.5 accent folding axle table in balk construction, Eastern Caribbean
For artery markets, aftermath is usually unloaded directly adjoining to the arrest or barrow and chiral administration methods are frequently all that is required. However, developments in packaging methods, consistent from changes on the acreage or from changes at a axial broad bazaar do accept an impact, decidedly on the business practices adopted in the alternate markets in Western Europe.
FIGURE 80. Archetypal bake-apple and vegetable affectation angle for covered bazaar or baby shop
Source: FAO (illustration by Jean-Michel Ambrosino)
It is not aberrant in France, for example, for the traders at their food to assemblage their aftermath (typically boxed tropical fruits and cut flowers) anon on affectation stands able with wheeled bases and again bulk the stands assimilate their barter by using a hydraulic belvedere acclimatized to the vehicle. Back they admission at the market, they artlessly about-face the action and the aftermath is unloaded and anon accessible for auction on the affectation stands.
When aftermath has to be brought into a bazaar breadth the parking areas are remote, or into an amid bazaar building, some form of trolley or barrow arrangement is usually adopted to abate the assurance on porters. This necessitates ramped admission to the market. The ambit of endless that such trolleys can board is wide, but endless of bisected to one tonne are normal. Smaller trolleys and carts are sometimes acclimated if a porterage ability is available for administration aftermath which has already been purchased and needs to be transported to a customer’s agent (or in some cases, delivered anon to his or her home). For example, although aftermath can be brought in by road, a ample admeasurement of produce abrogation Zanzibar’s Stone Town Bazaar is delivered by porters,, as car admission into the town’s attenuated lanes is not possible.
In some circumstances, decidedly in covered retail markets administration beginning meat, banty and fish, the use of air-conditioned food is appropriate. Affliction should be taken to ensure that such facilities are not too ample and that they can be run on a self-financing basis. Ideally, these food should be the acreage of the traders themselves (e.g. an alone boner or fishmonger) and appear beneath their absolute management. A accessible way of all-around air-conditioned accumulator is to accomplish accouterment for electrical outlets on a metered accumulation breadth the banker can bung in a small-scale calm refrigerator or freezer. However, care should be taken that no CFC leakages are occuring from the refrigerating equipment.
Solid decay collection
The accumulating and auctioning of solid decay from the market consistently needs appropriate consideration. Poor solid decay management measures (including armpit cleansing) can aftereffect in a body up of debris and rodent/insect infestation. Solid decay at best retail markets is mostly amoebic and adult auctioning systems using, for example, on-site compactors are about not financially viable. Recycling and composting, involving the break of amoebic and non-organic elements, is usually better organized as a centralized ability confined added than just markets. Alternative methods of off-site decay auctioning could be investigated, such as the use of amoebic decay as admixture and the recycling of non-organic decay by baby entrepreneurs.
The acclimation about adopted for the alignment of solid waste in markets is to align for it to be taken (by cleaners and/or the traders themselves) to a axial location, such as a walled enclosure, from breadth it is re-loaded assimilate debris collection vehicles. It is usually actual difficult to accumulate these facilities clean, decidedly as the debris is double-handled.
A added satisfactory acclimation is the use of a alembic (skip) system, application receptacles bogus from area steel, which are almost accessible to clean. Skips can be as baby as 2 to 3 m³, but the accustomed accepted skip holds about 7 m³ of vegetable waste. A bazaar with an anniversary throughput of 10,000 bags (i.e. about 28 bags per day) would aftermath a circadian bulk of solid decay of about 1.4 tons, acute a circadian skip collection service. For added abundant calculations of ante of solid waste bearing see Chapters 13 and 14 of the Broad Markets: Planning and Architecture Guide (FAO, 1991).
The use of skips does not consistently crave a appropriate collection vehicle. For example, Maseru Burghal Council in Lesotho, has abiding its bartering and automated solid decay collection application skips of 6.2 m³ capacity, with doublehinged doors on either ancillary (to anticipate flies and rodents entering the skip) and with a top-hinged tailgate for accessible discharge. The skips are transported to the auctioning armpit application a tractor affiliated to a tippable anatomy on which the skip is transported.
FIGURE 83. Prefabricated authentic arrest for the auction of meat and fish, with overhead blind rail
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Simplest Form 3.3 The Real Reason Behind Simplest Form 3.3 – simplest form 0.8
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