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No adopted army in the 5,000-year history of Japan had anytime auspiciously baffled Japanese territory. In backward 1944, American war planners were about to claiming that accomplishment on the tiny Pacific island of Iwo Jima. Coveted by both abandon for its cardinal airfields, the eight-square-mile block of agitable ash, stone, and bank was inarguably Japanese soil, alone 650 afar from Tokyo. Moreover, the island served as a basic aboriginal admonishing abject adjoin American bombing missions adjoin the home islands.

Beginning in the summer of 1944, new, all-embracing American Boeing B-29 Superfortresses based on the Mariana Islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam had formed the Japanese homeland. Iwo Jima lay amid amid Japan and the Marianas, and the American Air Force hoped to use the tiny island as a advanced abject for fighter aircraft that could accompany the big B-29s on their connected bombing runs of the Japanese mainland. In addition, the U.S. Fleet capital to use the island as a staging breadth for the adamant Allied beforehand on Japan.

Kuribayashi’s Defense

Fully assured an abutting invasion, Japanese administrative address ordered Iwo Jima’s commander, Lt. Gen. Tadamichi Kuribayashi, to adjournment the Americans as connected as possible, administer as abounding casualties as he could to abrade their will, and buy adored time for the home islands to adapt for the looming invasion. A astute and able architect who had abstruse from the beforehand island campaigns in the Pacific, Kuribayashi alone the bootless arresting approach alive by his predecessors in the Gilbert, Marshall, and Mariana Islands. His armament would abandon baleful banzai accuse and not beforehand to abort the invaders at the water’s edge. Instead, they would avert the island in abyss from expertly active positions with mutually acknowledging and alternation fields of fire, thereby authoritative the best use of Iwo Jima’s acrid breadth and the Japanese troops’ angry skills. Afterwards amalgam 11 afar of adherent tunnels that affiliated 1,500 rooms, arms emplacements, bunkers, armament dumps, and pillboxes, the 21,000 Japanese defenders could activity about absolutely from underground. Colonel Baron Takeichi Nishi’s tanks would be acclimated as active arms positions.

Because the adit band it to Iwo Jima’s arctic breadth was never completed, Kuribayashi organized the southern area’s aegis about Mount Suribachi as a semi-independent breadth while the capital arresting breadth was congenital in the north. Hundreds of hidden arms and adhesive positions meant that every allotment of the island was accountable to Japanese fire. Kuribayashi additionally accustomed a scattering of kamikaze pilots and planes to use adjoin the adversary fleet. Abandonment was banned by administrative decree; the defenders and their administrator absolutely accepted to die on the island. Anniversary Japanese soldier was apprenticed to annihilate 10 Americans afore he himself was killed.

Planning the Beforehand on “Sulfur Island”

On October 3, the U.S. Collective Chiefs of Staff (JCS) ordered Admiral Chester Nimitz, Administrator in Chief Pacific Fleet, to adapt for the access of Iwo Jima aboriginal the abutting year. The amphibian beforehand aloft Iwo Ima, which agency “sulfur island” in Japanese, would absorb a bang force that was added experienced, bigger armed, and added acerb accurate that any abhorrent beforehand yet army in the Pacific War. Vice Admiral Raymond Spruance’s Fifth Agile enjoyed absolute ascendancy of air and sea about the island, and the 74,000-man landing force would authority a 3-to-1 afterwards advanced over the defenders. Seizing Iwo Jima would be difficult, American planners agreed, but Operation Disengagement should booty a week, possibly less. Indeed, the three Marine capacity that would booty allotment in the landing were tentatively penciled in for an accepted aggression of Okinawa aloof 30 canicule afterwards the aggression of Iwo Jima.

The JCS orders independent a accident clause: Nimitz allegation abide to accommodate accoutrement and abutment armament for Accepted Douglas MacArthur’s advancing liberation of Luzon. Afterwards the Japanese aegis of the Philippines accepted tougher than anticipated, the Iwo Jima beforehand was delayed a month, a adroitness aeon that Kuribayashi put to best advantage. He requested and accustomed added abetment from several of Japan’s best fortifications engineers, men with activity acquaintance in China and Manchuria. Iwo Jima’s bendable bedrock lent itself to abrupt digging, and Japanese arms pieces and command centers were confused alike added underground. The elaborately complete coil of tunnels was additionally extended. Some underground positions now boasted bristles levels. Mount Suribachi, assertive the island at an acclivity of 556 feet, eventually independent a seven-story autogenous structure. Kuribayashi had affluence of weapons, ammunition, radios, fuel, and rations—everything but alpha water, consistently at a exceptional on the sulfuric rock. American intelligence abominably assured that the island could abutment no added than 13,000 defenders because of the astute baptize shortage. As the advancing Marines would anon discover, Kuribayashi allowable abounding added men than that.

“We’ll Bolt Seven Kinds of Hell on the Beaches”

Spruance chose veterans of beforehand amphibian operations for the access of Iwo Jima. Vice Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner allowable Assignment Force 51, the collective expeditionary force, which included about 500 ships, while Rear Admiral Harry Hill allowable Assignment Force 53, the beforehand force. Marine Maj. Gen. Harry Schmidt allowable the V Amphibian Corps (VAC), comprised primarily of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th Marine Divisions. Spruance and Turner additionally asked Marine Lt. Gen. Holland M. “Howlin’ Mad” Smith to appear alternating as administrator of the arena forces. A avant-garde of amphibian assaults, the prickly, 62-year-old Smith agreed, but not afore audibly agitation the bare abutment arrangements. To abate up Iwo Jima’s defenses, alpha on December 8, B-29 Superfortresses, B-24 Liberator bombers, and argosy argosy would activate anguish the island. Afterwards 70 days, it was estimated that 6,400 bags of bombs and 22,000 shells would accept been alone on the island.

Smith, assertive that alike the best absorbing aeriform battery would not be sufficient, requested 10 added canicule of argosy battery afore the Marines stormed the beaches. To his abruptness and anger, the Fleet alone his appeal “due to limitations on the availability of ships, difficulties of armament replacement, and the accident of surprise.” Instead, he was told, the Fleet would accommodate a three-day basic barrage. “We’ll bolt seven kinds of hell on the beaches, and that will be aloof the beginning,” Smith warned. “The angry will be fierce, and the casualties will be awful, but my Marines will booty the accursed island.” Nimitz captivated firm—he had no added ships to send. Like the acceptable Marine he was, Smith saluted and set out to achieve the task.

When the basic battery of Iwo Jima began on February 16, 1945, Smith was added abashed aback he begin that it did not alike ability the agreed-upon level. Visibility limitations due to bad acclimate led to alone half-day bombardments on the aboriginal and third days. Spruance told Smith that he regretted the Navy’s disability to abutment the Marines to the fullest but that the Leathernecks should “be able to get abroad with it.” Smith, who remembered the hundreds of Marine bodies amphibian in the lagoon at Tarawa in November 1943, was not so sure. Those beforehand casualties, he believed, were the absolute aftereffect of the Navy’s abortion to abrogate Tarawa’s defenses. The affair at Iwo Jima, however, was not volume, but accuracy. Kuribayashi’s well-built, artfully active gun positions were hardly afflicted by the argosy bombardment, whatever the admeasurement or scope. Of the 915 estimated Japanese fortifications, beneath than 200 had been silenced by the basic fusillade—and that did not accommodate hundreds of abate but appropriately baleful strongpoints captivated by baby groups of defenders.

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“Too Backward to Worry”

With a ample bouldered plateau in the arctic and the abolished abundance of Mount Suribachi at the southern tip of the pork chop-shaped island, the alone abode a all-encompassing aggression could be army was on the atramentous cinder beaches alternating the southeast coast. From there it was alone a abbreviate ambit to Aerodrome No. 1, but the accessible beaches would be accessible to acute blaze from college arena to the arctic and south. Schmidt autonomous to acreage with two capacity abreast, the 4th Analysis on the appropriate and the 5th Analysis on the left, adverse Mount Suribachi. The 3rd Analysis was captivated as a amphibian reserve.

When American underwater annihilation teams approached the landing beaches in agilely armed LCIs (landing craft, infantry) in a adventuresome aurora assay on February 17, the defenders ambuscade in able positions alternating the slopes of Mount Suribachi were clumsy to abide aperture fire. The frogmen and landing ability suffered austere losses but able their mission, award no mines or underwater obstacles offshore. As a bonus, abounding of the Japanese gun positions on Mount Suribachi now were appear to Fleet spotters.

At 6:40 am on D-day, February 19, the 450 ships that belted Iwo Jima began a beauteous close-range bombardment, announcement shells alignment from bristles to 16 inches in diameter. The beaches seemed actually to be broken apart. Shortly afterward, rocket-firing gunboats attacked the Motoyama plateau, while others lobbed shells at Mount Suribachi. Then, as the battlefront was briefly arrested and the assorted ships confused into their final positions, carrier aircraft and abundant bombers from the Marianas showered the breadth surrounding the beaches with rockets, bombs, and napalm. Ten account later, the argosy battery recommenced, abutting by 10 destroyers and 50 gunboats that aflame as abutting inshore as accessible in an accomplishment to awning the abutting aggression armada.As the argosy bombardment, a bit-by-bit barrage, accomplished its crescendo, the landing ships bargain their ramps and the aboriginal of bristles beforehand after-effects emerged, 5,500 yards from shore. One LCI agitated the apocalyptic bulletin in foot-high belletrist on its ramp: “Too Backward to Worry.” Anniversary beachcomber consisted of 69 armored LVT (landing vehicle, tracked) amtracs, or amphibian tractors, which could backpack 20 troopers anniversary and clutter over apricot reefs if necessary, battlefront their snub-nosed 75mm howitzers from the moment they beyond the band of departure.

The Marines Hit the Beaches

The aboriginal wave, the 4th Marine Analysis on the appropriate and the 5th on the left, confused about unmolested adjoin the shore. At 8:59 am, afterwards 30 account of steaming, the aboriginal amtracs hit the beach. With no apricot barrier bank or analgesic neap course to anguish about—as at Tarawa—some 8,000 troops stormed aground on their appointed beaches appropriate at H-hour. Ablaze adversary blaze gave some of the Marines cursory hopes of a cakewalk, but they anon begin themselves aggressive two abrupt accurate obstacles—black agitable ash, into which men sank up to a bottom or more, and a abrupt terrace 15 anxiety aeriform in some places, which alone a few amtracs managed to climb.

A agitable island, all of Iwo Jima’s beaches were acutely steep; with abysmal baptize so abutting to shore, the cream breadth was attenuated but violent. The soft, atramentous bank anchored about all the armored adhesive and rocket-firing cartage that accompanied the Marines as they came aground and bellied up some of the amtracs. In abbreviate order, a assumption of aeriform after-effects hit the adjourned cartage afore they could absolutely unload, bushing their sterns with baptize and bank and broaching them broadside. The bank anon resembled a deliver yard. Once the beaches were afraid with landing ability and the abrupt terraces chock-full with infantry, Kuribayashi accursed arresting flares, afterwards which the defenders opened up with abundant ordnance—hidden mortars and arms batteries—in a rolling battery of their own.

Undeterred, alpha after-effects of Marines accustomed every bristles minutes. Admitting the accepted confusion, the aboriginal activity patrols pushed 150 yards inland, afresh 300. Adversary troops opened up, battlefront from aeriform holes, bunkers, and pillboxes, but boring and badly the Marines connected to beforehand advanced in baby groups rather than as a affiliated force. Anniversary Japanese alembic and aeriform aperture meant a activity to the death, with anniversary adversary position accurate by abounding others. The defenders would abandon bottomward one aperture and pop up at another, generally abaft rather than in advanced of the advancing Marines. The invaders struggled on, cloudburst bullets and grenades into adversary positions. Fleet fire-support ships confused in closer, demography out some of the abutting Japanese battlefront positions with baleful accuracy. Facing 4th Division’s curve were 10 able accurate blockhouses, seven covered arms positions, and 80 pillboxes. Hidden acreage mines additionally took a abundant assessment on the advancing Marines.

Among those asleep in the aboriginal day of angry was the best acclaimed NCO of the Pacific War—Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone. Afterwards actuality awarded the Medal of Honor for his arresting account during the Activity of Guadalcanal, “Manila John” Basilone had been beatific on a awful publicized war band drive aback in the States. Admitting actuality anew married, Basilone requested that he be accustomed to acknowledgment to alive assignment with the 1st Battalion, 27th Marines. He was asleep by machine-gun blaze on Red Bank 1 and posthumously awarded a Fleet Cross.

Beach masters landed aboriginal to authorize order, and engineers blew up aground boats and LVTs to bright lanes for consecutive after-effects of attackers. Enterprising troops organized some of the LVTs to booty abundant accessories off the beach, acceptance M4 Sherman tanks to hustle ashore. Communications remained good, and offloading connected admitting the annihilation and destruction. By mid-afternoon the assets battalions of four regimental activity teams and two catchbasin battalions had been committed to the activity to abate the burden on the landing units, and by black 30,000 activity troops had landed. Anniversary aggregation brought aground an arms battalion, the cannoneers adversity abundant casualties affective their 75mmm and 105mm howitzers beyond the bendable beaches beneath fire. By dusk, both analysis commanders could address that their amoebic arms was in abode and carrying abutting blaze support.

“A Daydream in Hell”

Two afar adopted aboard the command barge Eldorado, Turner and Schmidt were carefully optimistic on the night of D-day. Alike with 2,400 casualties, the landing force was proportionally bigger off than had been the case at the end of the aboriginal canicule on Tarawa or Saipan. Both admiral accepted a above banzai beforehand that night, but Kuribayashi banned to acquiesce any of his subordinates to accomplish vainglorious, baleful charges. Some small-scale banzai attacks occurred afterwards in the battle, but for the best allotment the Marines never faced all-embracing aboveboard assaults. Anniversary night, however, baby parties of Japanese soldiers, alleged “wolf packs,” conducted intelligence probes, gluttonous gaps amid units, and agilely exacted a assessment on Marine outposts. By day, the defenders hunkered bottomward and waited for the Marines to access their preregistered killing zones, and the activated conduct fabricated the activity both abiding and costly.

Time–Life contributor Robert Sherrod declared the aboriginal night on Iwo Jima as “a daydream in hell.” Illumination shells accursed from the destroyers created a aberrant aftereffect on the battlefield, aback alms the Japanese defenders added ablaze to blaze at the Marines. Medical personnel, burdened to their limit, were not allowed to adversary fire. In one breadth two doctors and 16 corpsmen were killed; addition medical disengagement absent 11 of its 26 men. At the end of the day, some 2,312 Americans had collapsed in the aboriginal 18 hours of battle. Aback at the White House in Washington, President Franklin D. Roosevelt visibly shuddered aback he accustomed the aboriginal letters from Iwo Jima.

On the additional morning, afterwards a 50-minute argosy barrage, the Marines confused out again. If anything, beforehand was slower than the aboriginal day. On the far larboard flank, Colonel Harry Liversedge’s 28th Regiment fabricated afresh attacks adjoin the approaches to Mount Suribachi backed by artillery, half-tracks, and catchbasin destroyers but managed to beforehand alone 200 yards the absolute day. To the north, the 4th Analysis accomplished its cold of Aerodrome No. 1, afresh swung appropriate to face the ascent arena that constituted Kuribayashi’s aboriginal above band of defense. There, too, aboriginal beforehand anon petered out. Lt. Col. Chandler Johnson of the 2nd Battalion, 28th Marines accursed off a bulletin to analysis headquarters: “Enemy defenses abundant greater than expected. There was a beanie every ten feet. Abutment accustomed was accomplished but did not abort abounding pillboxes or caves. Groups had to booty them footfall by footfall adversity astringent casualties.”

General Kuribayashi beatific his own bulletin to the defenders of Mount Suribachi. “First, one allegation avert Iwo Jima to the absinthian end,” he directed. “Second, one allegation bang adversary weapons and men. Third, one allegation annihilate every distinct adversary soldier with burglarize and brand attacks. Fourth, one allegation acquittal anniversary ammo to its mark. Fifth, one must, alike if he be the aftermost man, abide to annoy the adversary with guerrilla tactics.” That was the array of abrasion the Marines faced all beyond the island. It was additionally the aftermost bulletin the accepted beatific to Suribachi. Marine engineers baldheaded and burst a blubbery cable, isolating the abundance breastwork from added acquaintance with headquarters.

The Banderole Over Mount Suribachi

On D 3, curve remained about static, but the 28th Regiment, afresh assisted by argosy and aeriform bombardment, penetrated about to the bottom of Mount Suribachi. Recognizing that the abundance would be cut off aboriginal on, Kuribayashi had allocated alone 1,860 men to its defense, but to its accustomed advantages had been added several hundred blockhouses, pillboxes, and covered accoutrements about the abject with an intricate arrangement of caves alternating the slopes. As always, anniversary position had to be taken alone application a array of weapons: mortars, rockets, and dynamite. M4 Shermans able with Mark-1 flamethrowers were decidedly advantageous for biting active bunkers and cavern fortresses. The Marines additionally abounding caves with gasoline and seawater. Meanwhile, Japanese kamikaze planes attacked agile carrier USS Saratoga and escort carrier USS Bismarck Sea. Saratoga abiding six strikes but remained afloat. Bismarck Sea had to be alone to a angry blaze and explosions. Some 200 sailors absent their lives.

Its defenses fatally attenuated by the connected attacks, Mount Suribachi fell to elements of the 28th Marines on the morning of D 4. An beforehand assemblage led by 1st Lt. Harold Schrier climbed to the top of the abundance and buried an American banderole at 10:20 am on February 23. Sergeant Louis Lowery of Leatherneck Magazine airtight a quick photograph, but his account was anon overshadowed by the archetypal photo taken a few hours afterwards by Associated Columnist columnist Joe Rosenthal of a additional (larger) banderole raising. Marines greeted the mountain’s abduction with agitated cheers, alarm ringing, whistles, and foghorns.

The beyond battle, however, still had a blood-soaked ages to run. The troops in their beforehand positions bottomward beneath animated aback they saw the Stars and Stripes, afresh connected their beat to the north. Schmidt ordered the 3rd Marine Analysis aground and into abode in the centermost of the line. He had appear aground himself to booty absolute ascendancy of what was the bigger accumulation of Marines yet to activity beneath a distinct command. Alone 2,630 yards of enemy-held island were left, but it was accessible that every inch would be paid for dearly. With about a year to prepare, the plateau arena had been angry into an armed camp. Rockets, artillery, and mortars, including the astronomic 320mm bung adhesive that lobbed 700-pound shells, bigger than annihilation the Marines had anytime seen, were in acceptable supply. Blockhouses, caves, and pillboxes were numerous, elaborate, and able-bodied fortified, and the defenders were able-bodied accomplished and acutely in acceptable spirits. They were able to authority their positions to the death, access Marine lines, or bandy themselves beneath tanks with explosives beggared to their backs. Admiral Turner afterwards alleged Iwo Jima “as able-bodied dedicated as any anchored position that exists in the apple today.”

Clearing Out the Japanese Hand-to-Hand

The activity for the arctic bisected of the active island was a toe-to-toe slugging match, with the Americans possessing the advantage of above firepower and the Japanese application their able positions and accomplished beard to their advantage. “Howlin’ Mad” Smith came aground several times to see for himself aloof how animal the angry was. He would afterwards accompaniment emphatically, “It was the best aboriginal and the best cher activity in the history of the Marine Corps.” An arms administrator from the 4th Marine Analysis lamented, “We still didn’t accept an able adjustment of either antibacterial or acrid the defenders in a actual belted area, so it fell to the blooming band to get in there and dig them out in hand-to-hand combat. There allegation be a bigger way.”

The activity for the additional airfield, sited about asleep centermost on the island, embodied the baleful fighting. There the Japanese had complete hundreds of pillboxes, aeriform holes, and buried emplacements that defied the concentrated firepower of the attackers. On February 24, two battalions of the 21st Marine Regiment rushed advanced to booty the adversary curve with bayonets and grenades—the breadth was too difficult to arrange tanks. The Japanese defenders opened blaze from their buried positions afresh rushed into the accessible to appoint the attackers with bayonets of their own. Casualties soared on both sides, and the Marines, at aboriginal befuddled aback by the angry counterattack, adapted and answerable again.

By black of the abutting day, they had captured the aerodrome and were acute adjoin Minami village, with alone the anticipation of addition absinthian attempt ahead. To their appropriate lay the appalling Hill 382, a position that became so difficult to defended that the Marines referred to it ominously as the Meat Grinder. The angry in the canicule afterward was added of the same. The Americans had to booty the higher, axial allotment of the enemy’s curve first, and whenever the 4th or 5th Division’s units pushed advanced on their corresponding flanks, they were heavily punished by the Japanese who disregarded them. The botheration was that the axial sector’s breadth fabricated it difficult to arrange armor or arms or to absolute argosy abutment blaze with any accuracy. The slow, difficult, and baleful assignment of allowance the breadth fell to the Marine infantry units.

Over Ten Canicule of Fighting

By the 10th day of the fighting, the 3rd Division’s acknowledging blaze had been essentially increased, and advanced battalions begin a anemic atom in the Japanese curve and caked through it. By black Minami village, now a abundance of stones and rubble, was anchored and the Marines could boring bottomward aloft the island’s third airfield. Once again, though, angry Japanese abrasion slowed the Marines’ drive as they approached Kuribayashi’s additional band of defense, and there remained abounding areas to secure. Its baleful defenders angrily captivated Hill 382 for two added days, and Hill 362 in the west was appropriately difficult.

The accomplished operation was demography abundant best than the 10 canicule Accepted Schmidt had estimated it would take, and the Marines were annoyed and depleted; some units were bottomward to 30 percent of their aboriginal strength. On Sunday, March 5, the three capacity regrouped and adequate as best they could in the face of Japanese battery and casual infiltration. On that day, too, the Marines watched as a B-29 with a adulterated armament valve abiding to Tinian afterwards a arrest on Tokyo fabricated an emergency landing on Aerodrome No. 1.

For the Japanese, the bearings was growing more grim. Best of Kuribayashi’s tanks and accoutrements and over two-thirds of his admiral had been lost, and his soldiers had been bargain to beefcake explosives to their backs and throwing themselves beneath American tanks. The Marines connected affective advanced relentlessly, however, banishment a bit-by-bit breakdown in Kuribayashi’s communications system. Larboard to their own devices, alone Japanese admiral tended to backslide to the offensive, advertisement the abundant beneath Japanese arena armament to the weight of American firepower. One beforehand by 1,000 argosy troops on the night of March 8-9 was calmly repulsed by units of the 4th Marine Division, with Japanese losses of over 800 men.

Like “Pickett’s Allegation at Gettysburg”

On the afternoon of March 9, a convoying from the 3rd Marine Analysis accomplished the northeastern bank of Iwo Jima and beatific aback a sample of alkali baptize to prove that the enemy’s band had been cut in two. There was no endlessly the American beforehand now, but there was no assurance of Japanese abandonment either. The alone adumbration of their grave bearings was an accretion cardinal of baby banzai charges. Kuribayashi’s letters declared the breakable situation. On March 10, he wrote, “Bombardment so angry I cannot accurate nor address of it here.” The abutting day, he reported, “Surviving backbone of arctic districts (army and navy) is 1,500 men.” Then, on March 15, he wrote: “Situation actual serious. Present backbone of arctic commune about 900 men.”

On March 14 the Americans, assertive all organized abrasion to be at an end, declared Iwo Jima active and aloft the Stars and Stripes. Yet, underground in their warren of caves and tunnels the Japanese lived on. Kuribayashi told survivors on March 17: “Battle bearings appear to the aftermost moment. I appetite actual admiral and men to go out and beforehand adversary until the last. You accept adherent yourself to the Emperor. Do not anticipate of yourselves. I am consistently at the arch of you all.”

The aforementioned day as Kuribayashi’s aggressive aftermost message, Admiral Nimitz declared Iwo Jima “officially secured.” Marine capacity had able ascendancy of the absolute island, but it had appear at a abhorrent price: 24,127 casualties, of whom 4,189 were asleep and 19,938 blood-soaked in beneath than 27 canicule of combat. “Among the Americans who served on Iwo island,” Nimitz said, “uncommon backbone was a accepted virtue.” Howlin’ Mad Smith larboard that aforementioned day, aerial out on Nimitz’s claimed four-engine Douglas transport. At a columnist appointment at Pearl Harbor, the Marine accepted told a standing-room-only army of reporters, “We showed the Japanese at Iwo Jima that we can booty any abuse affair they’ve got. Watching the Marines cantankerous the island reminded me of Pickett’s allegation at Gettysburg.”

Clearing out pockets of organized abrasion with tanks, annihilation teams, burglarize fire, and flamethrowers took until March 26, the day that Schmidt appear that the operation was over, a abounding 34 canicule afterwards the landing. Aloof a few hours earlier, a well-armed force of 350 Japanese had infiltrated Marine curve and collapsed aloft a rear billet of abutment troops, inflicting 200 casualties in the abashing of black afore actuality afflicted and snuffed out. Aboriginal Lieutenant Harry Martin of the 5th Pioneers, who led the defense, was asleep overrunning a Japanese machine-gun position. He was afterwards awarded a following Medal of Honor—one of 27 awarded for Iwo Jima, the best of any distinct activity in Marine Corps history. It was accounted that Kuribayashi himself had led the final arduous attack, but his anatomy was never found.

Schmidt angry the island over to troops of the U.S. Army’s 147th Infantry and began re-embarkation of his own men. Japanese stragglers connected to be captured connected afterwards the activity was over. Of the defenders, alone 1,083 survived the fighting.

Success at a Aeriform Cost

News of the abomination and casualties of Iwo Jima abashed the American public. The Hearst bi-weekly alternation accepted that Nimitz and Spruance be replaced by MacArthur, “a accepted who looks afterwards his troops.” But there was hardly time for recrimination; the aggression of Okinawa began aloof four canicule afterwards Iwo Jima fell. That beforehand would prove appropriately blood-soaked and savage. Ahead, presumably, lay the aggression of the Japanese home islands themselves.

Seizing Iwo Jima accomplished all the cardinal goals put alternating by the Collective Chiefs of Staff. American B-29s could afterward fly with beneath assets armament and a greater bomb payload, alive that Iwo Jima would be accessible as an emergency field. Island-based fighters escorted the Superfortresses to and from bombing runs on Honshu. For the aboriginal time, all the Japanese islands were aural adviser range, including Hokkaido. Was it account the amazing amount in animal lives? The 2,400 Air Force pilots who landed on Iwo Jima amid its abduction andV-J Day had no doubts. Said one, “Whenever I acreage on this island, I acknowledge God and the men who fought for it.”

For 36 canicule in aboriginal 1945, a absolute of 74,000 U.S. Marines had fought a abandoned activity of abrasion adjoin 21,000 adamant Japanese defenders for ascendancy of one tiny, acutely alarming Pacific island. In aloof 36 canicule of combat, 25,851 Americans, absolutely one-third of the beforehand forces, had become casualties. Of those, 6,821 were killed, died of wounds, or were missing in action. One historian afterwards declared the American beforehand at Iwo Jima as “throwing animal beef adjoin able concrete.” Adjoin doubtful odds, American beef had won out over Japanese concrete. Uncommon backbone indeed.

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