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Most hobbyists say that it is easier to body a anatomic ancestor of an cyberbanking device, than to accomplish the asylum for it. You could say that there are a lot of banal enclosures on the market, but they are never absolutely what you need. You could additionally use a 3D printer to body a custom enclosure, but high-end 3D printers are too expensive, and the cheaper ones aftermath housings which are generally not able-bodied enough, and additionally crave a lot of added treatment.

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Another way is to body the asylum out of FR4, a actual which is frequently acclimated in PCB production. Such enclosures are low-cost, with attenuate walls but yet actual strong, nice looking, affable to the blow and accept accomplished thermal and damp stability. FR4 offers some added possibilities – able abject with no affairs axial the housing, chip UHF or SHF antennas or RFID coils, capacitive switches, electrical shielding, accurate semi-transparency, baptize or air tightness, and alike affiliation of circuitous automated assemblies.

Here I shall explain the action of architecture those “magic” enclosures. It is based on about fifty years of claimed acquaintance and added than a hundred enclosures, congenital for best of my projects. Actuality are two examples – this case for a accouterments countersign administrator is just a few centimeters long, while the added one (protective busline awning for my son’s synthesizer) measures 125cm (about 49 inches), and yet both of them are able abundant to bear a developed man continuing on top of them.

The all-around access is simple – you booty the breadth of single-sided chestnut clad FR4, cut it and adhesive the genitalia together. That sounds simple, but there are a lot of capacity which should be met if you appetite to get top results. Please apprehend about them carefully. You adeptness be tempted to skip some of the accomplish declared here, but if you do so, you will best acceptable end up actuality aghast with the results.

There are several accepted architecture concepts for enclosures fabricated of FR4. The first uses the capital PCB, with all cyberbanking components, as a automated abject on which four walls will be soldered. Typically all cyberbanking apparatus should be anchored first, again PCB is activated and assuredly the walls anchored together.

Main PCB charge accept a chestnut breadth about 4 mm advanced forth all of it’s edges and ample pads for spacers. Top and basal covers are actual simple and they charge no chestnut areas, so you can additionally use acrylic, aluminum, plastic, etc. This abstraction is acceptable for simple projects, which accommodate alone one PCB. It is not appropriate for blubbery enclosures, as it would be annoying for maintenance.

There is addition access which is acceptable for bigger and added circuitous devices, as there is a lot of chargeless amplitude which can be organized according to the requirements of the project.

You should leave chestnut areas for spiral nut soldering, but do not adhesive them afore the accomplished asylum is finished. Afterwards the job is done, you can abutting it and bore the holes at the axial walls, so they will fit altogether with the alien holes. Again you can adhesive spiral nuts, application a lot of flux.

Note that not all spiral basics are accessible for soldering, so you will charge some experimenting. In my experience, nickel argent assumption spiral basics are the best in this regard, but sometimes they can be adamantine to get. So I use M3x5 mm spacers (but not those fabricated of aluminum), which are actual accessible to solder.

If you appetite to accomplish an asylum afterwards screws, you can use abrasion to authority two subassemblies durably together. Finish the aerial (outer) allotment of the asylum first, and again acclimatize positions of axial walls on the lower cover. Alien walls will consistently be hardly absorbed to the centermost (the acumen for this will be explained later) and it will actualize some abrasion aback you abutting the box.

To acclimatize the tension, adhesive the abutting walls to the lower plate, but alone at the axial point, aggravating to advance the appropriate angle amid the walls and the basal plate. Then try to put on the top cover. It adeptness be too apart or too tight, so you accept to tune up the appropriate position for a bound fit. Repeat this for beneath walls and again adhesive the breadth of the walls to the lower plate, and to anniversary other. You should additionally abrade the abutting edges of the abutting walls, to accomplish amplitude for adhesive which keeps the alien walls together.

The tightest collective amid abutting and alien walls should be at the centermost of the walls, with the achievability of a gap abutting to the edges, so the abutting walls charge to be hardly curved, like actualization in the centermost angel above.

Generally, all plates should be fabricated of distinct sided FR4, but in some appropriate cases you’ll charge bifold sided. Try to acquisition the bifold sided bank on the cartoon actualization to the appropriate in the arcade above.

Those were accepted concepts, but all combinations are additionally possible. Anon we shall see that some applications are so circuitous that it is adamantine to allocate them.

Although it is accessible to body the accessible apartment afterwards chestnut etching, it is awful recommended to compose all plates, and to leave alone areas (about 4 mm wide) which will be soldered. This will accompany a lot of advantages. First, it is abundant easier to adhesive the attenuated chestnut areas, aback the surrounding chestnut does not absorb a lot of heat, so the accident of overheating and damaging FR4 abject is abundant lower. Second, you will get a neater interior. Also, if there is no bald copper, no bane will booty place. The crisis of abbreviate circuiting is lower, and so on.

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If there is a appeal for a cloistral case, for HF applications or a ablaze cloistral area, this arrangement is recommended. The alone disadvantage of carving is that you charge plan all capacity while designing the enclosure, as there is no disengage afterwards etching. If you omit some breadth that should be acclimated for soldering, you can not add the chestnut band later.

Take some time to architecture the asylum carefully, as every miscalculation in this footfall may ruin your effort. Booty acceptable affliction of which allotment will overlap with addition one, as it will affect the position of chestnut traces. The array of FR4 acclimated charge be taken into adding for the ambit of overlapping plates.

Use some CAD program, or draw the accomplished asylum with atramentous pens. It will serve as a advantageous advertence while acid and accumulating the parts. It is acceptable convenance to body at atomic a few millimeters beyond asylum than you planned at first. In best cases, it will pay off afterwards – no bulk how anxiously you admeasurement and plan, eventually or afterwards you will charge some added space.

There are a absolute of 10 bedding here. Draw anniversary of them in detail, including categorical chestnut positions and all dimensions, or at atomic those which are not considered.

If you are advantageous abundant to accept a CNC cutter, again use it to cut FR4 parts. Any automated or baptize jet cutter will be fine, but do not use a laser cutter, as the absorption from the chestnut apparent can accident it. Otherwise, you can use some duke tools, like a affront saw frame. A assurance brand cutter can additionally be acclimated for acid beeline lines, but the appeal for cogent force and accurateness can be arresting if you are not accomplished enough.

Try it, aloof columnist a metal adjudicator durably with one hand, booty the assurance brand cutter in the added and accomplish a V-cut. You should accomplish about 5-10 brand passes on anniversary ancillary of the FR4, starting agilely until you accomplish the acceptable scratch, and again access the burden until you use as abundant backbone as you can. Accomplish the V-cut on the chestnut ancillary first, as FR4 is cellophane abundant to let you see the band on the added side, so you can acclimatize both V-cuts precisely.

If the brand is aciculate abundant and you use cogent force, grooves on both abandon will be abysmal abundant and if they are able-bodied aligned, it will be accessible to breach the breadth by hand. The cut band will be rough, so you should amusement it with the accomplished rasp.

Of course, you can’t cut arced and abutting curve with a assurance brand cutter, so in that case you accept to use the affront saw frame.

Check the ambit anxiously afterwards anniversary step, and do your best to get as authentic ambit as accessible (try to absolute the absurdity to beneath than bisected a millimeter). Afterwards acid and treating, ablution the chestnut ancillary with some crumb detergent, annoying abundant to apple-pie the apparent but not to accident it.

Note: FR4 is fabricated of fiberglass carpeting which has been abounding with adhesive resin. Baby particles of glass, which are appear during treatment, may account acting bark affliction to those who accept astute skin. In that case, use accurate gloves and ablution your easily up to the elbows afterwards work.

The ambition of this footfall is to actualize the affectation for chestnut etching. You can additionally administer the photoresist process, but it is abundant cheaper and easier to use any affectionate of self-adhesive laminate, finer transparent.

When FR4 pieces are dry and clean, stick the coat bedding on the chestnut side, alienated bubbles and dirt. Use a super-thin abiding brand to draw all curve absolutely on the laminate, according to the cartoon mentioned aloft in Architecture Concepts and use the assurance brand cutter or art knife to cut the laminate. Peel off all areas which should be caught during etching.

Use Ferric Chloride band-aid to compose the chestnut layer. This action is able-bodied accepted to all hobbyists who accomplish their own printed ambit boards. Afterwards etching, abolish the coat and ablution all pieces with crumb detergent.

Hold your breath, this is a astute step. All chestnut surfaces should be tinned afore final soldering; use a lot of flux, as a lot of alteration agency a acceptable joint, and the acceptable collective is what we charge here. Don’t attack final soldering afterwards tinning, as it could aftereffect in a poor joint, accident the FR4 base, and abate your adeptness to advance the exact positions in accumulation process.

It is adamantine to ensure alignment on all axes (X, Y and two angles) while soldering FR4 plates calm but, if you chase the procedure, you can tune one constant at a time.

First, booty affliction of X position (black arrow) alone and abstain the accurateness for all others. Adhesive two plates at one point, abutting to one of the edges.

Next, you can tune the YB position at the added end of the soldering line. FR4 is adaptable abundant to atone for the antecedent misalignment, but X position, which was already adjusted, will abide intact.

Now it’s time to acclimate the YA position at the aboriginal point, afterwards annoying about aboriginal two acquainted positions (X and YB), as there is no way to blemish them any more. This should advance to the absolute alignment of the accomplished soldering line.

The alone affair larboard is the angle amid two plates. Use a aboveboard or triangular adjudicator for reference, but do not acclimatize the exact appropriate angle amid plates, but rather accomplish it hardly obtuse. You can fine-tune the angles at anniversary angle separately, abnormally if the bowl is continued abundant to accredit angle amid them.

When all positions are adapted and checked, you can put added anchored credibility amid plates, blockage the angle for anniversary of them. For beneath plates it should be about in the middle, or at every 4-5 cm (1.5-2 inches) if the soldering band is longer. Again you adhesive the accomplished line, but try not to cook the already anchored points, as you could blemish the bowl angle and position. Aback you accept finished, you can acknowledgment and adhesive the absent points.

While the adhesive is cooling, it shrinks and pulls the aerial bowl for about two degrees, so the final angle will be abutting to 90 degrees. If it is birdbrained still, accomplish one added canyon with the soldering adamant (with no force applied), and attending how it shrinks. If it is acute, again accomplish one added pass, applying some force with your hand.

Apply the aforementioned action for all walls. Afterwards that, you can adhesive the walls mutually. At this step, you can’t alpha from an birdbrained angle, so you will get hardly astute angles at the end. You can abstain this, or alike use it to access a bound joint, mentioned above.

Take affliction not to be too apathetic while soldering, as you could overheat the FR4, and abnormally not to columnist the soldering adamant too hard. This will batter the FR4 base, or alike alleviate the copper. FR4 is transparent, so if you see the white areas from the added ancillary instead of aphotic brownish copper, you can be abiding that the chestnut is alone from the base. It may be advantageous to do some experimenting with FR4 extra parts. If you appetite to see for yourself how abundant abusage the actual can endure, you can try to breach the bonds with your easily afterwards able soldering, or alike analysis the bonds area you acclimated too little or too abundant solder, or area you captivated the soldering adamant too continued or apprenticed it too hard.

It adeptness additionally be accessible to accomplish a appropriate lath apparatus for assembling. You apparently get the abstraction from this drawing. Anchored joints will be alike stronger if plates are captivated about 45° in affiliation to the accumbent plane, so that the aqueous tin connects to both panels equally.

When the accumulation is complete, use the abrade to action all edges, again brightness them with accomplished sandpaper. Ablution the abutting ancillary with alcohol, to abolish all actual adhesive bulk and flux, if you acclimated it. At the aftermost step, ablution the accomplished asylum with bactericide and a lot of water, dry it and adore the fruits of your labor. If you followed all accomplish carefully, you will accept a acceptable acumen to feel proud.

Cutting, laminating and carving are the hardest genitalia of the process, so why not aloof adjustment all the bedding from your PCB supplier? Of advance you can do it, if you don’t apperception the price. In some cases (for prototyping and actual baby calibration production), the final bulk of the assemblage could absolve the bulk of PCBs. It sounds like a dream appear accurate – abstain the affliction allotment of the job, and get all the genitalia with absolute accuracy, abundant assignment acrylic and bury belletrist and signs. This is one of such project.

You can additionally accomplish the printed conductors axial the asylum walls, so you will accept alike circuitous abject with no wires. This, of course, requires accurate planning during the architecture process. Actuality is allotment of an asylum in which chestnut layers are acclimated both for automated subassembly and electrical interconnection.

It is additionally accessible to apparatus capacitive switches, anterior couplers, reed switches, Hall Effect sensors and RFID, UHF or SHF antennas in asylum walls. Printed abject for LED indicators can accommodate SMD accepted attached resistors and soldering pads which are abutting to LEDs.

Copper is not transparent, but FR4 has broadcast accuracy at the categorical areas. Some attenuate (0.8 or 1 mm) FR4 boards add a nice alabaster or bare cast which can attending acceptable aback acclimated for indicator LEDs, or alike night lamps or some LED Art gadgets. The afterward examples amalgamate cellophane advanced boards with conductors which are implemented not alone in FR4 chestnut traces, but additionally in the kite’s appendage (which is AC cord) and atramentous sticks (M3 spacers dressed in calefaction compress tubes). Atramentous borders are chestnut traces larboard for soldering.

Unfortunately, best manufacturers put the coloured logo marks on FR4 adhesive base. There is no way to abolish the ink, so this actual is hardly accessible for such applications. To accomplish things worse, there is no way to see those marks afore you compose the board. Yet some FR4 boards do not accept those marks and, with a assertive bulk of luck, you can acquisition and acquirement them.

FR4 boards can be angled to a assertive extent, so it can be acclimated for cautiously arced walls. Actuality is a agenda alarm angled like a pancake, an admiration to Salvador Dali’s acclaimed account The Persistence Of Memory.

The advanced lath is fabricated of .8 mm FR4, which is absolutely accessible to bend. The 7-segment areas were advised in a CAD program, acclimated to cut self-adhesive coat for carving process. All added boards are 1.5 mm thick.

When you adhesive such arced walls together, be actual accurate not to overheat the boards, abnormally if they are 1 mm blubbery or less. Automated astriction of the angled FR4 bowl makes it acutely accessible to overheating, and alike the aboriginal anamorphosis is absurd to repair. You charge to fix the plates in their final position and shape, and agilely adhesive them together.

It is alike accessible to body the automated units, possibly accumulated with some prefabricated metal or artificial parts. This is decidedly accurate for projects which accommodate both cyberbanking and automated components, as it enables able agreement of drivers and connectors abutting to motors and solenoids, sensors for home apprehension of affective parts, abject application printed conductors, accessible agreement of indicator LEDs for debugging, affiliation of cyberbanking circuits on the asylum walls and so on.

Here are some examples of such assemblies, which analyze abounding possibilities of FR4 enclosures.

Proper use of FR4 can abundantly advance projects and accomplish them attending like aerial end products, alike if they are congenital in abecedarian conditions. It should not be alone as a architecture actual for amusement projects or for baby calibration production.

Of course, craftmanship is of basic importance, so you will charge some acquaintance beneath your belt to get top results. Don’t accord up, and anon you’ll be appreciative of the actualization of your projects!

​​Voja Antonic works as a freelance microcontroller architect in Belgrade. His aboriginal chip projects, based on Z80, date aback to 1977, aloof a few years afterwards the actualization of the aboriginal Intel’s 4004. He accumulated the firmware manually, by pen and paper. In 1983, he appear his aboriginal DIY microcomputer activity called Galaksija, which was congenital by about 8000 enthusiasts in the above Yugoslavia. To date he has published added than 50 projects, mostly based on microcontrollers, and appear all of them in the accessible domain.

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