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The analytical assay in the bulk of stakeholders cited or who bidding themselves in the case of interviews or arise appraisal pieces indicates that a advanced ambit of altered players accept fabricated use of the ranking. An assay of their profilesFootnote 15 reflects their specific characteristics: they are mainly assembly of a political nature, conspicuously the authoritative authorities, university presidents, active of grandes écolesFootnote 16 or assay bodies (public assay organisations such as the CNRS (Centre Civic de la Recherche ScientifiqueFootnote 17)). In France, college apprenticeship and accurate assay is characterised by the coexistence of three systems: universities, accessible institutions that accept an accessible admissions policy, a non-university sector, grandes écoles, which accept a awful careful admissions action and accurate assay bodies like CNRS, not taken into annual by Bookish Baronial of Apple Universities (ARWU) because of their cachet as assay bodiesFootnote 18. ARWU’s belief are not favourable to the French system: the grandes écoles are broadly admired as prestigious, as able-bodied as the CNRS, both accept produced best of the scientists and admiral in France, but the Shanghai baronial neutralises French representations of bookish prestige. This constitutes a political befalling to absolve reforms. This accomplishments of the French arrangement helps to explain the specific characteristics of actors reacting to the ranking.



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The assay of the profiles of individuals who bidding themselves reveals that the accession of media advantage in 2007 is affiliated to the abundance of its use by Nicolas Sarkozy, Admiral of the Republic, and by Valérie Pécresse, Minister of College Apprenticeship & Assay (2007–2011) to the aftereffect that the baronial was acclimated as a political altercation to absolve reform. Although not absolutely mentioned in the letter of arrangement addressed to Valérie Pécresse, ‘improving the position of our college apprenticeship institutions in the all-embracing rankings’ was one of the objectives set for the Minister by the Admiral of the RepublicFootnote 19.



Nicolas Sarkozy consistently refers to the bookish ranking, which he uses in his speeches as an altercation answer reforms, demography a name and abashment approach.

Nicolas Sarkozy, extract from the accent delivered on 28/01/2008 during a commemoration in honour of Albert Fert, quoted in Les Echos, 30/01/2008: ‘Nicolas Sarkozy’s hard-punching accent on assay triggered able reactions yesterday. On Monday, in Orsay, the Admiral of the Republic categorical the avenues for a aloft ameliorate of this ‘50-year-old arrangement that penalises us’. Drawing up a black assay of the ‘difficulties’ adverse French assay at the all-embracing akin (in agreement of publications, the Shanghai ranking, academician drain, etc.), he undertook to admission assay allotment to 3% of GDP by 2012. But he additionally warned: ‘This massive accomplishment will go hand-in-hand with reform’.



With absorption to statements arise by her ministry, Valérie Pécresse refers to the baronial in two capital contexts: to accompany projects aimed at the alliance of universities with a appearance to convalescent their baronial and additionally to advance the assembly of a European baronial system, to attempt with the Shanghai ranking.

Interview arise in Le Figaro, 27/02/2008, Valérie Pécresse, Minister of College Apprenticeship & Research: ‘The botheration with the Shanghai baronial is its actual existence. It cannot be abandoned because accepting all over the apple accredit to it. France charge admission this all-around action of knowledge, alike if we bottle assertive specificities of the French system, conspicuously the low accepting fees. But we charge additionally authorize our own baronial at a European level’.

Le Figaro, 02/07/2008, Valérie Pécresse, Minister of College Apprenticeship & Research: ‘Competing with the now actual acclaimed ‘Shanghai ranking’, in which, year afterwards year, French universities absorb a characterless position: this is the cold declared bygone by Valérie Pécresse. The Minister for College Apprenticeship wants to booty advantage of the French Admiral of the European Union to draw up a European baronial system’.

Valérie Pécresse quoted in Les Echos, 26/06/2008: ‘The aboriginal affair of the lath of admiral of PRES afresh accurate a allegorical accommodation by affable in its bosom Jean-Monnet University and the Saint-Étienne School of Mining. In accession to a distinct signature beneath the name ‘Université de Lyon’ to analyze the second-largest French accurate hub aback application doctorates or advertence accurate publications, ‘this hub will adore greater ascendancy while the university of Lyon does not currently arise in the Shanghai ranking’, acclaimed the Minister of College Education, Valérie Pécresse’.

If the baronial is a axial political altercation to absolve university mergers, it would additionally acquiesce the Minister to altercate for the assembly of a European baronial system, declared to attempt with the Chinese rankingFootnote 20. She would advance this action at the European akin during the French Admiral of the EU Council. The abstruse uses of the baronial lie at the affection of the communications appear by the Admiral and Minister and affirm the allegorical and belligerent ambit of this ranking, a apparatus for answer and legitimising the projects fatigued up for college apprenticeship & assay during N. Sarkozy’s presidency. The two peaks of media advantage acclaimed in 2008 and 2011 (Fig. 2) accord to periods of advancement and ameliorate in college apprenticeship & research. As such, the use of the baronial as a political altercation contributes to the co-construction of its media advantage alfresco the periods aback the after-effects are announced. Figure 3 illustrates the advantage peaks in August at the time of the advertisement of the after-effects (third quarter, or Q3) and additionally shows that it was acclimated alfresco this period.

Number of abstracts per division (press bulk and AEF corpus, the columnist bureau specialising in education).

In 2011, Valérie Pécresse, Minister of College Education, frequently refers to the baronial aback she launched the aboriginal alarm for ‘excellence action projects’ (projets d’initiative d’excellence financed with the framework of the ‘Investment Programme for the Future’ PIAFootnote 21), which fuelled debates on college apprenticeship & researchFootnote 22. The 2011 aiguille can additionally be explained by the appointment to France in July 2011 of the designers of the Chinese ranking. This ambience accustomed favourable for the about-face of the media outlets that dealt with the baronial at the moment the after-effects were published.

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Every year, the advertisement of the after-effects is appear in a columnist absolution by the Minister of College Apprenticeship & Research. It should be acclaimed that in May 2017, a abode from the Accustomed Inspectorate of Civic Apprenticeship and Accustomed Inspectorate of the Administering of Civic Apprenticeship & Assay (Inspection générale de l’éducation nationale, or IGEN, and Inspection générale de l’administration de l’éducation nationale et de la recherche, or IGAENR) on all-embracing rankingsFootnote 23 was beatific to the Minister of College Apprenticeship & Assay and the Minister of the Economy, advertence connected absorption in bookish rankings and, in particular, in the Shanghai ranking. In February 2019, the Minister of College Education, Frédérique Vidal, beatific a letter to the Admiral of the Civic Centre for Accurate Assay (CNRS, Centre Civic de la Recherche Scientifique) requesting that the best internationally cited researchers, according to the awful cited advisers (HiCi) databaseFootnote 24, should highlight their university amalgamation in their aboriginal signature rather than that of the CNRSFootnote 25 because annual is abandoned taken of the aboriginal signature in the Shanghai rankingFootnote 26… a appeal that confirms the acceptation of this baronial and its accustomed dimension.

Ministerial admiral are not the abandoned players to appearance absorption in the ranking. The assay of the contour of the players cited in the corpuses appear added cardinal uses of the ranking, illustrating that ability relations are acclimatized through, and for, the abstruse media and that the media advantage action is co-constructed over the average term. The array of profiles, decidedly of bookish players, highlights the hierarchies and ability relations aural the apple of college apprenticeship & assay in France.

The assay of the contour of the bookish players who accept discussed the baronial (examined by advertisement citations, interviews and arise appraisal pieces) shows the accent of their accession and the challenges aural the apple of college apprenticeship & research. The positions on the baronial appropriately reflect the actual specificities of the French apprenticeship and assay system, breadth universities, grandes écoles and assay organisationsFootnote 27 coexist and acknowledge centralized hierarchies apropos the representation of bookish prestige. Thus, there appear ability relations amid the altered institutions: amid universities, amid universities and grandes écoles, and amid universities and accessible assay organisations, as able-bodied as amid accurate disciplines, such as physics, mathematics… (Fig. 4). It is chiefly university presidents, admiral of grandes écoles or assay bodies who acknowledge to the ranking. From the point of appearance of accurate disciplines, several studies accept focused on the capricious degrees of allotment of quantitative appraisal tools, depending on the disciplines and centralized hierarchies of the French college apprenticeship & assay arrangement (Pontille and Torny, 2010, 2012; Gozlan, 2016). The presidents of accurate universities (mathematics, concrete sciences, biology, etc.) accept taken advantage of the baronial to strengthen their advice and to adverse their acceptability arrears overshadowed, as they are, by the ascendancy of the grandes écoles. It additionally appears that the comments on the baronial accept contributed to acceptable the role of the university presidents, absolute the advantage of rationales complex in the dynamics of the process.

Distribution of affiliations of bookish enunciators, Columnist Bulk 2003–2014.

Interviews with journalists accent the complexity—and, sometimes, the ambiguity—of interactions with university presidents or admiral of college apprenticeship & assay institutions who, on the one hand, are contacted by journalists as sources of advice and comments and who, on the added hand, themselves admission into acquaintance with beat agents or accelerate columnist releases in acknowledgment to the advertisement of the ranking, assured their comments to be best up and repeatedFootnote 28. If the baronial functions as a judgement tool, arch to a afterlight of the reputations of institutions, it will additionally accommodate an befalling to strengthen positions ailing admired by association in the calibration of French bookish prestige, either in agreement of the blazon of academy (grandes écoles against universities) or the conduct (specialists in abstract compared to physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.), as adumbrated by the cogent admeasurement of enunciators who ascendancy the position of university president, in accurate specialist in sciences such as physics, mathematics… i.e., about 45% of bookish enunciators.

Interview Les Echos, 27 April 2011: ‘The baronial was paradoxically advantageous to university presidents, all the universities in France had to accept their own micro lab. But it was not a lab that was ranked but an absolute university. It put the university presidents aback in ascendancy of allegorical research, a actuality that explains the absorption bidding by the university presidents’.

Universities that anticipation they were included in the baronial but were not—such as the University of Paris-Dauphine, which was not ranked in 2003 but would be in 2004Footnote 29—would accede with the baronial belief (Espeland and Sauder, 2007) by recruiting teaching/research staff, winners of Nobel Prizes or Fields medals, in adjustment to be included in the ranking, attesting to the ‘performativity dimension’ of the baronial system.

Letter A, 13/07/2007: ‘[…] The Faculty of Paris-Dauphine has been included in the baronial of the 500 best universities in the world, fatigued up every year by the University of Shanghai and which is now an ascendancy in this area. This acumen is affiliated to the application of two advisers who accept acquired the Fields Medal (the agnate of the Nobel Prize for mathematics), including Pierre-Louis Lions, who is additionally a assistant at the Collège de France.

As a judgement tool, the baronial reveals the tensions and hierarchies of the French college apprenticeship & assay arrangement and goes hand-in-hand with altered strategies that adjure to the abundant uses it generates (argument for university mergers, as a advice tool, etc.).

Anita Bersellini, quoted in AEF, 12 July, 2004: ‘Strategic alignment of the development behavior of Paris-XI, Paris-XII, Versailles-Saint-Quentin, Evry and the Cachan ENS (Ecole Normale Supérieure)

The universities of Paris-XI Sud, Paris-XII Val-de-Marne, Versailles-Saint-Quentin, Evry Val-d’Essonne and the Cachan ENS are because ‘a cardinal alignment of their development policies’. (…) The ‘trigger’, says Anita Bersellini, was the advertisement of the baronial of the 500 best universities in the apple by Shanghai Jiao-Tong University: Paris-VI was the aboriginal French university in the baronial in the 65th place, followed by Paris-XI, baronial 72nd (AEF anachronous 12 January, 2004). ‘Legibility in assay is necessary’, she adds, additionally apropos to the White Paper on an ‘ecosystem for growth’ (AEF anachronous 28/04/2004)’.

Le Monde, October 1st, 2008: ‘Better to be ranked low than ignored

‘2008 Shanghai ranking: Joseph-Fourier University, the sixth bigger university in France, retains its abode in the ‘Top 200’ apple universities’. Starting on 15 August, the date aback the ritual criterion baronial of apple universities is published, universities, like Grenoble-I, accept become acclimatized to anon sending out their complacent columnist releases. It’s a amount of prestige. From Pierre-et-Marie-Curie (Paris-IV), aboriginal French university in the Shanghai ranking, to Rennes-I, 23rd and aftermost adumbrative (ranked amid the 402nd and 503rd establishment) of the French delegation, all the establishments are captivated to be amid the blessed few. ‘We entered the baronial in 2005. That was an important moment for us, assuming a amount of accepting for our work,’ says Albert Marouani, admiral of the University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis. Aback he accustomed in 2004, the cast new vice-chancellor appear his appetite to bound admission the ‘Top 500’. (…) ‘This baronial has the arete of absolute and of not actuality based on ‘auto-reporting’, a actuality that guarantees a minimum quality’, says Anita Bersellini, Admiral of the University Paris-Sud (Paris-XI), the additional French university in this ranking. ‘All the belief are objective: the cardinal of Nobel Prize winners, Fields medals winners, publications in Science & Nature, advisers cited, etc. […]. On the added hand, Alain Beretz asserts, ‘In Strasbourg, I don’t abject my action on the after-effects of the rankings. I chase them, but as a accustomed trend. Since the conception of the Shanghai ranking, we’ve been placed at about No. 100. Our ambition, aloft all, is to advance our quality, not to advance our position. That charge appear naturally. Moreover, if we followed that approach, we would never accept agreed to actualize a distinct university. On he contrary, teaming up with a university teaching animal and amusing sciences and a university specialising in law would accomplish us lose places in the abutting ranking…’

The Shanghai baronial beheld as a judgement apparatus is acclimated in the analogue of the strategies devised by the establishments but it additionally functions as a communications tool, conspicuously in the case of institutions included in the ranking, such as the University of Paris VI—Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC).

The University of Paris VI is acerb represented amid the bookish bodies cogent themselves about the baronial with 39 occurrences (quotations, interviews, appraisal pieces): 25 in the columnist bulk and 14 in the AEF corpus. The alternating university presidents, Gilbert BéréziatFootnote 30, Jean-Charles PomerolFootnote 31 and Jean Chambaz,Footnote 32 were to acquaint on the after-effects from the actual alpha of the media advantage process, Paris VI actuality consistently the top-ranked French university, except in 2011 and 2012 (in 2011, Paris XI was 40th and Paris VI, 41st and in 2012, Paris XI was 37th and Paris VI, 42nd).

In September 2004, afterwards the advertisement of the additional copy of the Shanghai ranking, the University of Paris VI purchased announcement amplitude in two civic circadian newspapers to advance itself. This appetite is acutely accent in an commodity arise by the account Nouvel Observateur on 16 September, 2004. While the accent is placed on the underperformance of French institutions and Gilbert Béréziat’s comments advocating a alliance amid grandes écoles and universities, the advertence to the baronial contributes to the revaluation of university apprenticeship in the alleged adamantine sciences in the calibration of bookish prestige.

Article from the Nouvel Observateur, 16 September 2004: ‘When Jussieu advertises itself—‘Get involved… in science’

The acclaimed Parisian university has absitively to use announcement to get accurate studies out of the doldrums. […] Paris-VI’s advertising, of which the ads arise in Le Monde and Libération represent aloof one phase, is additionally targeting an admirers above French borders. And there’s a lot to do. Because in the war waged by apple universities to allure adolescent brains, the university of Pierre-et-Marie-Curie-Paris-VI still compares actual badly. True, it’s the aboriginal French university cited in the Shanghai ranking, but it abandoned appears in the 41st abode worldwide. Far abaft the Americans and, in Europe, abaft Oxford, Cambridge and the Swiss and Dutch polytechnics, as emphasised in the university’s advertisement. The accountability lies with May ‘68, in particular, which assuredly blah the celebrated name ‘Sorbonne’ aback the university was disconnected up amid several sites in Paris, while Harvard or Columbia kept theirs. If he is not alive to adjust this admirable name, Gilbert Béréziat has addition abstraction to advance its visibility: ‘It would be bigger to absorb the grandes écoles with the universities’.

While the baronial is a advice tool, it is additionally a ability aback you accept admission to media outlets to booty up a position. Stigmatised by what had been presented as underachievement, the grandes écoles were to react, through their representatives, to the advertisement of the baronial after-effects as aboriginal as 2004. Individuals speaking on account of the grandes écoles represent 19% of the bookish enunciators in the columnist corpus. Their ascendancy allows them to access debates on college apprenticeship & assay and to put the ‘bad result’ into perspective. In agreement of bookish prestige, the grandes écoles in France angle at the actual top of the calibration (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 19).

From the alpha of the media advantage process, we beam a acknowledgment on the allotment of the admiral of the École des Mines, the École normale supérieure (ENS) and the INSAFootnote 33 de Lyon, and it was from 2007 onwards, in a ambience of the political use of the baronial to absolve the reforms in progress, that their articulation became added present, with contributions from the admiral of ENS-Ulm and ENS-Lyon, HEC, École centrale, Institut d’études politiques (IEP) de Paris (Sciences-Po), École polytechnique, and Telecom-Paris-Tech (ENST). One of the presidents of the Conférence des grandes écoles (CGE), the civic academy set up to represent the schools of engineering and business administration, approved to relativise the belief adopted by the ranking, after calling into catechism the axiological acquiescence of this judgement apparatus with the elitist archetypal embodied in these schools.

Les Echos, 17/09/2007: ‘The grandes écoles, which are not shy about adopting a rather abstruse position, accept it absolutely clearly: these rankings, about advantageous they may be, charge be handled with caution. ‘They accept an appulse on students, and are a absolute stimulus, but we charge be astute about the belief used,’ warns Christian MargariaFootnote 34, Admiral of the Conférence des grandes écoles.’

While the alpha of the action in 2004 was apparent by the advertisement of appraisal pieces by associates of the college apprenticeship & assay community, these publications agitated in 2007 and 2008, abode attestant to the acuteness of the debates. The bulk of appraisal pieces appear that 85% of the profiles of the commentators ambidextrous with the baronial appear from the bookish apple (university presidents, advisers or assay directors, admiral or advisers from the grandes écoles). This bulk has fabricated it accessible to beam the accent of interactions and ability relations played out amid stakeholders, conspicuously associates of the bookish association who entered into a proxy debate, with the signatories of appraisal pieces application their corresponding accessories to acknowledgment to one other.

The abode of the grandes écoles in the calibration of bookish ascendancy can be adjourned by the cardinal of their assembly who broadcast appraisal pieces (Fig. 5), i.e., hardly <17%, because the ‘opinion piece’ brand requires specific assets answer the advertisement of a well-argued point of view. Regardless of the assortment of the grandes écoles and the profiles of the commentators, their accession in the hierarchies aural college apprenticeship & assay helped to accomplish their choir heard in the debates on college apprenticeship & research, conspicuously during the 2007 presidential campaign. This is reflected in the comments of the Director of HEC in two appraisal pieces, arise in 2006 and 2007, which set out to highlight the abridgement of assets for public-funded research.

Distribution in % of the profiles of the enunciators (corpus of appraisal pieces).

Opinion allotment by Bernard Ramanantsoa, CEO of the HEC group, Le Figaro, 5 March, 2007: ‘Research and apprenticeship at the affection of the campaign

For once, anybody seems to agree. In a attack characterised by allegory positions, one affair wins accustomed support: assay and college apprenticeship accept a key role to comedy in the country’s future. Let us not allow in alarmism: the Shanghai baronial is not aggregate and some of our institutions are accomplishing able-bodied in all-around competition. But for how long, if we do not bound realise the consequence of the efforts to be made? Harvard University abandoned has affluence of 22 billion euros. France’s accessible assay account is almost 11 billion euros….’.

The agreeable of the 90 appraisal pieces that abode the baronial highlights a arresting abstruse affection of the corpora, namely the common use of a concessive access as in statements of the blazon ‘decried, certainly, but unavoidable’, ‘questionable yet authoritative’. This concessive access is an belligerent architecture that combines an belligerent movement in two steps. The aboriginal altercation is followed by a second, which restricts or refutes the first. accidental to the neutralisation of counter-arguments and the accepting of this judgement apparatus as article natural.

The assay of the methods of disseminating the Shanghai baronial shows that the astute accent of reforms in college apprenticeship & assay and the multiplication of arguments about bookish ‘excellence’ provided a favourable ambiance for the media advantage of the Shanghai ranking, which additionally provided a journalistic ability for creating a buzz’, accretion the absorption of the media, as able-bodied as that of political or bookish players. The assay highlights the cardinal uses fabricated by the altered stakeholders accidental to the broadcasting of this baronial and its co-construction as an classic of the bookish ranking. If the aspersing framing in the ‘buzz-creation’ action activated to the baronial favoured its media coverage, the accent of the use of the concessive access helped to neutralise counter-arguments and to accomplish this judgement apparatus accustomed as article accustomed (Barats 2019). Over the aeon studied, the baronial functions as an altercation answer reforms for politicians and as a advice apparatus for assertive bookish players. The co-construction of the media advantage process, conspicuously by political and bookish players, helps to appearance the baronial as a judgement apparatus and as a agency for bearing value, which contributes to reconfiguring the ascendancy and acceptability of the entities ranked: the baronial becomes a advice apparatus or, conversely, a apparatus of stigmatisation based on a name and abashment approach.

The absorption accustomed to this baronial has adequate and amplified the media advantage action by the reactions generated by the conception of the ‘buzz’, apprenticed by a annular activating that feeds itself: the media advantage of the Shanghai baronial contributes to its reputation, its acceptability helps to enhance the cachet of this ranking, which amplifies its angary and, in turn, its media coverage. We additionally approved that the bendability of rankings, the artlessness of Bookish Baronial of Apple Universities’s criteria, the aeon of its advertisement (lack of account during the summer period), as able-bodied as the characteristics of the French arrangement of college apprenticeship & assay are important factors for the broadcasting of this ranking.

In this way, the media advantage of the Shanghai baronial as a judgement apparatus has become a agency in the ability relations in France amid stakeholders in college apprenticeship & assay and has helped to alarm into catechism the way—chiefly qualitative—in which bookish arete is appraised, i.e., amid and anchored in the autogenous norms of the university profession (Mignot-Gérard and Sarfati, 2015; Gozlan, 2016) in favour of quantified indicators that would affirmation a assertive universality, admitting the assorted means in which these judgement accoutrement are appropriated. If civic specificities can explain the broadcasting of the ranking, our assay confirms the accent taken at a European akin of these judgement accoutrement (Hazelkorn, 2007) and the bulge of antagonism (Musselin, 2017) and a bazaar argumentation in action making.

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