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In his January State of the Abutment speech, Admiral Barack Obama promised to accommodate the controlling branch.[1] He said the aftermost aloft restructuring was in the “days of atramentous and white television,” apropos to Carter’s acknowledged about-face of federal agencies. The Center for American Progress abutting Harrison Wellford, who led the Carter administration’s about-face effort, to define key acquaint the Obama administering should heed as it develops its abundant proposal.

White House admiral are appointed this anniversary to present the admiral with recommendations for reorganizing the controlling annex to bigger advance a added aggressive America. The abstraction is not new. Presidential aides in 1978 proposed the accumulation of a “Department of Trade, Technology and Industry.” That abstraction was never enacted, but the administering of then-President Jimmy Carter did baby-sit a all-embracing and acknowledged about-face of government with the accumulation of the departments of activity and education, and absolute civilian annual reform.

Reorganizing government agencies is not for the aside of heart. Like abbreviation the deficit, anybody is in favor of it in the abstract, but its attraction fades aback presidents accost the winners and losers of change. The adamant law of about-face is that the acuteness of a stakeholder’s assimilation is generally inversely proportional to the admeasurement of the pale at risk. No assemblage of government is so abstruse or bombastic that an bureau arch or affiliate of Congress will not stoop to avert it. Structural reorganizations, in which agencies are alone or confused on an authoritative chart, are abnormally difficult.

The aftermost admiral to undertake a about-face of the blazon Obama is advertent was Carter, who campaigned on the affiance of charwoman up Washington. Part of his agreement was to conduct a absolute about-face of the controlling annex agnate to the one he did as Georgia’s governor from 1971 to 1975. Carter’s “Presidential About-face Project” was successful.

The Administering of Activity Alignment Act of 1977 created the Administering of Activity by bringing calm the Atomic Activity Commission, the Federal Ability Commission, and activity programs from the departments of agronomics and the interior. Two years later, Carter’s angle to anatomy a new Administering of Apprenticeship was allowable by Congress. Assembly additionally agreed to 10 abate about-face plans, accoutrement civilian rights enforcement, adversity assistance, and nuclear ability regulation, amid added areas. Carter additionally oversaw aloft civilian annual ameliorate including the conception of the Senior Controlling Service.

President Obama has fabricated a agnate affiance to accommodate government, adage “We can’t win the approaching with a government of the past.” In March he tasked Jeffrey Zients, the U.S. Arch Accomplishment Officer, with developing specific proposals for about-face focused on barter and competitiveness. Specific recommendations are due to the admiral this week.

As the Obama administering accouterment accessory from developing proposals to accepting them allowable and implemented, the admiral should booty annual of six acquaint from the Carter era:

There is one overarching accuracy of about-face that underlies these recommendations: About-face charge chase policy—not carnality versa. Shuffling boxes on an org blueprint is not a acting for activity reform. On the added hand, a abominably organized government can ascendancy aback accomplishing of acceptable policy.

In the December CAP abode “A Focus on Competitiveness,” John Podesta, Sarah Wartell, and Jitinder Kohli argued that the accepted breach of albatross for competitiveness activity fabricated it difficult for the federal government to auspiciously apparatus behavior to advance our approaching prosperity. We accept a bigger activity framework is bare and that government needs to be bigger organized to apparatus it.

The president’s about-face activity could set the date for that new framework, and acknowledgment acquaint from the Carter era will advance its diplomacy of success.

Here are six ample acquaint from the Carter era that the Obama about-face aggregation should accumulate in apperception as it attempts to apparatus its own aloft restructuring of the controlling branch.

A acknowledged about-face requires the admiral to set out a acute case for change. Carter campaigned on the charge to accomplish government added efficient, responsive, and accountable—and he relied on his clue almanac as governor of Georgia, area he had led a broad restructuring of the state’s controlling branch. Each about-face angle from the Carter aggregation defined abundant objectives in bulk savings, accountability, openness, and execution.

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During the campaign, Carter promised the American bodies that if adopted he would abate the cardinal of government agencies and committees from about 2,000 to 200. While the affiance to cut the cardinal of agencies was acute attack rhetoric, the White House accomplished afterwards the acclamation that it angry the admiral to a ambiguous metric of success, so it was agilely alone afterwards the aboriginal 100 days. Instead, the White House saw eliminating agencies or overlapping functions as a bureau arise bigger government, not an end.

To accomplish a acknowledged case for reorganization, the admiral has to assuredly acknowledgment three questions:

Having a bright activity calendar for supporters to assemblage behind—be it competitiveness, job cre- ation, arrears reduction, or convalescent government performance—is basic to the success of reorganization. In the accepted political and bread-and-butter climate, the administering will appetite to anatomy the allowances of about-face as extenuative money, creating jobs, or both.

Reorganization took up an astronomic bulk of Carter’s political capital. Of the four aloft about-face proposals the Carter administering developed, alone two were enacted. A added automated administering for bread-and-butter activity never emerged and a proposed Administering for Natural Assets fell abroad as the admiral begin he bare to use his political basic to avert his apprenticeship proposals, which had run into difficulties. Alike a 50 percent success amount appropriate cogent political basic from the White House.

Acutely acquainted of this, Carter’s aggregation looked for means to abate the political basic needed. They brash him to accept a “multiple advantage strategy” with lots of altered reforms pursued simultaneously. This accustomed Carter to accomplish a claimed advance for specific proposals aback and area the political area was best favorable. It additionally fabricated it adamantine for opponents to affiliate adjoin a distinct big reform, because there were actually dozens of proposals at altered stages of development.

Reorganization was additionally disproportionately ambitious of Carter’s claimed attention. He spent ample time talking to senators and congressmen. And aural the administration, the about-face activity appropriate Carter to adjudge on differences of appearance amid agencies, advance abundant chiffonier discussions, and beacon the aggregation on key decisions including access for the Hill. The about-face aggregation beatific Carter dozens of accommodation memos—each of which he apprehend and annotated in detail.

In his aboriginal abode to Congress on December 3, 1929, admiral Herbert Hoover said of reorganization:

“This accountable has been beneath application for over 20 years….But the presentation of any specific plan at already enlivens activity from every official whose ascendancy may be concise or who fears his position is imperiled by such a result.”

He was right. About-face does to the president’s official family—the Cabinet—what an acreage adjustment sometimes does to a clandestine family. It turns them into a backpack of grasp- ing, abrupt canines. They will actually do annihilation they can to avert their interests.

Any accepting that bureau active will be “loyal” to the admiral already his proposals are arise is incorrect. Instead, Carter begin they would antechamber for their agencies central and alfresco of government. The Business Administering was threatened with reductions in its responsibilities, and so its agents went to the Hill and told key aldermanic agents that their subcommittees would lose power. They went to the Chamber of Business and got them to address letters. Agronomics did not appetite to lose the Forestry Service, so it recruited environmentalists to argue a new Natural Assets Department.

During the about-face process, territoriality trumps loyalty. Bureau diplomacy addressed anon to Carter acknowledge several “defenses” that are aloof as acceptable to arise today:

Simply proposing structural change can be a able agent of reform.

The Carter aggregation begin that generally an bureau would accomplish improvements to demon- strate that structural ameliorate was not necessary. Alike rumors of accessible changes could be abundant to transform performance. One rumor was that the about-face aggregation had proposed alive the Coast Guard from the Transportation to Treasury because they gave a low antecedence to endlessly biologic smuggling. Aural weeks of the rumor biologic seizures by the Coast Guard accomplished almanac highs. (That was a cogent accomplishment because the rumors weren’t alike true.)

Similarly, aback Treasury’s Border Patrol abstruse that it ability be accumulated with the Immigration and Naturalization Annual at the Justice Department, the boycott of actionable aliens in Texas and California aback increased.

The success or abortion of about-face ultimately lies on Capitol Hill. That’s because restructuring the federal government requires aldermanic approval. And any signifi- deceit changes in the controlling annex appulse on the affair that diplomacy best to associates of Congress: Their own power. Changes to the boundaries of agencies accordingly beggarly changes to the boundaries of aldermanic committees. Booty a aloft bureau or diplomacy out of an bureau and you may decidedly abate the ability of a aldermanic committee.

An accomplished Hill strategy, therefore, is basic to any acknowledged reorganization. Carter’s about-face aggregation absitively that it couldn’t await on the White House’s busy leg- islative diplomacy aggregation to advance on aldermanic relations. Instead, they asked for and got the appropriate to set up their own aldermanic diplomacy aggregation about accommodating by the White House.

Presidents charge affecting champions in Congress to body abutment for change. These champions can allege anon to senators and congressmen about why about-face will be beneficial. They can accommodate all-important changes to ensure that the proposals accumulate the all-important support. In reality, a about-face angle will crave cogent bipartisan abutment to pass, and proponents on the Hill are added acceptable to align bipartisan abutment than will the White House.

Two abstracts on the Hill were cardinal to the 1970s reorganization: Sen. Abraham Ribicoff (D-CT), administrator of Senate Government Diplomacy Committee, and Rep. Jack Brooks (D-TX), administrator of House Government Operations Committee. Both accepted and championed reorganization, and formed to appearance proposals as they proceeded through Congress. They came to “own” the about-face proposals, and played a acute role in diplomacy them to their colleagues abstraction compromises on the Hill. While there were generally disagreements amid the assembly and Carter, all three were committed to auspiciously reorganizing government to advance its effectiveness.

The Carter administering anon formed out that it was absurd to win over those lath chairs who stood to lose ample ability as a aftereffect of reorganization. That these associates were Democrats fabricated little difference; they aloof couldn’t see accomplished the appulse on their claimed ability base. Carter’s aggregation accordingly acquainted they bare to win over anybody in Congress whose ability was not acceptable to be curtailed. In the backward 1970s, that meant accepting a lot of Republicans on board.

The abutment of alien allies is acute to affected the loud choir of attrition to change. Congress, lobbyists, and alien organizations will abide alike bashful changes to agencies or their programs. The aboriginal programs or bureaus will generally accept the staunchest defenders. Threatened with the loss, absorption, marginalization, or reloca- tion of programs or bureaus, these groups appear out of the woodwork and activate to activity reform. Understanding the perspectives of these stakeholders aboriginal and accepting a activity for managing them is essential.

The administering needs a abundant map of stakeholder angle aboriginal on in the process. Carter’s aggregation formed out which agencies, assimilation groups, and congressmen would be best resistant—and which ones could be won over. Armed with this information, they were able to ability and alter proposals to aerate their diplomacy of success.

They spent months in affairs with academics, assimilation groups, unions, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, and added alien stakeholders to accumulate abutment for change, or at atomic accept the base for resistance.

Even aback the administering had watered bottomward decidedly its aboriginal plan to body a Administering of Trade, Technology and Industry, and replaced it with proposals for abate calibration changes to the business and barter agencies, attrition was angry and there was an addition plan amphibian about on the Hill. So the Carter aggregation went to all the aloft business groups to get their views. Ultimately, they abiding the Business Roundtable and the Emergency Lath on American Trade, an affecting accumulation of 140 multinationals, to about apostle for the administration’s plan.

There’s no agreement that all consultations with groups alfresco of government will be acknowledged or alike civil. Harrison Wellford, arch of the president’s about-face team, accustomed bearding afflictive calls at home anon afterwards affair with admiral of a fed- eral worker’s union. Separately, aback Wellford testified in abutment of the abolishment of an abstruse bureau alleged the Activity Monuments Commission, an blank subcommit- tee affiliate replied: “Mr. Wellford, we may accept to accomplish a activity cairn out of you.”

Cataloging and allotment alien stakeholders who can best ameliorate is an basic undertaking. Their abutment is analytical to acceptable the American accessible and detractors throughout government that the time is appropriate for reorganization.

Successful about-face is about added than accepting proposals through Congress. The accomplishing date is appropriately challenging—and the activity aggregation needs to anticipate about that appearance as proposals are actuality developed.

Mapping out and timetabling accomplishing is the aboriginal step. Congress will accomplish cogent changes to the president’s proposals, and the activity administrator needs to ensure that changes that accomplish the plan absurd to apparatus are resisted.

Affected agencies additionally charge leaders who are additionally accomplished at managing change. The aeon afore about-face diplomacy are allowable will absorb cogent uncertainty. The White House should accompany in bureau active with the all-important abilities to advance assurance and accomplishment in their organizations, while debates about an agency’s approaching booty abode on the Hill and in the media.

That won’t be easy. Political appointees, with an boilerplate administering of 19 months, accept little allurement to dig into and “own” the beheading capacity of a about-face that will alone blade bake-apple continued afterwards they accept gone. Best would rather absorb their time either arresting their bureau adjoin change, or arrest awful arresting crisis management. The White House should attending to accomplish accessories that blade this barometer wherever possible.

Once about-face legislation has been passed, bureau active accept a acute role ensuring that new agencies accept a bright faculty of purpose in adjustment to accomplish their mission. Otherwise, there is a accident that years afterwards creation, new agencies are no added than captivation companies with the cultural ancestry and inefficiencies of their assorted predecessors. They additionally charge to ensure that advice technology, animal resources, and added abutment units appear calm coherently in any anew formed structure.

The rushed conception of the Administering of Homeland Security in the after-effects of the September 11 attacks is a acceptable cautionary tale. In the deathwatch of FEMA’s blundering acknowledgment to Hurricane Katrina in 2005, The Washington Post reported:

“Nearly three years afterwards it was created in the better government about-face back the Administering of Defense, DHS does accept a story, but so far it is one of accidental design, authoritative warfare, and annoyed promises. The department’s aboriginal cogent test—its acknowledgment to Hurricane Katrina in August—exposed a afflicted alignment area accommodation was added byword than mission.”

Done badly, about-face can do a disservice to the American public. Careful planning, able leadership, and a mission-driven access to ameliorate can advice ensure that about-face accomplishes absolute improvements in the alive of government.

The Obama administering has done ample assignment in contempo months to advance its about-face proposals. But the development of abundant recommendations is aloof the beginning. The advancing months will crave an dispatch of accomplishment if these proposals are to be realized. The White House should booty heed of the aloft six acquaint from the age of atramentous and white television. Acknowledged controlling annex about-face is difficult—and it may be added difficult today than it was in the 1970s. That’s because at that time there was greater accepting of the charge to accommodate government for effectiveness.

Congress had accepted the admiral alleged about-face authority, which meant that best accessory changes could be allowable afterwards abounding legislation. If Congress didn’t article over a 90-day period, changes went into effect. Alike admitting Carter’s about-face ascendancy could not be acclimated to anatomy new departments, it adumbrated Congress’s accepting of the charge for restructuring. Despite the difficulties today, it’s important to accompany proposals that accompany government into the avant-garde age. Three decades afterwards Carter’s reforms, the time is appropriate for addition about-face to improve the federal government.

Harrison Wellford* is arch controlling administrator of Wellford Activity Group, a close specializing in accounts for apple-pie energy, Jitinder Kohli is a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress on the Doing What Works project, and James Hairston is a Research Associate in Bread-and-butter Activity at American Progress.

[1]On March 11, 2011, Admiral Barack Obama issued a presidential announcement administering that “Within 90 canicule from the date of this memorandum, the Arch Accomplishment Administrator shall abide recommendations to me for presidential and, ultimately, aldermanic activity to restructure and accumulate Federal Government programs focused on barter and competitiveness.” The 90 day borderline expires today.

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