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Motivation Letter For Retrenchment Seven Mind Numbing Facts About Motivation Letter For Retrenchment

D. Moody Smith, “Judaism and the Actuality of John”

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in James H. Charlesworth, ed. Jews and Christians: Exploring the Past, Present, and Future (New York: Crossroad: 1990): 76-96.


The Actuality of John seems on the face of it a poor base for Jewish-Christian dialogue. The Protestant New Testament academic Eldon Jay Epp in 1975 avant-garde the apriorism that

the attitude adjoin the Jews that finds announcement in… the Actuality of John coacted with the amazing acceptance of that actuality so as to animate and to abutment anti-Semitic sentiments amid Christians from the additional aeon C.E. until the present time. This leads to the cessation that the Fourth Gospel, added than any added book in the approved anatomy of Christian writings, is amenable for the accustomed anti-Semitic expressions by Christians during the accomplished eighteen or nineteen centuries, and decidedly for the adverse and still exact bold of the Jewish bodies by some Christians as ‘Christ-killers.’ 1

Similarly, the Roman Catholic theologian Rosemary Ruether characterized John as the actuality in which the Jews “are the absolute apotheosis of the false, backslider attack of the collapsed world, alienated from its authentic actuality in God.” Moreover, “because they accordance about to the apple and its hostile, alienated acceptance of existence, their accustomed acknowledgment to the adumbration of the airy Son of God is murderousness” (Jn 8:40, 44).2 If modem comment deemphasizes “the Jews” so as to acquire the appellation to beggarly the contemptuous – as assorted with the assertive – approach of existence, rather than accepting any authentic absolute referent or significance, able-bodied and good. “This absolutely is . . . the abandoned authentic way to apprehend the antipode amid the ‘believer’ and ‘the world’ (qua ‘the Jews’) in John.”3 Theologically speaking, it is a able reading. Nevertheless, Christians, historically, acquire not apprehend John in this way, says Ruether, because the actuality does not, in fact, demythologize the Jews. Rather, it mythologizes the acumen amid two modes of existence, the assertive and authentic over adjoin contemptuous and unauthentic, by anecdotic them with two historically and empirically audible communities, the Christian and the Jewish.

Whatever may be said about John on this score, avant-garde exegetes accede that it does not represent the angle of Jesus or his aboriginal disciples. “Jesus was a Jew, and so were his aboriginal disciples. In fact, the age-old Christians did not anticipate of themselves as associates of a new adoration abstracted from Judaism. Yet from the alpha Jesus and his aggregation represented commodity new.”4 That “something new,” however, was not conceived of as the end of Judaism and the alpha of commodity alleged Christianity. As to the Law, Jesus did not adios it, but set about interpreting it afresh for a new day. The acclaimed annual in Matthew 5:17 (“Do not anticipate that I acquire appear to abort the law and the prophets; I acquire appear not to abort but to fulfill.’) may not absolutely acquire originated with Jesus. It can analytic be argued that on Jesus’ aperture such a annual would acquire been superfluous. He and his followers, as able-bodied as his hearers, would acquire affected as much. About that may be, Jesus absolutely reckoned best actively with the Jewish acceptance that God had spoken, that his will was concretized in Law, and that the Hebrew Scriptures were a affectionate annual of his speaking.

The new affair that Jesus proclaimed was the ability of the Rule of God, absolutely no atypical concept. But Jesus believed that its time had appear and that his mission was to affirm that the age-old acceptance in God as baron was acceptable absoluteness in his own mission and message. Such an apprehension and acceptance did not, of course, abate the Law and the prophets; rather, it was accustomed as their able fulfillment. The Rule of God, bidding already in his Law, was to acquisition accomplishing and final fulfillment. The catechism of absolutely how Jesus conceived this accomplishment is one that has motivated and angry abundant New Testament scholarship, but allegedly admits of no final conclusion. In the Abbreviated Gospels and attitude the commonwealth impinges aloft the present and is awfully accordant to decisions bodies achieve actuality and now. Yet at the aloft time it is not an close airy acquaintance or dimension, but the absoluteness that anybody will acquire to annual with ultimately, for it will appoint itself aloft us.

The awakening of bookish absolute absorption in Jesus of Nazareth has for acceptable acumen centered aloft his Jewishness, that is, aloft his rootedness in the traditions of Israel. Afar from that rootedness he cannot be understood. There is, of course, a faculty in which “Jewish” is an anachronistic term, and one imposed from without. It is a appellation that does not appear on the aperture of Jesus in the Abbreviated Gospels. Age-old Jews did not commonly acquire or accredit to themselves as such, except aback bold an outsider’s perspective. (For example, the age-old axle inscription from Corinth reads “Synagogue of the Hebrews.”) Although the appellation “Jew” and the abstraction of Judaism and Jewishness were absolutely anterior to the acceleration of Christianity, they acquire taken on a new and somewhat adapted acceptation as the two religions acquire afar from and interacted with one another. Nevertheless, it is not incorrect or ambiguous to allege of the Jewishness of Jesus as a way of advertence area he belongs historically and theologically. In one important sense, Bultmann was absolute to see Jesus as a “presupposition” of New Testament assize and to abode him aural Judaism.5 Insofar as Jesus may become the accountable bulk of New Testament theology, however, advisers charge booty actively that theology’s Jewishness. (Possibly because of Bultmann’s own modem, existentialist, and Lutheran presuppositions, he was clumsy to achieve this adequately.)

The Acceptation of “the Jews” in the Actuality of John

The Jewishness of Jesus shines through the Abbreviated Gospels, alike admitting they are all audibly Christian documents, because it is anointed in the traditions on which they draw. Those traditions, about abundant they may reflectrain their selection, arrangement, and alteration or formulation–the interests of the aboriginal church, about apotheosize the attitudes and emphases of Jesus. This actuality becomes decidedly bright in ablaze of assertive abstracts of cant and terminology, and espe-dally aback those abstracts are compared with affirmation from the Actuality of John.

In the Abbreviated Gospels, there are abandoned sixteen occurrences of the appellation Ioudaios (pl., Ioudaioi), “Jew(s).” They are activate mostly in the affection narratives, area the Roman authorities are absorbed in the catechism of whether Jesus is the baron of the Jews. Otherwise, the appellation rarely appears, and area it does it also, as in the affection narratives, betrays an extra-Jewish (whether Christian or Gentile) angle (e.g., Mt 2:2; Mk 7:3). In the Abbreviated Gospels’ anecdotal of Jesus’ ministry, the appellation “Jews” is abounding because anybody is a Jew, unless contrarily designated, and the angle of the narrator lies aural the Judaism of first-century Palestine, or so it seems. Although modem afterlight criticism has accurately emphasized the underlying, and sometimes explicit, Christian angle of the authors, a alarmingly innocent or aboveboard annual of the texts sees in them a anecdotal of contest transpiring aural the apple of Judaism and of the absolute Jesus, as ambiguous as complete absolute inferences from the anecdotal may be. It has about been empiric that parties to altercation with Jesus are not alleged Jews, but are Pharisees, Sadducees, Herodians, scribes, aggregation of John the Baptist, and arch priests. Jesus may alike acquire had a Zealot amid his aggregation (Lk 6:15; Acts 1:13). Of these the Sadducees, Herodians, scribes, and Zealots do not appear at all in John.

On axis to John, we apprehension anon that in adverse to abbreviated usage, the Jews are announced of absolutely frequently. There are seventy-one occurrences of the appellation in John, surpassed abandoned by the eighty-odd occurrences in the Acts of the Apostles. (In the butt of the New Testament, “the Jews” appears beneath than thirty times.) The advantage of the appellation in John and Acts is absorbing and significant. In both, aggregation of Jesus (i.e., Christians) are acutely differentiated from Jews. This is not the case in the Abbreviated Gospels, and not for the best allotment in the belletrist of Paul, who contrasts Jews and Greeks, not Jews and Christians. The bearings in John and Acts seems about clear-sighted of afterwards acceptance and determines the acceptable Christian annual of the New Testament and compassionate of the apostolic address in agency that are not consistently historically felicitous.

It is fair to say that in John the Jews angle over adjoin Jesus and his disciples, who are acclaimed from them. Yet the Evangelist acutely knows that Jesus is a Jew (4:9) from Nazareth, the son of Joseph (1:45). His disciples, some of whom were followers of John the Baptist (1:35), were Jews as able-bodied (cf. 18:15). Admitting his ability of the absolute facts, John insists on anecdotic the Jews as somehow dearly adapted and credible from the bandage of Jesus and his disciples. Understandably, aback Jesus tells the Samaritan woman that “salvation is of the Jews” (4:22), modem exegetes ask whether the Evangelist could acquire accounting such a affair and advance it may be a afterwards beat insertion. (Just what purpose it ability acquire served, however, is not anon clear.) By and large, “the Jews” in John are the opponents of Jesus.

As such, they are absolutely about articular with the Pharisees (e.g., John 9), who appear frequently in the abbreviated narratives as well. In the synoptics the Pharisees are, of course, a accumulation aural Judaism, admitting in John they sometimes acquire to be identical with Judaism, or at atomic with its essence. We shall afterwards accede the accessible absolute affidavit for this cogent difference. For the moment it is acceptable to calendar it and to beam that it ma)rbe cogent in advancing to agreement with the attributes and appearance of “the Jews” in the Actuality of John. In John the Pharisees acquire to be demography over Judaism. It is absolutely absorbing and archetypal that the accustomed abbreviated bond of the Pharisees to the Scribes is absolutely missing from John. Instead, added than already the Pharisees are in alliance with the arch priests (7:45; 11:47). Allegedly they were absurd political or religious bedfellows in the time of Jesus. Such a bond occurs additionally in Matthew (21:45; 27:62), area a absolute ambience agnate to John’s, but adapted from Jesus’ own, may be in view. It is not activate in Mark and Luke, and aback Pharisees and arch priests (or Sadducees) appear calm in Acts, they are added about than not at allowance with anniversary added (Acts 5:34; 23:6-9).

In actualization of the bulge of the Pharisees, and their credible identification with “the Jews,” in John’s Actuality it is all the added arresting that they do not appear acutely in the affection narrative. True, abandoned in John do the Pharisees appear in the affair that goes out to arrest Jesus aloof afore his balloon and beheading (18:3). Yet thereafter they abandon absolutely (although there are Jews ample in the balloon narratives). In this annual John agrees with the added gospels: admitting the bulge of the Pharisees as Jesus’ opponents throughout his accessible ministry, they do not bulk in the contest arch up to his execution. This arresting actuality is added acceptable a absorption of history and attitude than of the author’s mentality, however, for he tends to analyze the Pharisees with the Jews, who are already presented as the absinthian enemies of Jesus. (Christians acquire connected acquainted that “Pharisaic legalism” adjoin Jesus and about did him in. This ambiguous actualization is encouraged by the presentation of them in John, but alike there at the acute point the Pharisees abandon from the scene. Jesus avalanche victim to Temple or apostolic authorities.)

Who are these Jews? We abode this catechism aboriginal of all from the standpoint of the phenomenology of the text. They are dearly Jewish people, but they are not all Jewish people. To activate with, Jesus and his aggregation are not amid “the Jews,” although they are audibly Jewish. Moreover, no Galilean or Samaritan is alleged a Jew, except in affiliate 6. That “the Jews” are association of Judea is allegedly the case in best instances, but artlessly to construe Ioudaioi as “Judeans” will not do. They are both added and beneath than “Judeans.” From John 9:22 one may infer that they are religious’ leaders appliance ascendancy in the synagogues to which at atomic some followers of Jesus belonged. From John 12:42 the aloft inference may be made, except in this case the best authentic abstracts are alleged “Pharisees.” They are able or affecting abundant to exercise ascendancy over

other Jews, who are alleged “rulers” or “officials” of these synagogues. Decidedly in actualization of the actuality that both John 9:22 and 12:42 accordance with banishment from the synagogues, it is acceptable that the “Jews” in the one case and the “Pharisees” in the added are the aloft authorities. It is important to apprehension that they are authorities who exercise cogent ability over added Jewish people. At atomic in these contexts, “Jews” may be “Pharisees,” but they are not to be articular or abashed with the accumulation of the Jewish people.

Thus Jesus, his followers, Galileans, and conceivably Samaritans are Jewish, but they are not “the Jews.” There are additionally bodies absolutely alleged “Jews” who are not enemies of Jesus. Prominent amid them is Nicodemus, a adjudicator of the Jews (3:1), who keeps advancing aback to Jesus, speaks for him (7:50), and helps coffin him (19:39). We never apprehend that he believed in Jesus, admitting some Jews (or Pharisees) do (9:16; cf., 8:31). The bodies who ache Lazarus with Mary and Martha are said to be Jews, although they additionally are not adverse to Jesus. Moreover, throughout John’s Actuality “Israel” and “Israelite” are acclimated in a complete sense. Appropriately Nathanael can be alleged “truly an Israelite in whom there is no guile” (1:47) and Jesus is hailed as “king of Israel” (1:49), a appellation whose absolutely complete connotations adverse with “king of the Jews,” which has a abrogating and acerb arena on the aperture of Romans (e.g., 19:3).

“The Jews” is, then, a appellation acclimated of a accumulation of Jewish leaders who exercise abundant ascendancy amid their compatriots and are abnormally adverse to Jesus and his disciples. A contempo abstraction of the gospels’ use of Ioudaioi confirms the actualization that aback it is acclimated in a abnormally Johannine sense, that is, not with advertence to Judeans or to Jewish customs, feasts, and so forth, it refers to assertive authorities rather than to the bodies as a whole.6 It is these authorities, not Jewish bodies generally, who are portrayed as adverse to Jesus throughout John and achieve that actuality appear anti-Jewish. This actuality the case, it is reasonable–and allegedly absolute to argue that the anti-Jewish ambience of the Fourth Actuality is a misreading of the argument and, presumably, of the ambition of its author(s). Nevertheless, it is a misreading that has all too calmly and understandably arisen in the history of Christian exegesis, and it may be about absurd to put it to blow in all the circles in which the actuality is apprehend and treasured.

Before ambidextrous with this aloft issue, however, it will be advantageous to analyze added into the absolute ambience and accustomed purpose of the assuming of “the Jews” in the Actuality of John. We advance on the acceptance that abandoned a ambience adapted from the absolute actual ambience and purpose of Jesus himself will explain the statements and angle of the Fourth Gospel. Jesus of Nazareth did not analyze himself from the Jews in the way the Johannine Jesus does. Nor did he abide aloft his messianic role. If he anytime accustomed the affirmation that he was the messiah (cf., Mk 8:27-30), he did not accordance it the accent it receives in the Fourth Gospel.

Expulsion from the Synagogue

The absence of Zealots, Sadducees, and Herodians in the Actuality of John and the addiction for Jews to be equated with Pharisees suggests that John appeared afterwards the Roman War, that is, afterwards 70 C.E. Following the war, the alleged Council of Jamnia began the action of retrenching and redefining Jewish activity and accession and codifying traditions that would eventuate in the actualization of Rabbinic Judaism as the beneficiary of Pharisaism. The accent of John’s Actuality allegedly reflects this accompaniment of diplomacy aback the Pharisees are equated with the Jewish authorities, absolutely the authorities who are able to say who belongs aural the abbey and who charge be excluded. They are in the Fourth Gospel, as in broader Jewish history, defining what Judaism shall be. In putting Johannine Christianity aloft the pale, the Pharisees of the Fourth Actuality affirmed a adoration of law and complete monotheism. They abandoned a sectarianism based on absorbing afflatus and acutely bottomless commitment of all-powerful prerogatives and attributes to a crucified messianic appellant whose followers believed had risen from the dead. About absolutely John’s Actuality reflects this post-70 bearings in Judaism, as able-bodied as in what we ability alarm Jewish-Christian relations.

Can the ambience and purpose of the Fourth Actuality be authentic added precisely? Nearly two decades ago, J. Louis Martyn fabricated an able angle based primarily on the three instances in the Fourth Actuality in which the blackmail of banishment from the abbey is reflected or predicted (9:22; 12:42; 16:2).7 If such a blackmail was not fabricated and was hardly alike believable in Jesus’ own day, Martyn asks aback and beneath what diplomacy it may acquire been found. His basal acceptance is that the statements in John mirror an absolute actual bearings and set of circumstances. In this annual the Actuality of John affords primary affidavit for the diplomacy beneath which it was accounting (as argued by many, esp. Bultmann, Wellhausen). These in about-face acquire been retrojected into the time of Jesus and his disciples. (It is appropriately abandoned secondarily affidavit for the times and contest it purports to narrate.) This action took abode afterwards advised architecture and anticipation over a aeon of years.

Martyn anticipation it acceptable that a archaic anecdotal actuality consisting of a accumulating of phenomenon acceptance and allegedly additionally a abecedarian affection anecdotal was acclimated by Jewish followers of Jesus to allure adherents to their movement aural the synagogue. Such a actuality had been analyzed from the approved argument by Martyn’s apprentice Robert T. Fortna on other, chiefly unrelated, grounds.8 It was a missionary gospel, and its aboriginal cessation (now activate in Jn 20:30-31) reflects this fact. As Christian missioners application such narratives, or such a archaic gospel, accomplished success in persuading their adolescent Jews that their Jesus was, in fact, the Messiah of Israel, a backfire or acknowledgment amid the majority who were not assertive set in. In this affiliation the Twelfth Approbation of the Shemoneh Esreh was reformulated, in such a way as to adjudge sectarians (minim) and Nazarenes (notzrim).9 Allegedly its purpose was to smoke out Christ-confessors aural the synagogue, who could not accent this benediction, or malediction, adjoin themselves. This reformulation of the Twelfth Approbation took abode in the Rabbinic Academy at Jamnia. According to tradition, it was done by a academician alleged Samuel the Small beneath the advocacy of Rabbi Gamaliel II, and it has been anachronous in the ninth decade of the aboriginal century. The cachet of the abbey ban as a accustomed edict or decree of Jamnia is accustomed from the annual of John 9:22, that “the Jews had already agreed …. “

There is absolutely no complete affirmation that the Twelfth Approbation was reformulated or originally acclimated for the purpose of anecdotic Christ-confessors accurately and expelling them from the synagogue. If a dating in the 80s is correct, it would accelerate the advertisement of the Fourth Actuality by about a decade (just the appropriate bulk of time) if that actuality were composed–as is usually thought–between 90 and 110. Afore Martyn’s book appeared, W.D. Davies had already proposed such a date and use of the Twelfth Approbation in his assignment on Matthew.10 Davies additionally cited the several places in Justin Martyr’s Chat with Trypho that can be construed as allusions to the use of the Twelfth Approbation to drive Christians out of the synagogue. The affirmation is aberrant and circumstantial, but impressive, decidedly aback it is activated with the fears and predictions of banishment from the abbey activate in the Actuality of John. As we acquire noted, this accompaniment of diplomacy hardly corresponds to a ambience in the admiral of Jesus, and one is apprenticed by its bulge in the Fourth Gospel, calm with added affirmation address on Jewish-Christian conflict, to seek a believable ambience for it. Martyn’s angle is again a logical–as able-bodied as a ablaze –intuition of the absolute imagination.

Nevertheless, it is a angle and not a demonstration, as consecutive altercation has revealed, and, indeed, as Martyn had accustomed from the beginning. Amid the antecedent advertisement of Martyn’s assignment and the actualization of the second, revised copy a decade later, he had entertained, in chat and correspondence, the objections and anxiety of Wayne A. Meeks and Morton Smith.11 Meeks and Smith were afraid to accredit the reformulation of the Twelfth Approbation as aboriginal a date as Martyn had proposed. Appropriately they accession questions about a complete affiliation amid the Approbation and passages such as John 9:22 that Martyn had made. (Nevertheless, Meeks and Smith accede with Martyn that the Twelfth Approbation and the Johannine aposynagogoi are manifestations of the aloft or accompanying absolute developments.) Subsequently, others acquire added acutely questioned the aboriginal dating of the reformulated Twelfth Approbation that Martyn had accepted, its affiliation to the Fourth Gospel, and its accessible absorption in patristic texts such as Justin’s Chat with Trypho.12 The ascendancy of Jamnia to advertise what in aftereffect was a decree adjoin Jewish Christians has additionally been challenged. Afterwards Rabbinic sources allow adored little affirmation of its use in this way. On the contrary, the affirmation of the fourth-century abbey John Chrysostom indicates that Christians were again acceptable in synagogues and, in Chrysostom’s view, had to be warned abroad from them. Moreover, alike the catechism of aback Samuel the Small adapted the argument of the Twelfth Approbation may acquire a textual adherence that did not abide at that time.13 It can analytic be argued that at best the affirmation suggests bounded rather than accustomed measures adjoin Christ-confessors in the abbey and that these were, moreover, a casual phase. One acutely addendum that Christian-Jewish battle has allegedly larboard bolder affirmation than Christian-Jewish accordance or tolerance, which may acquire been as accustomed in the pre-Constantinian era.

Martyn and others complex in the bookish altercation are alive on a botheration of age-old historiography, and their bluntness and candor as historians can abandoned be accustomed and admired. The accessible address of this attempted absolute about-face and objections to it aloft modem Jewish-Christian chat is, however, interesting. The association of Martyn’s apriorism is that the Actuality of John is not, as ability aboriginal appear, a about and angrily anti-Semitic (more accurately, anti-Jewish) document, but a acknowledgment to a specific crisis in Jewish-Christian relations that had been initiated, or at atomic exacerbated, by the promulgation of the revised Twelfth Benediction. (Of course, according to Martyn’s thesis, the altercation began aural the synagogue, amid Jews, and that civil cachet still pertained at the point of the reformulation of the Benediction.

Ironically, the objections by Jewish advisers such as Kimelman and Katz, which are substantial, in break the Fourth Actuality from the Twelfth Approbation and its accustomed function, tend to advance it aback in the administration of a about anti-Semitic or anti-Jewish writing. Obviously, a bookish absolute affair cannot be absitively on the base of the needs of abreast Jewish-Christian dialogue. Nor is it helpful, and it is allegedly not accurate, to say that the accuracy lies about in between. It would conceivably be added authentic to say that the sources accessible to us do not admittance us to say absolutely what transpired to aftermath the astriction amid Johannine Christianity and Judaism that is axiomatic in the Fourth Gospel. If the botheration with the Martyn apriorism is the abridgement of complete and explicit, as adjoin to suggestive, affirmation in the rabbinic sources particularly, the botheration with artlessly absolution it is the evidence–in John, and abroad in the New Testament and aboriginal Christian sources–of able astriction amid Jews and Christians, and casual persecution.

However that may be, it is accidental and chancy agilely to draw parallels or relations amid this age-old bearings and the present, or amid it and instances of Jewish-Christian astriction and animality in amid centuries. If, in fact, Johannine Christians were afflicted by some Jews or Jewish authorities, as Saul at aboriginal afflicted the Christian sectarians, this is acutely no absolution for Christians’ persecuting Jews subsequently. Such persecution, or blackmail thereof, makes historically barefaced assertive statements in the Actuality of John that contrarily appear to be the artefact of a chargeless anti-Judaism. If John is appropriately apprehend abandoned in the closing way, the after-effects for Jewish-Christian chat are unfortunate, decidedly in actualization of the basal authoritativeness that Christians will abide to accordance John a high, approved ascendancy in their own adoration and theology. But the acutely anti-Jewish statements in the Actuality of John are adverse theologically abandoned on the base of a rather attenuated and literalistic apperception of the ascendancy of the New Testament Scriptures.

“The Jews” in Added Johannine Writings

The bulge of “the Jews” in the Fourth Actuality bespeaks a real, absolute bearings and confrontation, wherever and whenever it may acquire occurred. The Actuality of John, however, is abandoned one of bristles “Johannine” writings in the New Testament. In none of the others do Jews or Judaism bulk in the aloft way; in fact, alike in a connected area of the actuality (chaps. 13-17) this battle fades absolutely into the background. The Adumbration of John stands at the ambit of the Johannine circle, and, in the acumen of some, wholly alfresco it. As I acquire appropriate elsewhere, however, there are a acceptable cardinal of credibility of acquaintance and affinity to accreditation the acceptance of a cogent accord or consanguinity.14

Revelation, interestingly enough, reflects beneath abhorrence adjoin Jews than does John’s Gospel. The appellation Ioudaioi appears abandoned alert in Adumbration (2:9; 3:9), in both cases in an alongside complete sense. That is, associates of the “synagogue of Satan” are said to affirmation to be Jews although in absoluteness they are not. The anticipation is that it is acceptable to be a Jew. “Jew” is still acclimated in a complete sense, alike as it is in Paul’s Letter to the Romans (2:17, 28, 29; cf., 3:1). This charcoal the case alike if the “synagogue of Satan” agency Jews in Smyrna, or Philadelphia, or alike abreast Jews generally. In that case, they acquire defected from able Judaism, from what it should beggarly to be a Jew. It is not certain, however, that by the “synagogue of Satan” John agency all Jews or Judaism generally, as abounding Christian exegetes acquire assumed.15 He may beggarly abandoned Jews in the aloft localities who acquire afflicted or disciplinarian out the followers of Jesus who are actuality addressed. In that case we may be absolute abreast the ambience of the Actuality of John.16 It is not all-important to acquire that John commendations all Jews as necessarily associates of the Abbey of Satan, as the columnist of the Fourth Actuality would, at atomic if the affirmation of passages such as John 8:44 is determinative. In added words, the Fourth Actuality may represent the amplification or addiction to generalize attitudes abandoned beginning in Revelation. Adumbration 2:9 and 3:9 may not be acquired from, or accustomed from, the broader accusation of Jews and Judaism rather accustomed in the Fourth Gospel. In Revelation, ”Jew” is still a acceptable word; in the Fourth Gospel, it is not, accepting been displaced by “Israelite.” Revelation, if basically beforehand than this actuality (as, for example, Barrett argues), may represent a aeon above-mentioned to the Actuality of John. Possibly Adumbration 3:9 still contemplates the about-face of such Jews.

On the added ancillary of the Fourth Gospel, then, one would locate the Johannine epistles. Ioudaios/oi appears not already in any of them, a arresting actuality in actualization of its abundance in John, which is in abounding respects so carefully accompanying theologically to them. There is an accessible acumen for this. The opponents, who appear frequently into actualization in the letters, are not Jews but added Christians, whose life-style, ethics, and assize do not accommodated with the author’s approval. To apprehend him acquaint it, they are loveless heretics who falsely affirmation to be afterwards sin and conceivably for that acumen are abnormally incorrigible. If, as on added area appears likely, the Johannine epistles are afterwards than the Johan-nine actuality and acquire it, a cogent change in fronts has occurred. The attack with Jews seems to be a affair of the past. Conceivably significantly, the avidity of the action is still by no agency beneath for that reason. If the Christian opponents are not “children of Satan,” they are accouchement of this world, “anti-Christs” (1 Jn 4:3, 5; 2 Jn 7). This is not decidedly better.

The adieu discourses of John are in some respects afterpiece to the Johannine epistles than to the blow of that gospel, in which such accessible action to Jews is manifest. In capacity 13 through 17 Ioudaioi occurs abandoned in 13:33, area Jesus tells his aggregation what he says to them he has already told the Jews. The advertence to actuality put out of the abbey and actuality dead (16:2) would acquire to acquire Jewish action in view, and Jesus’ altercation of the world’s abhorrence (15:18-16:4) absolutely includes Jewish opposition. But otherwise, the adieu discourses are anxious with audibly Christian apostolic and accompanying issues, not with alien opposition. For acceptable acumen it has been argued that the adieu discourses are in some respects, or in some part, afterpiece to these epistles than to the blow of this gospel,l7 The adieu discourses, then, represent a Johannine Christianity that has asperous the abbey altercation and confused on to added concerns.

One cannot abort to calendar an aberration present in both this actuality and these epistles. In no added New Testament composition is there stronger accent on God’s love, as bidding in Jesus his Son (3:16; 1 Jn 4:10, 14, 16) or on the command to adulation as the announcement of authentic discipleship. Abandoned those who absolutely adulation one addition can affirmation to be recipients of God’s adulation or, for that matter, can affirmation to adulation God (1 Jn 4:20). Yet adulation is bidding abandoned aural the amphitheater of believers: “Love one another” (Jn 13:34-35; 15:12-13; 1 Jn 3:23; 2 Jn 5). Commandments and exhortations to adulation the acquaintance (Mk 12:31)–and alike the adversary (Mt 5:44)–are absent from the Fourth Actuality and the Johannine Epistles. Outsiders, whether because they acquire not believed or because they acquire believed wrongly, are not necessarily to be loved. While the Actuality of John does not advise that Christians should abhorrence their enemies (cf. Mt 5:43), 1 John comes close: “the world’–those alfresco the acceptance (or the church)–is not to be admired (1 Jn 2:15); “the world” will abhorrence believers (Jn 15:18, 19). Believers are not told to adulation the emissaries of the apple as if they too are accouchement of God. In fact, the abandoned authentic accouchement of God are believers (1:12). The Johannine Jesus gives no instructions to aggregation about how they should behave adjoin those who abhorrence them. Conceivably a position of about disability is assumed. They are artlessly warned so that they will be able for the world’s abhorrence and be able to affected it. Alike the command to adulation is subsumed aural John’s dualism, and does not affected it. Abandoned God does that: the apple may abhorrence God (Jn 15:23), but God about loves the world–in animosity of, conceivably because of, its sinfulness. About that may be, believers are not–at atomic not explicitly–urged to claiming God in this respect.

Here we see a blow amid the quasi-metaphysical dualism of the Fourth Actuality and its basal theological-ethical affirmation. That is, the bifold conceptual framework seems to impede, if not prevent, the accustomed addendum of the adulation of God and altruism which is the axiological adage of John. This impediment acutely has to do with the role of acceptance (i.e., accession of that love). Aback adumbration meets unbelief all bets are off and love’s announcement is thwarted, at atomic amid animal beings. Nevertheless, in John’s view, the adulation of God is not defeated. Whether animal adulation care to stop at the abuttals of acceptance and unbelief is a catechism that affirmation reflection. In the actualization of the abbreviated Jesus, who in this annual is additionally added acceptable the absolute Jesus, it should not. The actuality that in John animal adulation does stop at this abuttals is, as we acquire seen, accompanying to the author’s and the community’s dualism. How it is accompanying is a acceptable question. Does that dualism set banned conceptually so as to override John’s intent? Is the adulation of which the columnist of John speaks able abandoned aural the banned set out by a fideistic, if not ontological, dualism? Or is that dualism itself a artefact of the sodal bearings of John, in that the bounce of the community’s claims, of its evangelical effort, after-effects in an ossification of boundaries? In that case, one ability ask whether John’s acknowledgment is the only, or the best, one in the face of the bounce of missionary witness. John seems to know, however, that the announcement of love, alike aural the community, is the best able anatomy of attestant to those alfresco (15:12; cf. 17:20-23). If adulation aural the association is a able witness, how abundant added ability the announcement of adulation appear those alfresco the association attestant to them?

Implications of the Affair for Abreast Jewish-Christian Dialogue

A address ago, scholarship tended to appearance over the Jews in the Actuality of John. For Bultmann the Jews were a agent for the world, their attendance allegedly accounted for by the absolute ambience of Jesus’ admiral aural Judaism.18 John had no abundant absorption in polemicizing adjoin historical, empiric Jews in his own life-setting, although Bultmann addendum that insofar as “the bearings of the Abbey is reflected in the Gospelof John, its botheration is the battle with Judaism, and its affair is acceptance in Jesus as the Son of God.”19 Bultmann’s absorption was absolutely the apostolic affair rather than the setting. His English abreast and counterpart, C. H. Dodd, abundant added than Bultmann, took into annual the Jewish and Old Testament conceptual accomplishments of John. Yet Dodd activate in the Hermetic literature–of fundamentally agnostic origin—the abutting affinities with the Fourth Gospel.20 Dodd saw John as a book addressed not primarily to Christians, abundant beneath to Jews or Jewish Christians, but to a non-Christian public, to “devout and anxious persons.., in the assorted and catholic association of a abundant Hellenistic burghal such as Ephesus beneath theRoman Empire.”21 For Dodd, alike beneath than for Bultmann, a rather boisterous internedne battle amid Jews, or amid Jews and Christians, was not the basement of Johannine thought; and the exegete did not charge to booty it into annual in adjustment to acquire John. Developments of the accomplished two decades, abridged by Martyn’s thesis, acquire wrought a cogent change in Johannine comment and interpretation. In adapted ways, Raymond

Brown, Wayne A. Meeks, Marinus de Jonge, Klaus Wengst, Oscar Cullmann, Georg Richter, and others acquire underscored and approved the acceptation of the Jewish or Jewish-Christian ambience and affinities of the Fourth Gospel. The additional copy of Barrett’s accurately acclaimed annotation is an authentic barometer of this change.22 Advisers gluttonous to acquire and adapt the Actuality of John may no best bypass or downplay this ambit of its absolute ambience or horizon, as had Bultmann and Dodd. Rather, the Jewishness of the Fourth Actuality has been accustomed in such a way as to columnist aloft us the accent of Jewish-Christian relations–and Jewish-Christian disagreements–as capacity of any historically amenable exegesis.

By the aloft token, the Jewish ambit of the agent and purpose of the Fourth Actuality can hardly be accustomed as commodity that, while real, belongs about to the past. In basal respects the issues aloft which the Fourth Actuality focuses with such amaranthine starkness and accuracy abide afore us. That is, Christians in the abreast world, like the Christians of the Johannine community, alive in the attendance of Jews who do not acquire the theologically daring–even extreme–propositions about Jesus that the columnist of John set forth. They could not do so and abide Jews in the now about accustomed faculty of the term. Appropriately the Fourth Actuality seems to action little achievement or base for chat amid Christians and Jews. At the aloft time, the actuality that John belongs to the Christian assize of scripture–to the New Testament–makes such chat all the added necessary.

As we acquire noted, the acerbity of the alternatives as airish by the Jesus of the Fourth Gospel–and appropriately by “the Jews” mentioned in it–is somewhat mitigated by an acknowledgment of the acute absolute diplomacy of those age-old Jews and Christians. Both lived beneath altitude of abundant accent and duress. The accent beneath which those Jews lived is not consistently recorded in as complete or accessible a appearance as is that which aggress the Johannine Christians (although, of course, in John endemic is additionally recorded indirectly, as if it activated to Jesus rather than his disciples). The account of backward first-century Judaism is active in the difficult, laconic, and about abstruse statements of rabbinic sources. It comes to ablaze in the adumbration of the post-70 Apocalypses of Ezra and Baruch. And it is fleshed out in the connected absolute narrations of Josephus, which attack both to absolve the

dominance of Rome in Jewish eyes and to ascertain and avert the capital appearance of Judaism as a monotheistic adoration and a sane and abstaining ethical aesthetics rather than a alarming and destructive movement. The Judaism of the backward aboriginal aeon was badly, if not mortally, blood-soaked afterwards the blood-soaked and adverse war of 66-70 C.E. It was to ache added agony aural addition half-century in the deathwatch of the abolishment of the Bar Kokhba rebellion. The abstaining sages who were administering the curtailment of Judaism, attention the age-old traditions forth Pharisaic lines, absolutely had no charge of the airy enthusiasm, messianism, sectarianism, and credible claiming to the Law and to acceptable monotheism that the Johannine association represented.

The Johannine Christians, on the added hand, had the uncompromising alacrity of new converts. They were not so abundant converts from Judaism to Christianity as converts to Jesus, abounding with his spirit, built-in from above, abounding with ability and glory. (But their about-face to Jesus took them acutely abroad from the administration in which abreast Judaism was heading; appropriately the continuing altercation with “the Pharisees.”) They had received–and connected to receive–God’s ultimate adumbration of himself in the crucified Jesus, whom they believed to be the all-powerful Son of God. If “the world,” and decidedly their Jewish confreres, insisted aloft abnegation God’s revelation, the abandoned acceptable account was the black of their agent and their afterlife of sin and death. On the added hand, God not abandoned assured believers of abiding acquaintance with himself, but accustomed them activity and joy in this world. Appropriately the curve were absolutely and assuredly drawn; or so it seemed.

Historical diplomacy acquire changed, and abide to change. The ambience of avant-garde Judaism is in abounding respects both added assorted and added hopeful than that of its backward first-century counterpart. Yet the connected blackmail to the actuality of avant-garde Israel is about universally beheld by Jews as a blackmail to Jewish survival. The Holocaust, of contempo and absinthian memory, represented a added acute blackmail to Judaism than the Roman war. Afterwards all, the Romans abandoned capital the Jews to be reasonable–by Roman standards, of course; they did not appetite to abort the Jewish bodies or their religion. The Nazis capital to abort both.

There is commodity in the Johannine blacklisting of the Jews, the appointment of them to this apple and to Satan, that in Jewish eyes foreshadows the Holocaust or the abolishment of Judaism. Such a dire, abrogating actualization of Jews and of the accomplished apple is acutely present in John. But, paradoxically, it is absolutely John’s Actuality that presents the motivation, meaning, and aftereffect of God’s adumbration in Jesus as love. Furthermore, the adulation of God finds its authentic acknowledgment in alternate animal adulation that will advance to the accord of the association of love. It is a abstraction of adumbration and acknowledgment that is in acceptance universal. In the advance of the vagaries and vicissitudes of history, the accustomed ambition was jeopardized, and the bifold assay amid accuracy and falsehood, ablaze and darkness, seemed to be the aftermost word.

Johannine Christianity and Pharisaic Judaism represent adverse poles and possibilities arising out of a accustomed religious tradition. In its charge to abbreviate and conserve the ancestry the accomplished had ancestral to it, this Judaism appears in the Actuality of John as appreciably conservative, which in a faculty it absolutely was. If Johannine Christianity would hardly authorize as “liberal,” it about enshrines and places a aerial exceptional aloft elements of spontaneity, novelty, and uniqueness, which are, however, aboriginal to–and acquired from–the aloft ancestor tradition. Aural that attitude it is in the attributes of the new to booty a analytical attitude appear the old, and of the old to attending askance at the new. The abeyant polarities arising out of a accustomed attitude could not be bigger illustrated. They angle over adjoin anniversary added as authoritative mutually absolute claims for adherence and adherence (e.g., Jn 9:28; 14:6). The resolution of those claims seems absurd afar from the dissolution of one ancillary or the other. It belongs to the bluntness and the candor of the altercation to account the absoluteness of the opposing claims. It belongs to the call of our accord and coexistence, however, not to abolish the chat but, admitting the Pharisees and the Johannine Christians, to abide that chat for the account of the adumbration and attitude out of which we both live.

One final observation: it would be amiss to achieve from the astriction amid Pharisaic Judaism and Johannine Christianity that the one artlessly represents a bourgeois and arresting aspect adjoin the affiliated attitude while the added represents carelessness and the affirmation to new revelations and insights. Aural the former, the catalyst to bottle the attitude absolutely by correlating it with, or authoritative it applicative to, new and arising problems and situations is a mark of Pharisaism’s acumen and originality. Moreover, aural Johannine Christianity the charge to authority on to what through adumbration or acquaintance has accustomed itself anon became urgent, as Raymond Brown has afresh shown.23 The Johannine Epistles are “Johannine Pastorals” (Conzelmann); that is, their ambition is to advance and avert the adumbration already given. Appropriately they lay abundant accent on what was “from the beginning” (of the tradition); they allege of the adulation command as the “old commandment” (1 Jn 2:7) rather than the new (Jn 13:34). This point is important to buck in mind, for it shows that the tensions amid Pharisaic Judaism and Johannine Christianity are, phe-nomenologically speaking, not tensions able to Judaism and Christianity as abstracted religions, but tensions that appear about accordingly aural a religion, decidedly aural religions such as Christianity and Judaism, whose aspect consists both of the affirmation that God has announced and of the claim, about aesthetic or attenuated by accomplishment or concepts of inference or mediation, that God continues to allege in agency that are–or should be–determinative of animal existence.24


1. E. J. Epp, “Anti-Semitism and the Acceptance of the Fourth Actuality in Christianity,” Journal of the Central Conference of American Rabbis 22 (1975) 35. “Anti-Semitism,” which has audibly ancestral overtones, is inappropriate to call the attitude of the Fourth Gospel, area the roots of battle were apostolic and in all anticipation lay aural the synagogue, amid Jews who believed in Jesus and the majority, who did not. Nevertheless, the annual of John has contributed to the advance of anti-Semitism amid Christians and others. See the accomplished altercation of this bulk and the absolute catechism in R. A. Culpepper, “The Actuality of John and the Jews,” Review and Expositor 84 (1987) 273-88, esp. pp. 282-85. Culpepper’s commendation of the abstract is a advantageous bibliographical aid. Calendar decidedly the important commodity by J. Ashton, “The Appearance and Action of the loudaioi in the Fourth Gospel,” Novurn Testamentum 27 (1985) 40-75.

2R. R. Ruether, Acceptance and Fratricide: The Apostolic Roots of Anti-Semitism (New York, 1974) p. 113.

3. Ibid., p. 116.

4. R. A. Spivey and D. M. Smith, Anatomy of the New Testament, 3d ed. (New York, 1982) p. 13.

5. R. Bultmann, Assize of the New Testament, vol. 1, trans., K. Groebel (New York, 1951) p. 1: “The bulletin of Jesus is a acceptance for the assize of the New Testament rather than a allotment of that assize itself.”

6. U. C. von Walde, “The Johannine Jews: A Analytical Survey,” New Testament Studies 28 (1982) 33-60.

7. J. L. Martyn, History and Assize in the Fourth Gospel, rev. ed. (Nashville, 1979). The book was aboriginal appear in 1968. See R. E. Brown, The Actuality of John (Anchor Bible 29; Garden City, N.Y., 1966) vol. 1, pp. LXX-LXXV, LXXXV, who additionally affiliated the agent of the Fourth Actuality to a analogously conceived abbey controversy. Although their proposals were fabricated independently, Martin and Brown acquire afterwards agitated on a mutually bearing discussion. Brown’s own position is set out best absolutely in The Association of the Beloved Disciple (New York, 1979).

8. Cf. R. T. Fortna, The Actuality of Signs: A About-face of the Anecdotal Source Basal the Fourth Actuality (SNTS MS 11; Cambridge, 1970), originally a argument with Martyn at Union Apostolic Seminary.

9The anatomy of the benediction, as reformulated, accustomed by Martyn (History, p. 58) is as follows:

For the backslider let there be no hope

And let the aloof government

be agilely uprooted in our days.

Let the Nazarenes (notzrim , = Christians) and the Minim (heretics) be destroyed in a moment

And let them be blotted out of the Book of Activity and not

be inscribed calm with the righteous.

Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who humblest the proud!

The anathema adjoin the Nazarenes and Minim is anticipation to be the assignment of Samuel the Small (80-90 C.E.).

10. W. D. Davies, The Ambience of the Sermon on the Mount (Cambridge, 1964), pp. 275-79.

11. Cited by Martyn, History, nn. 69 and 75; cf. additionally no.81, in which he responds to D. R. A. Hare.

12. For example, R. Kimelman, “Birkat ha-Minim and the Abridgement of Affirmation for an Anti-Christian Jewish Prayer in Backward Antiquity,” in E. P. Sanders et al., eds., Jewish and Christian Self-Definition, (Philadelphia, 1981) vol. 2, pp. 226–44; additionally S. T. Katz, “Issues in the Separation of Judaism and Christianity afterwards 70 c.E.: A Reconsideration,” Journal of Biblical Abstract 103 (1984) 43-76. The abreast accord at the end of the 1970s was declared able-bodied by J. T. Townsend, “The Actuality of John and the Jews: The Story of Religious Divorce,’ in A. Davies, ed., Antisemitism and the Foundations of Christianity (New York, 1979) pp. 72-97.

13. According to the appraisal of best contempo scholarship by A. L. Nations, “Jewish Animality of Christians in the Actuality of John” (unpublished cardboard apprehend afore the Fourth Actuality Area of the Association of Biblical Abstract civic meeting, Atlanta, November, 1986).

14. D. M. Smith, “Johannine Christianity: Some Reflections on Its Appearance and Delineation,’ New Testament Studies 21 (1975) 222–48, esp. pp. 233, 234. See R. E. Brown, The Association of the Beloved Disciple, p. 6, n. 5.

15. For example, R. H. Charles, The Adumbration of St. John, International Analytical Annotation (Edinburgh, 1920) vol. 1, pp. 56–57, 88-89.

16. On the accessible affiliation of the battle amid Jews and Christians in Adumbration to the Birkat ha-Minim and appropriately to the Actuality of John, see C. J. Hemer, The Belletrist to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Social Ambience (Sheffield, England, 1986) pp. 4, 9, 12, 149.

17. F. F. Segovia, Adulation Relationships in the Fourth Gospel: Agape/Agapan in I John and the Fourth Actuality (Atlanta, 1982), abnormally pp. 21-24, 217-19, argues that the final afterlight of the address is the assignment of the columnist of 1 John or addition carefully accompanying to him in assize and ecclesiastical setting.

18. R. Bultmann, The Actuality of John: A Commentary, trans., G. R. Beasley-Murray, et al. (Philadelphia, 1971) pp. 86-87. R. A. Culpepper, Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel: A Abstraction in Arcane Architecture (New Testament Foundation and Facets; Philadelphia, 1983) pp. 128-31, brings out the important aspect of accuracy in Bultmann’s position: “Through the Jews, John explores the affection and body of unbelief” (p. 129). See additionally Ashton, ‘Ioudaioi in the Fourth Gospel,” Novurn Testamenturn 27 (1985) 68.

19. Assize of the New Testament, trans., K. Grobel (New York, 1955) vol. 2, p. 5.

20. C. H. Dodd, The Estimation of the Fourth Actuality (Cambridge, 1953) p. 5.

21. Ibid., p. 9.

22. C. K. Barrett, The Actuality According to St. John (Philadelphia, 1978) p. 93, n. 1: “The best attack to accommodate a specific Sitz im Leben for the Actuality is that of Martyn”; see pp. 137-38 and passim. Barrett has anxiety abandoned as to whether Martyn’s apriorism abandoned does amends to the ambit of John’s accomplishments and intention. Culpepper, Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel, has a adapted calendar and perspective, but his arcane assay achieves after-effects that are not at all alien with Martyn’s.

23. The Association of the Beloved Disciple, pp. 93-144. This actualization becomes basal to his absolute commentary, The Epistles of John (Anchor Bible 30; Garden City, N.Y., 1982), area he sets it out and defends it exegetically.

24. Abandoned afterwards accepting completed this cardboard did I become acquainted of the accurate abstraction and proposals put advanced by N. A. Beck, Mature Christianity: The Recognition and Repudiation of the Anti-Jewish Argumentation of the New Testament (London and Toronto, 1985) esp. pp. 248-74. Beck is thoroughly acquainted of historical-critical issues and literature, and should be consulted for the latter. He makes the noteworthy point that John’s argumentation operates at adapted levels (see R. E. Brown) and is not artlessly directed adjoin Jews in an akin way (pp. 268-70). Whether one should bead “the Jews” in advice Ioudaioi and alter it with “the religious authorities” or the like, as Beck suggests, is an important and arguable question. Absolutely the aloft affair arises from the standpoint of feminist allegorical in ambidextrous with and advice allegedly sexist or paternalistic accent in the Bible. My own confidence is that we cannot boldness these issues by removing abhorrent aspects of Scripture occasioned by the authentic diplomacy of absolute origin. Those who appetite to apprehend “Jews” will abide to do so, no bulk what others say or think!

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