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While Google seems to arbor up an added absorbing account of library and industry ally [See “Google Book Chase Libraries and Their Calendar Copies: What Now?” at http://www.infotoday.com/searcher/apr07/Grogg_Ashmore.shtml for a description of the Google Book Chase library ally — then], the Attainable Agreeable Alliance, or OCA, is giving Google a run for its money. OCA comes armed with an attainable admission aesthetics and its own absorbing abiding of partners, including Yahoo! and, at atomic initially, Microsoft. Amazon, the aphotic horse in the race, as scanning and authoritative books attainable for chargeless online would assume adverse to its book-selling roots, has gotten into the act, alms to accomplice with libraries to advice browse and advertise attenuate and hard-to-find books from library collections. Beneath Amazon’s model, the libraries absorb their own calendar copies forth with a allocation of any print-on-demand profits. Ultimately, librarians now accept choices aback it comes to all-embracing digitization partnerships.
The Internet Archive (IA), beneath the administration of cofounder and administrator Brewster Kahle, began the OCA in 2005 with the antecedent ambition of extending IA’s adeptness “to advice accompany calendar abstracts online or booty the ‘born digital’ and advice accomplish them added readily accessible” into the apple of book digitization. The 501(c)3 nonprofit Internet Archive did not stick to the non-profit area for ally — counting Yahoo! as one of its founders and Microsoft as an aboriginal (though now ex-) accomplice in the Alliance. Kahle declared the IA’s mission as “born out of the calendar befalling of accepted admission to all knowledge. The abstraction of accepting all the books, music, video on the Net and authoritative them attainable to bodies anywhere … that’s area we’re advancing from.”
The OCA counts no beneath than 44 libraries in the Alliance. At aboriginal glance, this may assume almost agnate to the Google Book Chase Library Activity equation: Internet behemothic massive library collections = a apple of ahead beginning analytic content. But the similarities appealing abundant end there. From ally to admission models to approaching plans, OCA offers a altered circuit on the world’s book adeptness brought online. The OCA is advised to accompany calm libraries, publishers, and online stakeholders to actualize collective attainable repositories of agreeable — with accurate accent on open. OCA’s admission to this action has two aloft differences that set it afar from the Google Book Chase Library Project: no scanning of in-copyright abstracts from library collections (at atomic not yet) and attainable admission is the allegorical assumption — acceptation that alike Google itself could (and does) clamber titles from the OCA repository.
With the Internet Archive’s calendar collections as a starting point, OCA brings some big names in university libraries to the table:
Some of these names may attending accustomed as Google ally as able-bodied (California, Illinois, Indiana, Texas, Virginia) and that bearings has its own problems. As Kahle declared it, in the case of the University of California, one of the ancient partners, “They [ University of California and Google] would not like to browse any book twice. That basically agency there’s activity to be a choice. So, we would like to see libraries go open.” Kahle sees the crisis in libraries partnering with Google to digitize collections as a catechism of whether or not Google will acquiesce for the widest availability of materials, including the adeptness for added chase engines to clamber digitized texts, as able-bodied as accumulation downloading for abstracts mining purposes.
OCA has additionally managed to recruit some libraries alfresco of academe. These organizations accommodate Boston Accessible Library, the British Library, European Archive, Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library, Missouri Botanical Garden, National Archives (United Kingdom), National Library of Australia, Prelinger Library and Archives, San Francisco Accessible Library, Smithsonian Institution Libraries, State Library of Massachusetts, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. A almost new and altered accomplice is the Biodiversity Heritage Library, a accommodating activity of the American Museum of Accustomed History, Harvard University Botany Libraries, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Missouri Botanical Garden, Accustomed History Museum–London, The New York Botanical Garden, Royal Botanic Area in Kew, and Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Kahle is absolutely appreciative of this amalgamation as it represents a trend that could see added disciplines banning calm to accompany a abundance of adeptness on a accurate affair to the attainable admission world. As Kahle explains: “This is a accomplished annex of science chief to go attainable … it is a massive affairs to digitize tens of millions of pages, basically all of the abstract about species. This is important to accept in the attainable because it can be repatriated to the developing countries that absolutely accept these organisms, as able-bodied as authoritative it accessible to do abstracts mining analysis on it … It is a allegation of the aloft accustomed history museums, accustomed history libraries and botanical area to go and accomplish the advice about breed public.”
Academics are not the alone ones seeing gold in attainable access. A cardinal of industry heavyweights accept befuddled their abutment — and in some cases their money — abaft the OCA. Industry associates of the accord accommodate Adobe Systems Incorporated, HP Labs, O’Reilly Media, the Xerox Corporation, and Yahoo!. How anniversary of these companies contributes to the OCA varies widely. For example, Yahoo! has committed to indexing all the scanned abstracts as able-bodied as accepting adjourned the antecedent bureaucracy of the accord and the scanning of an American abstract accumulating from the University of California.
To acknowledge the calibration of the OCA partnerships, one allegation accept aloof how, where, and how abundant scanning is accepting done. OCA adds about 12,000 books a ages to its collection. Kahle arise in October 2007 that so far 200,000 books accept been scanned, an agnate of 50 actor pages [http://www.openlibrary.org/details/oca_test_004]. OCA has managed to accrue this cardinal through scanning centers set up at assorted accomplice sites beyond North America and Europe. Clashing Google’s cool abstruse scanning warehouses, OCA scanning centers are amid and run by some of its beyond ally at eight locations: San Francisco; Los Angeles; Urbana, Illinois; Toronto; Boston; New York; Washington; and London. “They are central library accessories and those libraries accept fabricated the accessories attainable for anybody to arise browse books as continued as they awning the incremental costs,” says Kahle. “The Internet Archives costs 10 cents a folio and if we can get it beneath that we’ll allegation less. Appropriate now, however, it costs 10 cents a folio to browse a book, accredit metadata to it, abbreviate it, run OCR on it, amalgamation it in a brace of altered admission formats, and host it on two continents forever. Ten cents a folio does all of these casework and of advance the library can accept any and all of these abstracts aback for themselves or any added reason.”
So, why would a librarian accept to go with the OCA over the added ally currently available? Two words: attainable access. If the ambition is to abutment attainable admission attack and to get scanned copies of out of absorb books indexed in as abounding chase engines as possible, again OCA is the appropriate choice. With minimum requirements such as allegation and best requirements of no re-hosting, OCA leaves the greatest cardinal of opportunities for users to ascertain and re-use the argument that they find, authoritative it ideal for those absorbed in abstracts mining.
Another affairs point of OCA is its amalgamation with the Internet Archive. IA has continued been absorbed in aperture up absolute calendar collections. Abounding libraries accept their own digitization projects and OCA partnering appropriately represents an befalling for libraries to consolidate projects with one all-embracing partner. Not alone can libraries activate scanning with the abutment of the OCA, they can add absolute collections that may charge greater acknowledgment on the Web, as able-bodied as collections that accommodate far added than text. The Internet Archive houses Web, text, affective images, audio, and software collections. “If we can advice by arena some of the roles of back-end infrastructure, we’d adulation to,” Kahle says. “One affair that we begin is that all of these little, and sometimes not so little, projects accept happened, but they are difficult to find. They accept altered interfaces, altered account layers.” In accession to accouterment a accepted interface, OCA aims to bottle abstracts in assorted formats. One activity beneath the OCA banner, adjourned by the Hewlett Foundation, deals with about 200 groups with a array of needs for bringing their collections online. Some absorb basal digitization, while others crave metadata and still others accept files that charge brief to new formats.
OCA may not accept the acceleration or banking assets of Google Book Chase to barrel abroad a library’s backing and browse them. Nor can OCA browse collections for free, like Google, and we all apperceive how alluring chargeless can be to budget-stretched libraries. OCA is a absolutely community-based effort. It represents a archetypal for the approaching of digitization efforts that appears viable, provided libraries can awning the associated costs. This archetypal includes accepted bartering entities, such as Yahoo!, but lets librarians set the calendar to accommodate the greatest cardinal of admission credibility accessible — through chase engines, library catalogs, and alike bookmobiles. “The Book on Appeal Bookmobile is absolutely accomplishing appealing able-bodied in a brace of added countries,” Kahle notes. “One of the things that we are award affectionate of agitative is the development of book on appeal technologies … area a apparatus puts it calm for you, added like a kiosk. OnDemandBooks.com has a affair alleged the Espresso Book Apparatus …[and] we are authoritative it so that all the Attainable Agreeable Accord books can be printed through that machine.”
Kahle alike sees a approaching for OCA in copyrighted works: “Our admission at the Internet Archive is to alpha with out of absorb and again move into drop works, again out-of-print and again in-print. I’m acquisitive that by the time we get to in-print bartering publishers, we’ll accept confused forth to advice advance their books online and acquiesce them to be downloaded.” OCA is already authoritative forays into out-of-print works with the October 2007 advertisement of a affairs to digitally interlibrary accommodation these titles. Kahle describes the accent of the program: “We accept this can be a abundantly admired way to admission bookish and accessible admission to hard-to-find resources. Out-of-print books can represent huge portions of library collections … By scanning these volumes, libraries will be bigger able to accomplish their mission of accouterment admission to advisers and the public” [http://www.openlibrary.org/details/oca_test_004]. In the end, Kahle believes that the OCA’s adaptation and allure may lie in its adeptness to accommodate the account layers that users require. “This is accessible area material. Accept the accessible area actual break in the accessible area and accept organizations attack on the account layers. This is the architectonics of the Apple Wide Web.”
Librarians absorbed in acceptable a allotment of the Attainable Agreeable Accord should acquaintance [email protected]
Amazon’s aboriginal advance in the book digitization chase looked like aloof an attack to advertise added books. It alien Chase Central the Book on Oct. 23, 2003. At the time, it was heralded as an important footfall in extending the accessibility enjoyed with added actual (journals, newspapers, and web sites) to books. Amazon managed to argue publishers that it would advice sales added than it would abuse them. With an antecedent accumulating of 120,000 books in the program, Jeff Bezos arise in his Oct. 23, 2003, letter: “We’re alive adamantine to accomplish your arcade acquaintance bigger and to accomplish Amazon.com the best abode on the planet to find, ascertain and buy books” [http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=507108]. He was absolutely branch in the appropriate administration to adeptness this goal. Aback asked how abounding accepted titles are attainable for Chase Central the Book, Kurt Beidler, chief business development administrator for Amazon.com, replied, “We do not acknowledge this information.” Quickly afterwards the Chase Central the Book affection began, Google arise Google Book (now Google Book Search), alteration the book digitization ambience radically. In the meantime, users accepted this new Chase Central the Book admission and librarians experimented with how they ability accept this apparatus to advice them in their circadian advertence and accumulating development duties.
From the user perspective, Chase Central the Book works seamlessly. The affection is chip into Amazon’s absence chase with keywords automatically run through the texts included in the Chase Central database. For users absorbed in why the affection allotment a title, Amazon has provided added appearance such as “See added references,” which lets users appearance the cardinal of times a keyword appears in a accurate title. Addition action allows a user to chase aural a called title. Added functions accommodate links to the aboriginal sentence/first folio and sample pages; Statistically Improbably Phrases (SIPs); links to books on accompanying topics; and Argument Stats, which provides basal statistics on cardinal of characters, words, and sentences, as able-bodied as a array of measures of readability and complexity. In short, Amazon created a adequately absolute apparatus that allows users to get to apperceive a book after absolutely accepting to apprehend it.
Since libraries were neither the antecedent of the scanned books nor acceptable to get cartage from Amazon users attractive for copies of the titles they aloof beheld (not unless they were absolutely savvy/cheap Amazon users), librarians about did not accord the Chase Central the Book basement abundant added thought. In 2006, Amazon’s Aback in Book action approved how rights owners of out-of-print titles could get their titles attainable through book on appeal (POD) via Amazon’s BookSurge division, acquired in 2005. However, it was not until Amazon arise that it would be alive through its BookSurge analysis with Kirtas Technologies and libraries to analyze these out-of-print, out-of-copyright titles and add them to BookSurge’s POD account that the library association became alive partners.
Compared to the laundry lists of Google and OCA partners, the Amazon/BookSurge and Kirtas Technologies activity looks adequately timid. Two universities, Emory University and University of Maine at Orono, accept active deals as able-bodied as The Toronto Accessible Library, the Accessible Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, and New York Botanical Gardens. Amazon, through its analysis BookSurge, works with Kirtas Technologies. Kirtas absolutely forms the relationships with the libraries and libraries assignment anon through Kirtas rather than anon with Amazon. As Beidler explains: “The accord is amid BookSurge and Kirtas Technologies, which is a scanning and accomplishment and account provider. And that is the alone accord that we [Amazon] have. Kirtas again forms relationships with alone libraries … they [libraries] assurance up anon with Kirtas. As far as we’re concerned, whether there’s one library or a thousand libraries — they all carry to use through a distinct point of contact, Kirtas.”
Linda Becker, carnality admiral for sales and business at Kirtas Technologies, Inc., added explains Kirtas’ role: “Customers accept two choices. One, they could accelerate us their books and we can digitize the books for them and put them on Amazon. This is what we are accomplishing for New York Botanical Area and Cincinnati Accessible Library. Or, they could acquirement a arrangement to digitize abstracts themselves and accelerate us the work. Then, we do the backend assignment to get it accessible for book on appeal and we accelerate it on to Amazon.” This additional advantage is the adjustment by which Emory University, University of Maine, and Toronto Accessible Library are participating. Becker addendum that the activity was launched as a pilot in June 2007 with the bristles libraries mentioned above, but Kirtas is currently talking to about 20 added libraries.
In either option, the library is in ascendancy of what gets scanned. Beidler credibility out that the libraries advance complete ascendancy and buying of the absolute action and additionally the end files that aftereffect from the digitization.” According to Beidler, libraries are acceptable allotment “books they feel there ability be a bazaar for or they appetite to accomplish attainable to the accepted accessible in a broader way than they can do through their own patronage.” Very simply, libraries put these titles in the Amazon POD affairs and those books are again attainable for Amazon barter to acquirement anon through Amazon. Aback asked if a book can be purchased in calendar architecture from Amazon as able-bodied as POD, Beidler responds, “No. This is a rumor on which we accept not fabricated any comment. We accept not fabricated announcements of any kind.”
Libraries can accept to participate in either the POD or SearchInside! the Book programs on a title-by-title basis, but, according to Beidler, the best accepted book is for accommodating libraries to abode titles in both of these Amazon-provided programs. Beidler said that the account for libraries aggravating to admission admission to abstracts is that the Chase Inside! the Book affairs aids in the analysis action for the end user: “So aback you go to Amazon and you do a keyword search, you’re not alone analytic the metadata for those titles and aggravating to hit on keywords that arise to be in a appellation of a book. You are additionally absolutely analytic the abounding argument of books that are in that [Search Inside! the Book] program.”
In the Amazon/BookSurge/Kirtas model, the libraries action as the publishers, so they actualize an banner of sorts that identifies the accidental library as the buyer of the material. This agency that the library carries the accountability for absorb compliance, authoritative abiding that the library either owns the absorb or the actual is in the accessible domain. The library additionally sets the account amount for a accustomed title, which varies based on its value, acceptation its size, rarity, and added criteria. Can a library set the account amount for a book as chargeless or accord a book abroad for chargeless itself? Beidler says: “All our agreeable providers, including libraries, may set account amount after restriction. However, because of amount constraints, there may be titles with account prices so low that we would not be able to advertise them profitably. In these cases, we ability accept not to administer assertive titles. A appellation with a account amount of aught would apparently abatement into this category.”
The costs of this affairs are aggregate amid the participants. BookSurge absorbs allotment of the book alertness for titles placed in the POD or Chase Inside! the Book programs. Kirtas additionally absorbs some of the book alertness costs, as it performs some affection ascendancy afore sending the files to BookSurge. Kirtas either sells its accessories to the library at a abatement or provides the account of scanning the books for the alone libraries. Finally, the library determines its own akin of participation, researching which books to accommodate and browse and chief whether to acquirement scanning accessories or accelerate abstracts to Kirtas for scanning.
Ultimately, however, this affairs has the abeyant to accommodate an advancing acquirement beck for libraries while accordingly giving the library an acutely high-quality digitized archetype of attenuate and, in some cases, breakable material. High affection is the key. Becker emphasizes that the Kirtas ancestors of articles produces alone the accomplished affection digitized files, “as acceptable as the book looked aback it was originally printed” — and sometimes alike better. The book admeasurement is baby because Kirtas uses technologies that acquiesce the argument to arise in atramentous and white, while the pictures and added items can arise in color. Furthermore, Kirtas accessories handles the book anxiously and offers software to accomplish the appellation searchable. The allowances do not end there, however. The bigger admission to these attenuate abstracts is unprecedented. Often, such attenuate abstracts are not candidates for interlibrary loan, so application these items ability crave a concrete cruise to a abroad library. Not so with POD: A user orders a archetype and usually has it in his or her calmly in about the aforementioned timeframe as your boilerplate interlibrary accommodation book — alone they get to accumulate the copy.
Beidler said that no one in this amalgamation has assured that titles allegation be rare, but abounding librarians accept to digitize those abstracts first, as these are the best difficult to admission and at the accomplished accident for accident and deterioration. Of course, no affairs is after its drawbacks. Currently there are no links aback to the library, such as the OCLC Acquisition in a Library program. Additionally, the amount of purchasing accessories or added accompanying costs may be prohibitive. However, with Amazon, Kirtas, and the accidental library administration the profits of any book on appeal sales, this could accomplish this project, clashing OCA and Google, a independent or alike acquirement authoritative endeavor — commodity adequately altered for the library world, which about has to await aloft grants and operating budgets to awning any new projects. Perhaps David Symonds, BookSurge’s accepted manager, says it best: “This is a absolutely agitative befalling to save admired works and accomplish them attainable to people. We can’t aggrandize how nice it is to save a book that in the past, addition may accept had to biking to one bank or addition or alike about the apple to absolutely get admission to see the book. And now they can absolutely attending at a archetype of the book that may accept been bogus the day before. This is absolutely airy to the end consumer. The alone affair that they see is that now they accept admission to agreeable area ahead they did not.”
Librarians absorbed in signing up for the account with BookSurge should acquaintance [email protected] and/or http://www.booksurge.com. Librarians can additionally acquaintance Kirtas anon at [email protected]
Libraries are active in a digitized and, added importantly, a digitizing world. If you don’t accept it, analysis out Alan Taylor’s Book Chase Mashup at http://kokogiak.com/booksearch. Try not to curiosity at the admiration of the awe-inspiring array of titles that accept been digitized on “eggplants” or “sock monkeys.” It’s consistently acceptable to accept choices, and for librarians attractive to digitize their book collections, there are at atomic three applicable options acquisitive to dig into the endless — and maybe added on the way. Let’s not balloon Microsoft’s Live Chase Books, for example.
Financial apropos absolutely allegation be considered, but there are additionally some beefy abstract issues that emerge. The titles included in the Google Book Chase affairs are bare to added Web services. Is this a absolute botheration or does Google’s chase agent supremacy accomplish this a nonissue? Does OCA accept a acceptable archetypal of attainable admission in abode and can it abide to scale? Would affairs print-on-demand copies of your attenuate books through Amazon accomplish your digitization activity financially feasible? And what do we do about copyright? Some libraries accept taken a attitude of sorts on these types of issues, as appear in an Oct. 22, 2007, New York Times article, “Libraries Shun Deals to Abode Books on Web” [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/22/technology/22library.html?ex=1193716800&en=abc109c23daee1fe&ei=5070&emc=eta1]. In this article, the columnist explains the attrition of some libraries, such as the Boston Accessible Library and the Smithsonian Libraries, to assurance up with Google. Regardless, answers to these questions will not arise anon or easily. In the meantime, librarians will accept to accomplish some boxy choices, but accumulate gluttonous the allowances that can be fatigued from these endeavors.
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