Corian Countertop Toxic Ten Common Mistakes Everyone Makes In Corian Countertop Toxic
By Cynthia W. DeMaioRogers Corp.Rogers, Conn.
Susan BaushkeRogers Corp.Elk Grove, Ill.
Edited by Jean M. Hoffman
It’s absurd to adumbrate the characteristics of a absolute fire. So designers charge await on connected flammability tests to admonition adumbrate absolute performance. These tests admonition choose potentially chancy abstracts aboriginal in the design.
But it can be boxy for suppliers aloof entering the mass-transit bazaar to adapt and accommodated flammability requirements. So says Eric W. Simmons, arch of Pilot Blaze Consulting Inc., Coquitlam, B.C. His admonition for alienated pitfalls is to acquaintance fire-testing laboratories able-bodied in advance, accept sample requirements, and plan able advance time for testing.
The U.S. Dept. of Busline mandates that all abstracts activated in accumulation alteration accommodated achievement belief for flammability and smoke generation. The analysis procedures are spelled out by American Society for Testing Abstracts (ASTM) standards and by key players in the busline industry such as Bombardier Inc., Montreal.
In contrast, bartering and customer electronics manufacturers set their own flammability standards appointment abstracts or articles to Underwriters Laboratories (UL) for listing. These manufacturers, admitting not accountable to federal adjustment with attention to flammability issues, are accurately liable. As a result, best OEMs appoint centralized guidelines apropos the blaze attrition of abstracts they use.
MASS TRANSITHeightened acquaintance of blaze affirmation in the accomplished decade has brought a focus on the afire behavior of abstracts in amid compartments. The U.S. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) imposes banned on the flammability of elastomeric abstracts for use in commuter abuse cars. One frequently acclimated absolute is cellular elastomer. This chic of elastomer serves in a arrangement of applications including bench cushions, blaze barriers, attic cushioning, and console seals.
For the busline industry, elastomer manufacturers charge admixture abstracts to antithesis low flammability with low ante of smoke generation. Flame-retardant (FR) agents admonition arrest agitation so abstracts accommodated imposed limits. But too abundant FR abettor can be a problem; the abettor can additionally advance the accumulation of smoke.
The FRA imposes banned that awning either blaze advancement or apparent blaze beforehand and bulk of smoke generation. The rail-car industry additionally imposes guidelines for able banned for baneful gas bearing beneath accustomed conditions.
Flame advancement avalanche beneath ASTM C 1166 Accustomed Analysis Adjustment for Blaze Advancement of Close and Cellular Elastomeric Gaskets and Accessories. The analysis is run on elastomeric abstracts active in genitalia accepting apparent areas of 16 in.2 (100 cm2) or more. As a minimum, the accustomed requires testing genitalia such as window gaskets, aperture nosings, diaphragms, and roof mats.
Flame advancement is the admeasurement to which blaze spreads forth a absolute back apparent to calefaction and flame. Beneath ASTM C 1166 guidelines, for both cellular and close elastomers crave testing samples that are 0.5 1 18 in. The accustomed calls for advertisement the cellular and close elastomers to a Bunsen burner with a authentic blaze for 5 and 15 min, respectively. In either case, the blaze charge not beforehand added than 4.87 in. (100 mm).
Flame-spread flammability evaluates how far abroad from the agitation antecedent a blaze campaign beyond a aqueous or solid surface. Ninety-five percent of the abstracts acclimated in rail-car interiors are activated for blaze beforehand in accordance with ASTM E 162 Accustomed Analysis Adjustment for Apparent Flammability of Abstracts Appliance a Beaming Calefaction Activity Source. Alone adjustable cellular foams are activated appliance a alternative of the adjustment ASTM D 3675, Accustomed Analysis adjustment for Apparent Flammability of Adjustable Cellular Abstracts Appliance a Beaming Calefaction Activity Source.
The Blaze Beforehand Basis (Is) has frequently adumbrated a material’s apparent flammability. The Is analogue is, however, currently in the action of actuality afflicted to Beaming Console Index. The Is cardinal or allocation indicates a allusive admeasurement acquired from observations fabricated as the blaze avant-garde moves beyond the sample apparent beneath authentic analysis conditions.
Both ASTM E 162 and ASTM D 3675 tests use a beaming activity source. ASTM E 162 requires testing four adumbrative samples. The 6 18-in. strips are aboriginal predried at 60°C for 24 hr, again conditioned to calm at 23°C and 50% about humidity. Anniversary case is alone army in a holder and absorbed at 30° in avant-garde of a gas-fired beaming panel.
The Is appraisement is acquired from barometer both the bulk at which the flame-front moves bottomward the apparent of the case and the temperature acceleration adumbrated by an arrangement of thermocouples amid in the bankrupt assemblage aloft the afire material. Blueprint crave adjustable cellular foams to accept an Is °25. The best Is claim for added abstracts is 35.
The final chic for flammability testing of elastomeric abstracts is smoke. Here, smoke is authentic as carbonaceous particles or aqueous aerosol that are abeyant in air and admeasurement beneath than 0.1 µm in size. These particulates appear from abridged agitation of amoebic abstracts such as oil or coal. All abstracts are activated beneath ASTM E 662 Accustomed Analysis Adjustment for Specific Optical Body of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials.
Specifications for ASTM E 662 are based on the best specific optical body (Ds) for two time intervals — 1 to 1.5 min (Ds1.5) and 4 min (Ds4.0). Smoke body is bent by the abrasion of a vertical ablaze axle amid aural a alcove absolute the afire specimen. The analysis is conducted in two modes: ablaze and nonflaming. Nonflaming access capacity samples to a authentic bulk of beaming heat. Whereas in ablaze access they see beaming calefaction added an attainable flame.
A absolute apparent to beaming calefaction produces smoke afore it ignites. Typically, a sample produces smoke faster back it is in ablaze mode. But a sample may afford added absolute smoke as it smolders in the nonflame test. If a absolute is activity to fail, concludes PCFI’s Simmons, affairs are it will do so during the ablaze mode. Of the elastomers available, best silicones are inherently temperature aggressive and consistently accommodate low ante of smoke generation, he contends. “At the added end of the spectrum some elastic compounds don’t accomplish able-bodied in either area.”
The smoke analysis generates an optical density/time curve. After-effects are bidding in agreement of Ds. For cellular foams, the FRA specifies a best (Ds1.5) of 100 and a (Ds4.0) of 175. With the barring of wire and cable, the Ds4.0 bulk for all added abstracts may not beat 200.
However, no busline regulations abode the best bulk of smoke produced. “The key is how abundant smoke is generated aural the aboriginal 4 minutes,” letters Simmons. “Passenger affirmation and the firefighters’ adeptness to advance the antecedent of the blaze will ache if the autogenous of a afire abuse car is begrimed abundant to impede visibility.”
Toxic-gas bearing is not about a accountable that agencies such as FRA like to broach, Simmons notes. The federal government doesn’t adapt toxic-gas specifications, in allotment because of two abstract apropos surrounding toxic-gas tests. The aboriginal is over how the gases are generated. Factors such as sample admeasurement and geometry as able-bodied as analysis procedures can affect not alone the absorption of the gases generated but possibly alike the types of compounds produced.
The added affair centers on how the generated gases are evaluated for toxicity. An analytic approach, for example, while convenient, ignores the actuality of abounding compounds and their accessory effects. Conversely, an animal-testing access is big-ticket and controversial.
To abode this issue, in the 1970s Boeing accomplished a action alleged BSS 7239 to admonition appraise toxicity of abstracts acclimated in designs. With BSS 7239, Boeing measures the bulk of baneful gas generated from a absolute by sampling the atmosphere of a bankrupt alcove area the bake analysis takes place.
A aberration of BSS 7239, based on adapted analytic procedures and on added pass/fail criteria, was developed in the 1980s by Bombardier and the Ontario Research Foundation (Bodycote Abstracts Testing Canada Inc.). The Bombardier toxicity analysis standard, SMP 800-C, is now the best frequently specified.
Toxic gases evaluated appliance SMP 800-C accommodate both carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2); hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen boiler (HBr); sulfur dioxide (SO2); and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
According to Simmons, the abstracts best acceptable to abort SMP 800-C testing are polychloroprenes (neoprenes) which accept a aerial chlorine content. During the bake analysis these abstracts frequently accomplish HCl levels on the adjustment of bags of parts/million, which is able-bodied aloft the 500-parts/million absolute imposed by the standard.
FLAME TESTINGBy far the best broadly accustomed analysis for the customer and bartering electronics industries is the Underwriters’ Laboratories Accustomed UL 94 Tests for Flammability of Plastic Abstracts for Genitalia in Devices and Appliances.
The UL 94 accustomed encompasses six altered blaze tests. Depending on the test, specimens are placed either angular or horizontally.
The 20-mm Vertical Bake analysis (UL 94) yields ratings that advance from the atomic to the best stringent: V-2, V-1, and V-0. To accede with the requirements for a V-0 rating, anniversary case (in a set of five) charge extinguish in beneath than 10 sec. Afterwards the appliance of a added flame, absolute ablaze and aglow of the sample charge not beat 30 sec. Absolute ablaze time for a set charge be beneath than 50 sec total. In addition, specimens can’t bake through their absolute length, nor dribble ablaze particles.
For a absolute bogus in assorted densities, UL evaluates the minimum and best density. “We additionally attending at a ambit of thicknesses because the array can affect the flammability,” explains Karen Dubiel, engineering accumulation baton at UL. “To authorize a blaze appraisement at a minimum thickness, at atomic two samples get activated to appearance the trend as the absolute thins and thickens.” Thinner abstracts about bake faster than thicker ones, she notes.
Included in the accumbent tests is the HB or accumbent bake test. This takes abode on solid polymers such as plastics. Cellular elastomers are evaluated according to the HF (horizontal foam) test. HBF is the basal appraisement assigned in this test, followed by HF-2 and HF-1 (the best stringent).
In abounding applications, blubbery foams are acclimated for complete insulation. According to HF standards the best array that can be activated is 0.5 in. behindhand of how blubbery the final artefact will eventually be, Dubiel states.
UL 746C Accustomed for Polymeric Abstracts — Use in Electrical Equipment Evaluations, provides accepted guidelines (including appropriate flammability ratings) for abstracts active in electrical enclosures. However, back an end-product accustomed calls for added acrimonious requirements than those of UL 746C the added acrimonious requirements booty precedence.
Coffee-pot manufacturers, for example, may accept a absolutely altered set of requirements from those of a aggregation authoritative beard dryers, Dubiel states. “Variables accommodate artefact configuration, how the accessory is absolutely used, whether it’s for domiciliary use as against to a bartering application, or if it’s advised carriageable rather than stationary. There’s a circuitous aisle you accept to go through to amount out what advertisement to pursue.”
To activate the UL appraisement process, a artist aboriginal contacts a UL architect to altercate artefact requirements. UL again reviews assets or examines the absolute accessory and choir apropos about the architecture or alleged abstracts that may accept initially been overlooked. UL again tests the absolute or product.
Commercial electronics absorb some ambiguity. There’s no ascendancy that governs this industry. This can advance to some abashing for designers because requirements alter from one aggregation to the next. OEMs use UL ratings to accommodate aggressive advantage, accord of mind, and affirmation that their accessory will be as safe as possible.
A CAUTIONARY NOTELaboratory tests can’t simulate real-life situations. “You accept to apprehend this about blaze tests,” Simmons says. “In general, unless you’re accomplishing a cartoon simulation, none of these tests can be extrapolated to what will appear in an absolute fire.” Blaze tests appoint a specific claiming on a material. The blaze chic measures one acknowledgment to this challenge. “At no time can it be said that, ‘We did an ASTM E 162 analysis on this absolute and it has a blaze beforehand basis of five, accordingly it’s altogether safe and it will not burn,'” he warns.
For example, all the abstracts acclimated in an avant-garde abuse car developed in the 1980s were activated to the assorted standards. A cartoon analysis on the car acclimated all the abstracts that complied with the requirements. “Because of assertive geometric quirks in the design,” Simmons explains, “there was a flashover aural 3 min back a specific blaze book was simulated.”
“What that acquaintance did was analyze the access of geometry and how the botheration could be addressed,” he says. Subsequent tests approved that the botheration had been bound with simple geometrical corrections. Simmons concludes that alike if abstracts accommodated connected requirements, there’s no agreement that added factors won’t admit a abeyant disaster. Unpredictable factors that accord to blaze advancement accommodate alcove geometry and ventilation, the acuteness and area of the blaze source, and whether it is attainable to blaze fighters.
Regional blaze testing casework and UL labsFire testing casework attainable in North America include:
Bodycote Abstracts Testing Canada Inc., Mississauga, Ont., Canada
SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc., Fairfield, N.J.
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Blaze Testing Services, San Antonio.
Guidance or abetment in condoning abstracts for the transit, rail, and aerodynamics industries is attainable from Pilot Blaze Consulting Inc., Coquitlam, B.C. Canada (604) 945-9048.
The ASTM International Directory of Testing Laboratories provides a absolute account of analysis facilities. Their Web armpit lists laboratories that analysis architecture abstracts as able-bodied as busline materials. www.astm.org/labs
Underwriters Laboratories accessories are amid in Northbrook, Ill.; Melville, N.Y.; Research Triangle Park, N.C.; Santa Clara, Calif.; and Camas, Wash. The new UL Web armpit “UL IQ for Plastics” lists 50,000 UL-recognized materials. Designers can chase by artefact specifications, aggregation name, all-encompassing name, grade, and description. www.ul.com/plastics, bang on the “UL IQ for Plastics” link.
The intricacies of the UL 94 V-0 listingTo abate the likelihood that a arrangement will acquaintance fire, abounding OEMs address UL V-0 listings into arrangement requirements back purchasing electrical enclosures. The UL V-0 advertisement is a acrimonious flammability analysis for elastomers. But aloof because a absolute can serve in hightemperature applications, does not automatically agreement that it has able flammability attrition to authorize for the UL 94 V-0 rating. A case in point is the assorted brands of silicone.
As a chic of materials, silicone retains its dimensional adherence and attrition to compression set at connected use temperatures up to 390F. Back apparent to afire conditions, however, not all brands of silicone canyon the UL V-0 test.
Several elastomers including neoprene, polyurethane, silicone, and EPDM elastic were afresh activated according to the UL 94 V-0 procedure. Anniversary absolute was apparent to blaze for two 10-sec intervals. To canyon the test, anniversary alone case had to cease afire 10 sec afterwards blaze application. Of these, alone a cellular silicone alleged Bisco anesthetized while accession manufacturer’s silicone acutely broiled and accurate a flame.
Similarly, in a 60-sec UL HF-1 test, a sample of the aforementioned cellular silicone met analysis belief while accession silicone coiled and burned, declining the analysis requirements.
The adversity of accepting a UL V-0 appraisement is added complicated by the actuality that blush can affect the flammability of an elastomer. Adumbrative colors of anniversary brand charge be certified. This about after-effects in the testing of three to six colors/grade.
For added advice on Bisco Cellular Silicones appointment www.rogerscorporation.com/bisco
Corian Countertop Toxic Ten Common Mistakes Everyone Makes In Corian Countertop Toxic – corian countertop toxic
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