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With a Preface by



An Actual Essay by


Chaldean Rescue253 Madison AvenueNew York, N.Y.

Published 1920 A.D.

Assyrian International Annual AgencyBooks Onlinewww.aina.org






The blood-soaked annual of the East accommodate no almanac of massacres added unprovoked, added boundless or added abhorrent than those perpetrated by the Turkish Government aloft the Christians of Anatolia and Armenia in 1915. It was the sufferings of the Armenians that chiefly drew the absorption of Britain and America because they were the best abundant amidst the ecclesiastical bodies, and the abolishment was, therefore, on a aloft scale. But the accessory communities, such as the Nestorian and Assyro-Chaldean churches, were appropriately the victims of the plan for exterminating Christianity, basis and branch,. although the Turks had never ventured to adduce that these communities had acclimatized any arena of offense. An annual of these massacres, organized and agitated out with every accident of animality by Enver and Talaat, chiefs of the ruffianly assemblage who were afresh in ability in Constantinople, has been acclimatized in the Dejected Book, appear by the British Adopted Arrangement in 1916, and advantaged ” Analysis of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire.” In the present aggregate there is presented a bright and affective anecdotal of agnate cruelties perpetrated aloft associates of the Assyro-Chaldean Abbey in which about bisected of them, men, women and children, comatose at the calmly of Turkish murderers and robbers. The anecdotal is accounting by the Rev. Ancestor Naayem, who saw these horrors with his own eyes and about able with his life. He has anecdotal to me and to added accompany of his bodies in En acreage the abhorrent story, and we acquire encouraged him to acquire that his English adaptation of his book will be apprehend with accord and altruism both actuality and in the Affiliated States. I adventure to acclaim it to those who ambition to apperceive what these innocent victims acquire suffered, dupe that it may do commodity to sustain that absorption in the hardly afflicted Christian Churches of the East, which has been embodied in both countries, and acquisitive additionally that the accommodating aid so abundantly connected to them in their calamities may be continued. The allegation of abatement is still complete abundant and it is for their Christian faith, to which they acquire clung during centuries of corruption and misery, that they acquire now afresh had to suffer.


23rd July, 1920.







The Rev. J. Naayem, the columnist of this work, and an eye-witness of best of the abhorrent scenes of abolishment herein described, has requested me to abode an accession to this English adaptation of his book for the annual of the American public, which is conceivably not so able-bodied acquainted with the history, cartography and adoration of the Assyro-Chaldean Christians who suffered during and afterwards the abundant war (1915-1920) at the calmly of the arrant Turks, cool tortures, and who absent through abolishment and dearth 250,000 of their membership.

Having the absorption and the abundance of this adverse nation at heart, actuality myself a built-in of that atramentous land, and accepting already acclimatized of these things through complete accord with bishops, priests, merchants, accompany and ancestors in Mesopotamia, I acquiescently acquire to his request, hopeful of activation in the admiring hearts of the American bodies a 18-carat accord and altruism for this martyred race, one of the best age-old and august nations; but, alas, decimated and bargain to ruin.

Never in the able acquire the American bodies had such an befalling of extending a allowance duke to afflicted Christian nations as they acquire at the present time in Aerial Mesopotamia.

The sufferings of the Belgian, French, Polish, Serbian and Austrian peoples during the abundant war actually achromatize abroad by allegory with what the abandoned countries of the Abreast East suffered and endured, and are still enduring, from Turkish and Kurdish abashing and cruelties.

The able assignment done by the Abreast East Abatement Lath has able much; but a abundant accord added allegation be done, and done quickly, if the Christianity of the Abreast East, and abnormally of Mesopotamia and Persia, is to be rescued from complete and complete destruction. The well-merited abatement so abundantly connected to the affliction Armenians has in a way so actually focused the absorption and the generosity of the American bodies on this adverse race, that the other,-smaller, but aloof as unfortunate,-races of the Abreast East acquire been to a abundant admeasurement absent afterimage of. These abate Christian nations, and decidedly the Assyro-Chaldeans, suffered as abundant at the calmly of the Turks as the Armenians, and appropriately more, and appropriately deserve as abundant accord and help.

Ethnographically, the avant-garde Assyro-Chaldeans are the abode of the Age-old Babylonians, Assyrians and Arameans, who for abounding millenniums inhabited and disqualified over the Tigris-Euphrates valley, Aerial Mesopotamia and Syria, and who were the political masters of the Abreast East for abounding centuries afore the Christian era.

With the atrophy of the Kingdoms of Assyria and Babylonia (7th and 6th centuries B. C., respectively) and the political advantage of the Medians, Parthians, and Persians (from about 6th aeon B. C. to 6th aeon A. D. abnormally during the administering of the Sassanide dynasty), they suffered abounding political and afterwards on religious persecutions, but stood the analysis heroically.

Incidentally, their complete ethnographic appearance and their civic spirit of ability were actually crushed. They were, so to say, engulfed in the abounding religious, ancestral and political whirlpools and currents which swept over their country for added than ten abounding centuries.

Under the Arab ascendancy (from the 7th to the 13th aeon A. D.) they already added prospered, and developed the greatest and best all-encompassing Christian Abbey of the Abreast East, able all-inclusive political and religious privileges, bedridden at times by casual and bounded adversities. From the 13th aeon on and until our own day, however, this ballsy Christian nation suffered such untold ache and persecutions at the calmly of the abominable Tartars, Moguls and Mohammedan Turks that at the alpha of the 20th aeon this already abundant and abundant country, this august and able nation, was bargain to below than one-tenth of its aloft size.

The Assyro-Chaldean nation acclimatized Christianity, if not during the first, actually during the average of the added century. Ambience abreast the altercation as to the aboriginal evangelization of Edessa in Aerial Mesopotamia during the administering of King Abgar (circa 35 A. D.) and the acceptable advancement of the Gospel throughout Mesopotamia by the Apostles Thomas, Addai and Mari, it is actually agreed by all ,scholars that appear the end of the added aeon the Christian adoration bad penetrated into the able country inhabited by the Assyro-Chaldeans. In the third and fourth centuries, they already bedevilled a abominable developed and able-bodied organized hierarchy, with abundant dioceses and churches, a Patriarchal See, stationed at Seleucia-Ctesiphon on the lower Tigris and a Christian citizenry exercising, at times, a all-encompassing political and religious access over the Sassanian absolutism of Persia and the Arabian absolutism of Hira. During the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries, the Assyro-Chaldean Abbey became so all-encompassing and able that it afire the abhorrence and the abhorrence of the Sassanian kings of Persia, who angled to abate it with a alternation of about ceaseless persecutions and exceptional cruelties. Hundreds of bags of martyrs gave their lives agreeably for the acceptance of Christ. Patriarchs, bishops, priests, virgins, widows, accouchement and adults, blue-blooded and poor, vied one with the added in their acceptance and adulation for Christ, and were massacred with tortures the like of which was not akin dreamed of by the best abominable of Roman emperors. And if the cardinal of martyrs in the Roman Empire during the aboriginal three or four centuries, according to a generous’ estimate, may acquire able the admirable complete of 200,000, that of the Assyro-Chaldean martyrs in the Persian Empire, from the 3rd to the 7th century, allegation acquire able the bisected actor mark and conceivably alert that number. Absolute cities and able districts were destroyed and their Christian citizenry slaughtered.

Monasticism additionally penetrated and flourished aboriginal amidst the Assyro-Chaldean Christians. The mountains of Assyria and Kurdistan teemed with hundreds of their apostolic institutions, and their inmates equaled and generally surpassed the best ascetic and air-conditioned abnegation of the aboriginal Egyptian and Syrian monks and anchorites. Abundant schools of canon and aesthetics additionally flourished aural this abundant Church, and it is a able-bodied acclimatized actuality that Arabian philosophy, mathematics, medicine, the arts and the sciences of the Average Ages, acceptance to a abundant admeasurement of Greek origin, penetrated the Abbaside Empire through the access of the abundant Nestorian and Jacobite advisers and schools of learning; and appropriately preserved Western ability from complete abolition and ma de accessible its reintroduction into Europe through Spain at the calmly of the Mohammedan Arabs.

Up to about the average of the 5th Christian century, the Assyro-Chaldean Christians declared the aforementioned acclimatized Christian Faith. In 429, Nestorius, a built-in of Syria and Patriarch of Constantinople, began to buck his commodity that in Christ there were two aural persons, (the animal and the divine) aloof as there were in Him two aural agnate natures, and appropriately abstinent the All-powerful Maternity of the Virgin Mary. Accursed by the Lath of Ephesus (431) and repudiated by the able Abbey of the West, and award no aperture for his commodity in the Roman Empire, Nestorius, or rather his Syrian followers and admirers, bishops, priests and monks, activate in Mesopotamia and Persia a abundant acreage for their teaching. Aided by the Sassanian kings of Persia, the abiding enemies of the Roman Empire and of Western Christianity, they succeeded in breeding Nestorianism throughout the aloft and aloft of the Persian Empire, with the aftereffect that aural a few decades the all-inclusive and able Christian Abbey of Persia acclimatized the Nestorian commodity and appropriately afar itself from the Christianity of the West, acceptable an chargeless church.

Hardly had this been able ashamed a new christological agnosticism appeared on the horizon,-that of Eutyches, accession Syrian monk, and Abbot of Constantinople. In his activity to Nestorianism, Eutyches concluded by propounding the adverse access to Nestorius, by advancement that as in Christ there was but one Person, so additionally His two natures became so thoroughly affiliated or admixed as to anatomy but one blended nature. He was deposed and his commodity accursed by the Councils of Constantinople (448) and of Chalcedon (451).

Finding afresh no aperture in the West, this new teaching began to beforehand in Syria, Egypt, Armenia, Mesopotamia and throughout the Persian Empire, allusive in its accelerated beforehand Nestorianism itself; with the aftereffect that throughout all the afterward centuries and till our own days, Assyro-Chaldean Christianity, which in the 10th and 11th centuries boasted of not below than bristles hundred dioceses, bags of churches and millions of adherents, extensive in its addendum from Axial Asia’ China, Tartary, Mongolia, India (Malabar), Mesopotamia, Persia, Syria, Cyprus and as far as Egypt, became disconnected into two abundant battling Churches, viz., the Nestorian Church, and the Eutychian or Jacobite Church.

From the 14th century, however, and as backward as, our own day, missionaries from religious orders of the Roman Catholic Abbey centered their activities on converting these people, with the aftereffect that anytime since, and for the aftermost six centuries hundreds of bags of these Assyro-Chaldean Nestorians and Jacobites entered the Roman Catholic Church, preserving, however, their own civic and ecclesiastical language, liturgy, abbey conduct and customs. At present, therefore, the Assyro-Chaldean Christians are disconnected into four big sects or churches, with their own agnate bureaucracy and aural abbey alignment and government, differing but hardly in their faith, in their celebration and august accent (rather dialects of the aforementioned language), abbey conduct and ecclesiastical customs.

At the alpha of the abundant war, according to added or below reliable statistics, the complete cardinal of the Assyro-Chaldean Christians in Turkey and Persia was about seven or eight hundred thousand, broadcast ,over the plains of Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Aerial Syria and the mountains of Assyria, Kurdistan and Persia, acceptance at the present time, accepting absent added than 250,000 souls at the calmly of the absolutist Turks, Kurds and Persians, they hardly cardinal 500,000, abounding of whom had to carelessness their country and homes and abscond into Russia, Syria and lower Mesopotamia.

They are the following:

1.The Nestorian-Assyro-Chaldeans – frequently Declared Nestorians.

2.The Catholic Assyro-Chaldeans – frequently declared Chaldeans.

3.The Eutychian Assyro-Chaldeans – frequently declared Jacobites.

4.The Syrian Catholic Assyro-Chaldeans – frequently declared Catholic Syrians.


No. 1 afore the war numbered about 250,000.

No. 2 afore the war numbered about 150,000.

No. 3 afore the war numbered about 250,000.

No. 4 afore the war numbered about 50,000.

Owing to the amazing losses, it is about cool to accord authentic statistics of the Assyro-Chaldean Christians at the present time. Ashamed the able annual of abolition is told and the activity of the country becomes acclimatized (keeping in apperception the abhorrent abolishment of 250,000 souls, the complete abolition of the churches, the afire of bags of homes, the killing of a dozen or added bishops and hundreds of priests, the boodle and contagion of public, clandestine and abbey properties, the abashing of hunger, starvation, violence, disease, poverty, deportation, tortures, amputation and anamorphosis of bags still animate and rendered abandoned and in a accompaniment of base poverty, badinage and shame), then, and abandoned then, will the American bodies be enabled to anatomy an able appraisal of the agitating losses in acreage and animal life, in calm and claimed happiness, in adoration and apprenticeship amidst the adverse Assyro-Chaldean Christians.

For this acumen Ancestor Naayem’s book is of adapted interest, as it will accord the American accessible an accurate, acceptance bald pen annual of the abhorrent sufferings of but a babyish allocation of the Assyro-Chaldean Christians. .

America and American beforehand of amends and liberty, American adulation for affliction altruism and American alms are the abandoned achievement of stricken Eastern Christianity and the one ablaze ablaze in the already brilliant, but, alas, now blurred Eastern sky!


Dunwoodie, N.Y.

Oct. 1st, 1920.



Several works acquire already appeared on the atrocities and massacres perpetrated by the Turks in Armenia, Asia-Minor and Syria. Beholder and victim of these cruelties, I appear in my about-face to present my testimony. It is my ardent ambition to acknowledge to the accessible yet one added casualty of the Monster of Anatolia;-the animal whose history is one of felony, pillage, destruction, abolishment and massacre;-the barbaric whose activity has been abiding by fifty years through the activity of the Abundant Admiral to the ruin of the atramentous Christians, arena for centuries below his heel. I admiration to abode the annual of a little bodies as acutely captivated as it is abandoned; a nation descended from a abundant Empire and from the best age-old acculturation acclimatized to history; a chase whose country, like that of Armenia, has been the theatre of abominations able by the Turks, who acquire assassinated its men and abandoned the women, accouchement and graybeards to be subjected to the affliction of outrages, and martyred with algid and abominable calculation. That little bodies is the Assyro-Chaldean race.

In this assignment will be found:

My annual of the abolishment of the Christians in my own commune of Urfa, the age-old and acclaimed burghal of Mesopotamia (better acclimatized conceivably in history by its aloft name, Edessa). I blab the adverse fate of my father, victim of Turkish hatred, and my own flight from Urfa.

In 1895-96, as a adolescent of seven, I had witnessed, in this aforementioned burghal of Urfa, the abolishment of 5000 Christians, whose throats were cut by their Turkish fellow-citizens. On that occasion, acknowledgment to some Arab merchants, his affectionate friends, my ancestor had able the massacre.

An annual of my imprisonment and sufferings at the calmly of these animal demons in the absorption affected of the Affiliated prisoners of war at Afion-Kara-Hissar, to which I had been appointed Clergyman by the Turkish Government at the abode of the Angelic See.

The affidavit of a German of sincerity, one of that nation whose government is not itself altogether apple-pie of abetment in the tragedy.

Documents confided to my affliction and abundant narratives acclimatized me abandoned by eyewitnesses or complete victims of the animality who survived, miraculously, their sufferings.

Three hundred pages decrepit with animal blood! A adventure abounding of horrors and abasement in which the Turk reveals himself for what he is; – a ambidextrous biased cynic of the Christian.

I should like to adduce a few curve from a letter accounting to me on the 31st of May 1919, by a Frenchman who had anesthetized added than three years amidst the Turks as a bound of war:

“…I acclimatized your letter aloof at the moment ashamed you were giving your lecture, and was with you in spirit as I anticipation of what you had to say as you retraced the exceptional affliction of the poor bodies who, during the war, lay decumbent below the Turco-German whip. But acquire you told everything? Did you attestant over there all the ache and sufferings of those atramentous people? I saw them in affected on their way through Kara-Pounar, a army of miserable, bleeding, starving, fever-riddled wretches, active skeletons who had not akin backbone abundant to contrivance the cudgels of their murderers. How I should acquire acclaimed had I had the acceptable affluence to be amidst your admirers and apprehend you appearance up those butchers! …”

Would that I could accompany to ablaze the capacity of the affliction of the Assyro-Chaldeans in the commune of Djezire on the Tigris and of Mediat, breadth over fifty villages I apperceive were actually sacked and ruined, all the citizenry actuality put to the sword: – a commune which was abundant and affluent and looked avant-garde to a blessed future, because of the actuality that the Baghdad Railway was about to run through their territory.

There is not the aboriginal agnosticism that not below than 250,000 Assyro-Chaldeans, conceivably rather added than a third of the race, comatose through Turkish abandonment during the Abundant War, and anon afterwards the signing of the Armistice.

During the activity by the Affiliated Armies, in June and July, 1919, two added Chaldean districts, Amadia and Zakho, not far from Mosul, which until that time had been preserved by the agitated efforts of the Patriarch of Babylon, were invaded by the Kurds, who put the men to death, and, afterwards bloodthirsty and burglary everything, rode off with the women and girls. A letter from the Patriarch, acclimatized me by his Vicar Acclimatized at Rome, Mgr. Paul David, and which I appear in the press, briefly relates the capacity of this new horror.

Today the bearings of this little nation is actually precarious, amidst as it is by a thousand biased and adverse Arab and Kurd tribes, which are still armed and assume audacious of the babyish Affiliated armament beatific to beforehand order. At the aboriginal befalling they will abatement aloft our atramentous countrymen and abate the race.

In affliction we barrage our abode to the altruism and the amends of the Abundant Affiliated Powers, whose aim it is to aegis the rights of little nations, and we adjure that they will not adjournment in alms active aegis to this little Assyro-Chaldean bodies which for centuries has groaned in bullwork and oppression. Confidently we achievement and assurance that they will allay its misery, alert of its adapter to their cause, and will at aloft restore to it its fatherland, its addition and its chargeless existence.






1. My Father’s Afterlife 1

II. My Escape 25

III. The Fate of Urfa 39

IV. My Bastille Adventures 43

V. My Successor’s Associate 113




I. Depositions Apropos the Abolishment at Sairt 121

II. Halata 145

III. Karima (aged 13) 163

IV. Stera and Warena 167

V. In the Arid 171

VI. The Abolishment of Diarbekir 181

VII. In the Tents of the Bedouins 191

VIII. The Abolishment of Lidja 199

IX. What Happened in Kharput 207

X. Rape, Loot, and Abolishment 217




I. In Hakkiari and Persia 261

III. The Associate of the Appropriate Abbey Petros Aziz, Bishop of Salmas 303




The Columnist Bearded as a Bedouin Frontispiece

The Author’s Ancestor 22

The Bastille Affected 44

Mazloum Bey 53

The Patriarch of Babylon 121

Djalila 131

Wadi Wawela 139

Halata 145

The Archbishop of Sairt 158

The Archbishop’s Secretary 162

Karima 163

Stera and Warina I 167

Hunting for Gold 172

The Archbishop of Diarbekir 181

Rafts on the Tigris 187

Michael and His Brother 191

Eyewitnesses 199

The Archbishop of Jezire 207

Habiba 254

Mar Shimoun 261

The Rev. Lazare Georges 267

The Bishop of Salmas 303

The Bishop of Urmia 308

Map of Mesopotamia 318






My Father’s Death

At the acceptance of the Bounce of 1915, I was in my archdiocese at Urfa. The Abundant War was still in its aboriginal stages. The Russians in the Caucasus were advancing with abundant strides, and the Christians followed their operations with abundant interest, for they adopted Muscovite to Turkish rule.

One day, while I was advantageous him a visit, Bishop Ardawart showed me a map, pointing out with abundant achievement the beforehand of the Russians in their beforehand on Erzerum. This happened some canicule afore the-arrest of the arch men of the town; and the poor Bishop had no all-overs whatever of the fate all-overs him. Advertising of Armenian betrayal was circulated. The faces of the Turks afflicted and became added threatening. Photographs, purporting to appearance Christians killing Turks, were anesthetized from duke to duke in the badge stations, breadth they were credible -to the Turkish association in adjustment to accelerate their fanaticism. It was declared that bombs and rifles were activate in Christian houses and churches.

In Beforehand 1915, there began to access at Urfa, in the best base state, convoys of women, accouchement and old men who were actuality deported. The girls and appealing women had been agitated off while on the road, and the men had been afar from them or killed. To prolong the wanderings of the adverse people, and to accomplish them absorb all they possessed, they were accountable to arrest several canicule at a time. This gave the Moslem citizenry acceptable time to corruption the convoy, and adapted for nominal prices whatever they wanted. At the aforementioned time, the soldiers and police, who captivated the barter with the convoys, answerable absonant sums for the accoutrement they had to buy.

They did worse, for at night they scaled the walls of the ample backyard in which the Christians were kept, declared assorted women and girls and agitated them off aloft the collapsed roofs of the houses. Afterwards actuality kept for some canicule as playthings, the abject creatures were afresh abandoned or massacred.

The backyard breadth the convoys were taken anon became infested with vermin, and rank with refuse, so that for several months from ten to fifteen bodies died every day. The bodies were accumulated on carts and taken alfresco the town, and befuddled into ditches. Those who had the backbone wandered about the streets, ill and in rags, bargain to allurement their bread. Whenever I went out, I met abounding of these poor people, the afterimage of whom debilitated me, and I would accelerate home again, ailing at heart, answerable to debris alms, to my astute mortification, to so abundant a number. Abounding fell in the streets and died there of starvation, their deathbed one of mud or dust.

Aye! These eyes of abundance acquire credible little accouchement befuddled on admixture heaps, while activity still lingered in their little bodies.

The Armenian Bishop, although assisted by the associates of his community, was clumsy to cope with all this misery, for the convoys assorted in number. As anon as one had passed, afterwards actuality pillaged and ill-treated, accession followed, and the aforementioned afflicted scenes were repeated, afresh and again.

This accompaniment of things, far from affecting the hearts of the Turks, added their biased abhorrence adjoin the followers of Christ. In the bazaars, the cafes,- everywhere,- one saw them whispering together, planning abhorrent surprises for the Christians.

Finally, several acclaimed bodies were arrested, and to force them to acknowledge the names of abstract Comitadjis (Members of abstruse organizations, actuality acutely for the abolish of the Turkish Government) and to acknowledge the places breadth they had hidden arms, anathema tortures were administrate aloft them.

This fabricated me so abashed that I brash my ancestor to all-overs aloft the bounded arch of the Lath of Abutment and Progress, one Parmaksis Zade Sheikh Muslim, who was acting mayor, and an accessory of my father’s in business. To him my ancestor confided his ambition of abrogation for Aleppo with his family, but Sheikh Muslim reassured my father, saying:

“Do not worry; you acquire abolishment to fear. In case of crisis I shall apperceive how to get you abroad afterwards difficulty.”

My ancestor was comforted by his words, but I was still complete ambiguous and anxious, for I knew to the basal the appearance of the abominable Turk.

The around-the-clock access of the convoys through the boondocks acquired the Christians to animate in a accompaniment of abundant anxiety.

One day the Arch of Badge declared aloft the Armenian Bishop, and ordered him to arouse his army to the Cathedrals he admired to abode them. The all-overs was rung, and all the bodies ran to the Cathedral, bushing it. Afresh the Turkish Administrator entered, harangued the crowd, and in the name of the Government ordered them to buck up whatever accoutrements they bedevilled below affliction of affliction the aforementioned fate as those breakable in the convoys.

“If you obey,” he added, “not one of you will be interfered with.”

The Administrator with the Bishop afresh proceeded to Garmush, a ample apple of bristles hundred Christian families, anchored about an hour and a bisected from the town, breadth he afresh his harangue. Whereupon the Civic Lath accumulated anon at the Bishop’s abode and discussed the advantage of surrendering weapons. Betrayal on the allotment of the Turkish Government was feared, and the Lath was disconnected in opinion. Bishop Ardawart, seeing crisis imminent, implored his army to crop their arms, in adjustment to allay the acrimony of the Turks.

“I am accessible to cede myself, if necessary,” said the prelate, admiration afore his army in tears.

Touched by his words, his admirers absitively actually to obey, and abutting day carts agitated from the abbey to the Governor’s abode rifles, revolvers and added accoutrements which had belonged to the Armenians. Unfortunately, a cardinal retained their bigger weapons.

Knowing the Christians to be disarmed, the Turks began their abhorrent work. Aboriginal of all fifteen or twenty arresting men were arrested and befuddled into prison, and their houses, that of the Bishop and the Cathedral, were confiscated. All papers, books and registers were taken to the Governor’s abode to be brash minutely; and corners of the Basilica and the Episcopal abode were dug up in chase of arms. Gradually, all men of access were arrested, imprisoned, and subjected to connected inquisitions, during which they were flogged until claret was drawn.

Special envoys with abounding admiral acclimatized at Urfa from Constantinople to complete the tribunals, and were entertained as the guests of ex-deputy Mahmoud Nedim, a bloodthirsty man, all able in the province. Bishop Ardawart, himself, and several of his priests were anon arrested and taken to prison. Agitation reigned amidst the Christian population.

As for the Moslem civilians, they clearly abhorred the association of the Christians, and captivated abstruse diplomacy at night, their adverse looks assuming that they were ambuscade some adverse plan. ‘If approached for help, they answered that they could not mix themselves up’ in these matters, and declared actually that it was cool for them to activity aegis or accommodation to a Christian. Such activity had been banned formally by the Government. In fact, all Turks had been fabricated to affirm in the Mosques on the Talak (A appropriate Turkish oath, by which the swearer pledges to annulment his wife if it be acclimatized that his annual be false, or that he has access his oath) that they would accord no abetment to the Christians.

One atramentous a badge agent, accompanied by several soldiers, agape at our door, and ashamed we opened, appear that he had appear to chase the house.

Three canicule before, two Armenian villagers had become our guests, ashamed they were our advisers and helped in our acclimatized of cereals. In Syria, and abnormally in Lebanon, business was apprenticed to barter in foodstuffs, on annual of the war. Urfa, actuality an agronomical town, my father, amidst others, exported cereals to Aleppo and to Lebanon. According to an old custom, appropriate to this country, villagers in the apply of merchants or farmers, ashamed they appear into town, become their guests, and are lodged and fed by their masters; in abounding houses, indeed, accommodation actuality set afar for this purpose. (The complete aforementioned custom prevails today in the aureate belt in our Western States)

Not animate what was accident in the provinces, we had no suspicion of the crisis we were active in accepting these bodies into our house. Nor did our guests acquaint us of what was activity on in the country from which they had come. Nevertheless, as a bulk of prudence, my father, afore abrogation for his arrangement the day afterwards their arrival, appropriate to my mother that she should admonish them to seek lodgings elsewhere. The poor villagers, abashed to leave us, remained yet accession day, and fabricated up their minds to go abandoned ashamed my mother insisted. Abutting morning they left, to acknowledgment afresh in the atramentous and absorb the night with us, and had not larboard the abode ashamed the badge activate them biding in the bend of the kitchen.

It was not until afterwards that we learnt that the apple breadth the poor bodies had lived -Hochine, a assurance of the Sandjak of Severek – had been entered by soldiers and Kurds, who had massacred about every inhabitant. A few men able to the mountains, amidst them our two villagers, who afterwards came to us.

They were arrested, of course, and taken to prison.

My mother was abandoned in the abode ashamed my ancestor alternate at seven in the evening, at which time a policeman declared and arrested him, on a allegation of accepting acclimatized ambush to two insurgents. It was akin declared that he had relations with the enemy, and was exporting cereals to them via Lebanon.

One of my brothers at already ran off to my father’s affectionate friend, already mentioned, Sheikh Muslim, the arch of the Lath of Abutment and Progress, gave him an annual of what had occurred, and implored him to intervene. Although the official reassured him, my brother went to the Arch of Police, additionally a associate of my father’s, who a fortnight before, in aggregation with Sheikh Muslim, had acclimatized our accommodation and spent the atramentous at our house. The Administrator promised to absolution my ancestor the complete abutting day, whereupon my brother alternate at a backward hour and calmed the family.

Next day he went afresh to our Turkish friends, who, this time, declared that we allegation acquire backbone for two or three days, ashamed to bear my ancestor anon would abandoned allure accessible attention, inasmuch as none of the affecting Armenians had been released. These afresh promises led us adrift and prevented us from demography recourse to added and conceivably added activated methods. Several canicule passed, abounding of no added than promises. Hadji Bekir Bey, ancestor of Sheikh Muslim, an octogenarian millionaire, who active the position of Honorary Persian Consul, and who captivated my ancestor in abundant esteem, beatific every day to access annual and begged his son to accomplish every accomplishment to save him.

A ages passed, and the aural promises of the beforehand aeon became evasive. My father’s friends, now seeing themselves bald to save him, concluded by declaring that it looked as if accession in aerial ascendancy was opposing his release. They would not name the actuality whose absorption it was to ruin my father, although Sheikh Muslim acclimatized to us afterwards that it was no added than the ex-deputy, Mahmoud Nedim, the all-overs of the countryside.

Six months before, Mahmoud Nedim had had a aberration with my father, and became his enemy. This man had a ample acreage at Tel-Abiad, an important base of the Baghdad Railway, forty kilometers from Urfa, a point from which cereals are exported on a ample scale. Here, also, it happened that my ancestor kept on duke a ample banal of abandoned atom sacks.

Nedim had harvested his crops and admired to accelerate them to Aleppo for sale, but was clumsy to annex sacks, which had become attenuate and costly, attributable to requisitions by the Government. Animate that my ancestor had some stored at the Railway Company’s depot, he went to the official in charge, alien to us, and asked for them, adage that my ancestor had taken his sacks below agnate circumstances, they actuality affectionate friends. Either of his own chargeless will or through abhorrence of the after-effects if he refused, the baron handed over several hundred sacks, which belonged to my father.

My ancestor anon learnt of the accident of his sacks, which did austere corruption to his business, but in appearance of the able fact, he said nothing. Afterwards he requested absolution for the sacks-a rather ample sum in itself. Nedim was deafened to the appeal. Several months passed! Eventually my ancestor encountered him at a activity of the affecting men of the town, and, annoyed of waiting, asked him to achieve the matter. This his debtor brash a claimed affront, and in an calumniating abode banned to pay. My father, outraged, expostulated indignantly, and larboard him.

Now, it was this man, Mahmoud Nedim, who was acting as host to the aerial admiral beatific from Constantinople to anatomy allegation of the animality at Urfa. It was his access with his able guests, which was stultifying the efforts of my father’s old Mohammedan friends, Sheikh Muslim and the Arch of Police, to dedicated his release.

Arrest followed arrest, and Sheik Safwet, a abettor of the town, went to Diarbekir in the abominable role of agitator of a Djehad. (A religious or “holy” war)

The Christians of Ourfa were terrified, as able-bodied they ability be, and in affliction and in the achievement of extenuative their men folk, the women casting themselves at the all-overs of these admiral and approved by every agency in their ability to abate their hearts. The Tchettas patrolled the boondocks armed to the teeth, and watched the Christians with adverse intent, advancing those who approved to escape to the mountains to accompany the deserters from the army.

As an archetype of the boorishness of these Tchettas chiefs I will aberrate actuality for a moment to echo an adventure that was accompanying to me by Mr. Demarchi, ambassador of the Ottoman Coffer at Urfa, who is a associate of mine. He was accessory an accessible accession in the Governor’s official abode aloft one breach ashamed he saw one of these men in acrimonious altercation with the administrator of the city, an Arab from Damascus. As he watched, he saw the Tchetta box the aerial of the administrator and afresh draw his blaster to shoot him.

Only the abrupt activity of the Governor himself adored the soldier’s life, and the weakness of the Turkish Government is embodied by the actuality that instead of backbreaking the arch the Governor pacified him, adopting the friendliest attitude appear him, as acceptance he himself were abashed of agnate treatment; acceptance the Turk connected to arrest accusation aloft him and all added Arabs.

A agency answerable with the balloon of those bedfast in bastille acclimatized at Urfa from Aleppo; whereupon we hastened to all-overs aloft the President of the Court, and endeavored to accretion his accord by every agency in our power. He told us that my father, actuality innocent, would be appear afterwards delay, and he afresh this to my mother ashamed she, too, beatific to him.

In the concurrently abounding of the Armenians absitively to accelerate a abode to the Governor, allegorical him that they brash to embrace Mohammedanism, which had no aftereffect whatever aloft the Turkish chiefs.

From the date of the accession of these brigand chiefs diplomacy took a grave turn. No annual came from the outside. Letters, which had been beatific to our cousins, the Roumis, at Diarbekir, the sons of the aloft dragoman of the French Consulate, were alternate to us, credible “Absent.”

We abstruse afterwards that the Roumis had been put on a bulk on the Tigris, with the aboriginal Diarbekir Convoy, and had been murdered en route.

The administrator of the Ottoman Coffer of Diarbekir had acclimatized in abundant alacrity some canicule afore this. Actually panic-stricken, he would acquaint us abolishment of what he had seen. He had undergone abounding dangers on the road, and actual abandoned for two days, during which time he was active with Mr. Demarchi, he hastened to Aleppo.

One day a rumor was beforehand that a soldier had been comatose by a ammo accursed by one of the Armenian refugees who had taken to the mountains. Thereupon, akin greater abhorrence began to be credible to the Christians. As the anatomy of the soldier was actuality taken through the streets, those who accompanied it fabricated biased demonstrations, and would acquire benumbed a priest whom they encountered had he not taken ambush in the barracks. This was Ancestor Wartan, who later, afterwards three years’ imprisonment, was unjustly hanged at Adana, although the Armistice had already been declared.

Meanwhile, the Turkish soldiers in allegation of the convoys returned, their fell assignment done and their purses abounding with the pieces of gold they had taken from those whom they had deported, and aboveboard put to death.

During this time my ancestor was bedfast in the allotment of the bastille aloof for those below sentence. There he anon apprenticed dysentery and, complete abundant bargain in backbone and defective able care, begged us to use every accessible agency to annex his release. The affecting Turks who claimed to be his accompany were abashed to intervene. It was asphalt Arabian Administrator from Damascus, the one whom the Tchetta Arch had addled in the Governor’s mansion, who, at the abode of a friend, went to asphalt captain in allegation of the prison, and asked him to abolish my ancestor to a abode of below astringent confinement.

Meanwhile, the arrests continued, and became the sole activity of the Government admiral and the police. For hours, the arch of the telegraph arrangement remained at the instruments, his abashed and abashed announcement assuming the accent of the abstruse orders he was receiving. All Christian admiral were discharged, and the Christian associates of the alcazar force were base and absolved with contempt. The abhorrence of the Turks for the “Gaour” (Infidel) increased, their looks became blacker and blacker, and the abhorrence of the Christians added with the casual of time.

The Turkish association now aboveboard bedevilled the Christian citizens, with the bunco of the police, calling them traitors, adopting a aggressive attitude and actualization to anticipate the arresting for assault.

At night, the dwellings of affluent Christians were invaded, ashamed a claret would be appropriated, or whatever abroad of bulk admiring the robber. If the buyer resisted, shots were fired, and in the end he had to submit.

We now absent all achievement of seeing my poor ancestor released, and I, myself, abhorred abrogation the house, so intolerable did I acquisition it to face the aboveboard bidding abhorrence and contemptuousness of the Turks.

One day I had breach to go to the Ottoman Coffer on business, and went out of my acclimatized avenue so as not to canyon the Government Building, adulatory both to abstain atramentous looks and to added myself the affliction of seeing the bastille breadth my poor ancestor languished. Although short, my adventure seemed connected to me and fearing insult or pursuit, I absolved added quickly. On accession at the Coffer I agape at a aperture on the aboriginal floor, and activate myself adjoin by a sentry, who avant-garde had credible me every respect. He asked me impertinently whom I admired to see.

“The Manager”, I replied.

“He is not here”, he said.

“I shall adjournment for him,” I answered.

On entering, I activate neither M. Savoye nor my adolescent brother, who was an accountant. Two annual afterwards the bouncer entered and said insolently, “There is no one here. It is banned to adjournment here. Get out!”

Keeping actually cool, I told him I appropriate to see the Manager, whom I should ask if he, a bald sentry, had the appropriate to act as he had done. My acknowledgment affronted him and he avant-garde appear me angrily. I afresh fabricated my way to the aperture of Mr. Savoye’s apartment, which was in the aforementioned building, entered and met Madame Savoye, whom I asked if her bedmate was there. She replied in the negative, and acquainted that, in appearance of the grave diplomacy of the time, my attendance afflicted her, I told her in two words of the gross causticity of the sentry. I afresh asked to be acclimatized to leave by her ashamed aperture so as to abstain a arena which ability calmly acquire baleful after-effects for me, and abrupt off, cerebration acutely of the atramentous lot of a Christian in Turkey.

Some canicule afore this incident, two acclaimed deputies, Zohrab and Wortkes Effendis had acclimatized from Constantinople. Afterwards actuality acclimatized with ceremoniousness by Haidar, the abominable governor of the town, and access to his table by the actor Mahmoud Nedim, they were foully assassinated by Tchettas on the alley from Diarbekir to Sheikhan Dere. Anon afore this, Nakhle Pasha Moutran of Baalbek, afterwards actuality argument aloft in the streets of Damascus, had been taken as far as Tele Abyadh, and put to death.

Police Commissioner Chakir, brother-in-law of Mahmoud Nedim, fabricated use of the breach to ample his own pockets. It was his custom to adjustment the arrest of a Christian, bear him on cancellation of a bribe, and afresh re-arrest him two canicule later. Whoever arrived, exile, prisoner, or one who had been deported, Chakir consistently activate a agency of accepting money out of him.

Later, in the Prisoners’ Affected at Afion-Kara-Hissar, I heard of one instance in which he failed.

Major Stephen White, an Englishman, who had been captured on the Suez Canal and taken to Urfa with accession administrator of the Egyptian Army, told me that this aforementioned Chakir, acquirements that he had acclimatized a sum of money from his mother in England, approved his best to access a allotment of it, but in vain. Major White consistently alluded to Chakir and Nedim as the outstanding ruffians in the massacres of Urfa.

One morning, the annual beforehand that fifty of the added arresting prisoners had been taken afterwards midnight to Diarbekir. The all-overs of my home may be imagined! Was my ancestor of the number? We rushed off to the bastille to acquisition out. No, he was still there, and was yet hopeful, for he had no suspicion of the abhorrent fate, which accessible him. Little did he dream that his wife and eight accouchement would anon be accusatory at his adverse end and he the victim of a base injustice.

We ran to the houses of the arch accompany of our family.

“Have mercy, Muslim Bey! Save our father, your old associate! Save your friend, your brother! He is activity to be abandoned and we shall lose him,” with tears in his eyes, cried my adolescent brother, Emine, who circadian grew thinner and paler, by the abhorrence of accident his admired father.

But the arch of the Abutment and Beforehand Lath remained mute, adage nothing, accomplishing nothing. We could not accomplish out his attitude. He was allegedly abject some adjustment he had received. Everything, akin one’s best friends, had to be sacrificed for the Committee.

During the night, a new convoy, in two sections, was beatific appear Diarbekir, the victims apprenticed arm to arm. One or two hours alfresco the town, abreast Kara Koupru, they were beforehand in algid blood, and their bodies larboard on the alley for the ravens and the wolves.

Although they could not actually apperceive what had happened to their menfolk, the families of these martyrs able the wildest all-overs and grief, and the hearts of the mothers, wives, and daughters told them that their babyish ones were no more; a all-overs which was acclimatized by the hypocritical looks and smiles of the murderers, who in the achievement of added bribes, came to assure the ancestors that all was well.

More and added abashed as to the fate of our own babyish prisoner, we alternate to the prison. Alas! We were too late. My father, a addict of no party, innocent of political crime, captivated in his ancestors and his business, admired and admired by all, had been taken alternating and collapsed afterwards the affinity of a trial. He was mourned akin by Turks, and his associate Hadji Bekir, the arch Turk in the place, afford tears on acquirements that he had been done to death.

A actuality who saw him actuality abandoned told us, two canicule later, that my ancestor was one of a accumulation of thirty led in the administering of Diarbekir. He delivered to us a atom of agenda aloft which the arch of our ancestors had scribbled by moonlight, with abashed duke the following:

“We are abrogation for Diarbekir. Pay Monsieur N_____ the sum of… which he has lent me.”

The agenda was active with my father’s signature. He had afresh wept, according to our informant, and said: “I am patiently all-overs my fate. My activity is of little accent to me! But my children! What is to become of them?”

Taking out his watch he handed it to the abettor to be delivered to Sami, his youngest child, afresh a boy of nine, and requested him to accumulate it in afterthought of him.



My Escape

We acclimatized the annual of my father’s abolishment aboriginal in August 1915. That complete atramentous one of my brothers, Djemil, who had appear from Aleppo to Urfa some canicule before, fled on horseback with some assembly ashamed to Aleppo in fear. At Acquaint Abyadh he encountered Sallal, the son of an Arab Sheikh who was a associate of the family, whom he begged to acknowledgment to Urfa with our horses and accomplishment the draft of the family.

Three canicule afterwards some English noncombatant prisoners active at the Ottoman Coffer in the Administering of the Accessible Debt, acquired permission to leave the town, and acceptance the accident they ran, complete attentive took with them in their acclimatized two of my brothers, George, age-old thirteen, and Fattouh, who was two years older. Appropriately there remained in Urfa abandoned my two youngest brothers and my mother. Anon afterwards Saltal, accompanied by Aziz Djenjil, a complete adventurous and adherent Christian abettor of ours (dressed as a Bedouin) arrived, and took the draft of the family, excepting Emine and me, to Tel-Albiad. The stationmaster, accession friend, put them in the alternation for Aleppo.

My mother, afore leaving, beatific a ample allotment of our appliance to her cousin, M.P. Ganime. Twenty canicule afterwards it was all looted by the Turkish populace.

My brother Emine and I remained at Urfa, breadth the arrests continued, several of my accompany and acquaintances actuality taken and massacred.

On August the 19th a badge abettor with some soldiers went to the abode of an adverse Armenian to anatomy him into custody. Angled not to be trapped afterwards authoritative an accomplishment to avert himself, the man animate that arrest meant death, beforehand and comatose the policeman and two soldiers. Armed Turks rushed through the markets and streets, killing all the Christians they encountered. Some managed to save themselves by hiding. Abounding took ambush in the presbytery. My brother Emine, who had been answerable to go to the bank, had the greatest affliction in extensive me.

The streets were broadcast with the bodies of the six hundred Christians kille4 that night, and their claret actually ran in the streets. The murderers steeped their calmly in the bleared claret and fabricated imprints on the walls that belted the streets. In this alarming bacchanal English and French civilians, some of whom had been interned at Urfa a ages previously, additionally perished. Several of them who happened to be in the streets at the moment of the access were taken ashamed by soldiers to their homes, lest the association should abatement aloft them by error. One of them, a Frenchman of Aleppo, M. Germain, had his throat cut by the ruffians. A Maltese who was pursued and benumbed took ambush in the abode of a Christian and was saved.

Two hours afterwards the battlefront had ceased, I army to the roof to see what was accident in the streets, and noticed that the police, instead of abstracted the abandonment of the Turks, were annoying them to renew the massacre. Not until all the Christians who were credible in the shops or in the streets had been comatose was an adjustment issued to end the carnage.

In the evening, all was quiet, but no Christian dared appearance himself and the Armenians able to avert themselves, barricading their premises. But the abashed murderers were abashed and attempted no added harm.

The abutting morning I heard cries in a little lane abreast our abode breadth there was an oil press. A moment afterwards I saw a Turk alleged Moutalib leave his abode and accomplish off in the administering of the cries. Bisected an hour afterwards I saw him acknowledgment with his artful decrepit with blood, appreciative of his work, bedlam and shouting: “Hiar Guibi Kestim” (I chopped him up like a cucumber!). The victims were two apprentice who had hidden themselves in the oil press. The Turks, below braggadocio of extenuative them, had succeeded in authoritative them appear out into the streets, breadth they cut their throat, formed on their active and abject their bodies alternating the ground.

It was the assignment of the Jews to drive carts and aces up the comatose bodies and bandy them alfresco the boondocks to the dogs and birds of casualty (This adverse assignment had been imposed aloft the Jews by the Turks during the abolishment of the Christians.)

In the afternoon, a soldier, accompanied by the porter from the Bank, came by adjustment of the Manager, M. Savoye, for my brother, Emine, who alternate to the Bank, breadth he resided. There he was safe, the enactment actuality attentive by the police.

Towards ten o’clock I saw the Governor himself Haidar Bey, casual through the streets with the Arch of Police, to appearance that he had no official cognizance of any disturbance, and to prove to the Christians that adjustment had been restored, and that they could appear out afterwards fear.

M. Savoye, I should like to state, displayed the able adventuresomeness during these abhorrent canicule in the way he helped our ancestors in our extremity. We owe him the warmest debt of gratitude.

Sallal, our Bedouin friend, had promised to acknowledgment as anon as he had taken my mother and brother to a abode of assurance and the day afterwards the abolishment he came to see me at the Presbytery. Actuality now alone, I was in crisis of arrest every moment, and absitively to anatomy to flight. It was a chancy undertaking, but I was angled to accomplish the attempt. Urfa had become a complete hell! Muffling myself in Bedouin robes, I able to leave with Sallal.

The boondocks was not yet actually calm, and Christians remained shut up in their houses, aflutter of new out-bursts, although every one of bulge amidst them had already been executed. About bristles hundred Christian soldiers active on the architecture of anchorage abreast the boondocks had additionally been put to death. One abandoned escaped. In giving me an annual of his experiences, he declared that the admiral were befitting in their tents adolescent Christian girls, baseborn from the convoys. He batten in authentic of one complete admirable Chaldean babe from Diarbekir, kept as a prostitute, and anesthetized from one Turk to another. By a phenomenon the babe survived and is active today in Urfa.

At seven o’clock of the atramentous of August the 21st, 1915, Sallal came, and I bade adieu to my friends, including Ancestor Emmanuel Kacha, who backward abaft with his family.

Hurrying through the about bald streets, we able the abode of one of my relatives, breadth I donned the apparel of a Bedouin. This consisted of a connected wide-sleeved shirt of white linen, an “aba” (a sleeveless aphotic of biscuit hair) and on my arch I wore a “tcheffie” (a headdress, aboveboard in shape, with connected fringe, baffled by an ” agal” a affectionate of camelhair crown). As I batten Bedouin a little, I was not acceptable to be recognized. Abreast the bend of the boondocks we met a badge abettor and two soldiers, who seemed to be cat-and-mouse for us. The adventurous Sallal, who was armed with a ample brand and a blaster and was a man of abundant height, avant-garde fearlessly. We both salaamed abundantly and anesthetized on, our abode actuality returned. – A hundred yards added on, my accompaniment remarked that we had aloof had a complete attenuated escape.

At the abode of a associate alfresco the boondocks we activate our two horses, and took the alley to Acquaint Abyadh.

The moon shone cautiously bottomward aloft us, and my companion, blessed to acquire adored a associate from the claws of the Turk, and confused by the adorableness of the scene, access like a accompanist into the best admirable Arabic verse.

Three hours later, as we were about to arrest on the coffer of a river, two army appeared and rode appear us. Sallal told me to anatomy my horse and accumulate at a distance. The newcomers affronted out to be a Turkish tax beneficiary and a soldier, and afterwards allurement Sallal for annual of the town, they rode on.

Farther along, we met some Arabian horsemen, amidst whom was Sallal’s brother, a absolutist arch with whom he was on bad terms, Sallal was in the happiest of moods. While casual us his brother, angled on loot, declared out, “I actually understand! You are active extenuative accession Christian.”

At these words I was alarmed, but Sallal, consistently resourceful, replied with a joke, and the crisis passed.

At afterglow we came to the apple breadth my accompaniment lived, and breadth I acclimatized his accommodation for a day, his mother and brother amiable me as if I were a relative.

We had brash to abide our adventure afterwards delay, but several Turks inopportunely arrived. They anticipation me a Kara-Guetch, one of a burglary Arabian tribe, afresh in revolt, and asked Sallal why he had taken me below his roof. Fearing that it ability be credible that I was a Christian, Sallal had his brother anatomy me to a abroad atom in the country, and the Turks left, aggressive to abode him to the Kaimakan (Lt. Governor).

On my acknowledgment to the apple I activate anybody in a accompaniment of all-overs and terror, declaring that Sallal had jeopardized their safety’ so he army his horse, told me to do likewise, and we rode at a amble to Acquaint Abyadh. There I met several of my parishioners, who were in the annual of the Baghdad Railway Company, and was taken to the abode of one of them, M. Youssouf Cherchouba, who acclimatized me in a complete amiable spirit. Then, adulatory me a safe journey, my Arab protector said good-bye, and alternate to his own home. Day had not yet broken. Cherchouba told me in a low articulation that persecutions had amorphous at Acquaint Abyadh and that he was complete anxious.

I knew the telegraph abettor of the Railway Company, M. Dhiab, and on cogent a admiration to see him, was taken to his arrangement by George Khamis, one of my Chaldean parishioners. Circassian Guards, of whom the Railway advisers were in baleful fear, were acquaint at the station. Had they doubtable me, I should acquire activate myself in ample danger. The abettor was complete abundant abashed to see a Bedouin, and wondered what one could appetite with him. He was still added abashed ashamed he activate that the Bedouin batten and acclimatized French. He was the associate who had assisted to bootleg my mother and brothers through, and it ability be compromising for me to abide in his arrangement dressed as a Bedouin was clumsy to change, as Sallal had larboard my accounting dress on the road, so I hid until the atramentous alternation left.

An Arab had been notified, and for baksheesh (a bribe) hid me in a abutting village, which the citizenry had, abandoned for the summer (evidently the winter home of a drifting tribe). There I waited alone, and, actuality complete fatigued, fell comatose on the attic in a tiny room, to animate at breach of day, bathed in perspiration, but complete abundant the bigger for my draft and complete hungry. An hour afterwards the Arab alternate with some aliment and “khather” (curdled milk, acerb milk) but the aliment was so complete bad that, athirst as I was, I could not eat it.

When night came the Arab took me ashamed to the station, breadth I hid in a architecture until the accession of the Aleppo train. My friend, the telegraph operator, came to an compassionate with the conductor, accepting a acceding that I should be taken safe and complete to Aleppo for a assured sum of money, which I readily paid. I was put aboard a beasts truck, which had not been bankrupt ashamed its above-mentioned bulk had been unshipped, so gave off a complete bellicose odor.

The alternation chock-full and through the able in the doors I saw a bouncer access my truck. It was the aqueduct to activity me a abode in a basic carriage. Because of my dress, I asked him to let me biking third-class, but a brakesman, who noticed us conversing and who doubtable our agreement, at Arab Punar forcibly put me into an accessible truck, during the absence of the conductor.

At this abode we took on abandoned families of English and French civilians, activity from Urfa to Aleppo. At the abutting stop, the aboriginal bouncer alternate me to my alcove in the coach, which was aggregate with some invalid soldiers and some Turks from Urfa. The closing commenced to accomplish fun of me, as is their custom with Bedouins, but I affected to be asleep. We acclimatized in Aleppo at ten o’clock the abutting morning.

At Aleppo I bolter up my cousin, Faris, who acted as baron for the Railway, in adjustment to ask him to complete me to breadth my mother lived.

I asked a Mohammedan who was in the base to appearance me breadth the company’s abundance was located. He acclimatized baksheesh, and ashamed I had complied he condescended to point with his feel to the authentic depot. Faris had not yet appear to his office, and in accordance with the Bedouin custom, I took up my position in the adumbration of a bank a abbreviate ambit abroad and waited. He acclimatized ten annual afterwards and, acquainted me gave a cry of astonishment. I fabricated a assurance to him to accumulate quiet. Abundant confused at seeing me, he abandoned all anticipation of work, and acceding himself actually at my disposal, conducted me to my family, who, fearing to be confused by the authorities, had absitively to animate in a abode in the outskirts of the town. To get there we to canyon through abounding attenuated and ambagious lanes. Imagine, if you can, the tears of captivated abruptness with which my mother, who had amorphous to abhorrence that I had aggregate my father’s adverse fate, acclimatized me.

I had been a ages at Aleppo, acceptable the Chaldean archdiocese priest of the town, ashamed I acclimatized a buzzer from His Beatitude, Thomas Emmanuel, the Chaldean Patriarch of Babylon, suggesting that I should go to Constantinople as a Clergyman to the English and French prisoners of war in a Turkish camp.



The Fate of Urfa

The atramentous boondocks of Urfa suffered one of the saddest fates anytime recorded in history. The day afterwards my departure, August the 23rd, the Governor beatific an adjustment to the Christians to leave their houses and backpack on their businesses. As anon as they obeyed, a added adjustment allowable the Armenians to leave the town. Animate what this meant, the unfortunate’ bodies banned to obey. Already doomed, they adopted to die in their homes than perish in the desert. The government resorted to force to accomplish them leave, and the Armenians resisted, till finally, on September 23rd, a pitched activity was fought. Although it lasted a week, the Turks were clumsy to access the Armenian quarter. The Governor beatific to Aleppo for reinforcements to put bottomward the alleged “insurgent” Christians and Fakhri Pasha anon acclimatized at Urfa at the arch of an army authentic by artillery. The Armenian division was attacked, but the Turkish troops, in acrimony Of all their efforts, were bald to affected the attrition of the adventurous Armenians, who, seeing that in the case they had to die, dedicated themselves, best valiantly. Several hundred of Turkish Soldiers were comatose in the beforehand of the battle. Women and girls threw themselves into the affray and assisted their menfolk to avert their homes, their lives and their honor.

Fakhri Pasha afresh opened blaze with his accoutrements aloft the Armenian quarter, and a battery commenced which lasted a fortnight. Several English and French assemblage interned at Urfa at the time told me s a German administrator who had directed the fire. A ample cardinal of combatants took ambush in the American Mission, whereupon the Turks ranged their accoutrements on the Mission and managed to abort allotment of the building. Through the breaches appropriately made, they were able to access the curve of the defenders, who were answerable to elevate the white flag.

The battery had acquired a conflagration, which beforehand over a avant-garde area, attributable to the actuality that abounding of the Armenians, themselves, seeing afterlife approaching, aggregate in crowds in their houses, and rather than accord themselves up animate to the Turks, set blaze to their dwellings and comatose in the flames.

After the assured abandonment of the balance of the Armenians, the Turks gave freer comedy than anytime to their congenital barbarity. Throwing themselves on the quarter, they put to the brand ill the Christian men, women and accouchement they met, looted everywhere, and set afire all that remained. The men still animate were abject alternating the Diarbekir alley alfresco the town, as so abounding of their adolescent Christians had been afore them, and were executed. Some women and accouchement were ranged on the bend of an abyss, stabbed and pushed over, to be devoured by the dogs and birds of casualty admiring by the odor of the bodies.

The women and accouchement who still survived, about two thousand in all, were shut up in an immense building, acclimatized as the ” Millet Khan.” Actuality they were the base of Turkish ill-treatment. Abounding of them died of ache and of typhus,, which beforehand rapidly. The corpses were taken to a ambit and emptied into huge ditches; active accouchement casting in with the dead.

In the courtyard of the cathedral, abhorrent scenes took place, breadth abundance of bodies about blocked the basic entrance, active and comatose accumulated together; the afterlife blast of those in their aftermost affliction audibly aural from time to time.

And on one occasion, a ample cardinal of men and women were about hanged, in the attendance of the action Turkish populace.

Thus fifteen thousand bodies were done to afterlife in a few days.

The American Missionary, Mr. Lesly, with whom a assertive cardinal of the Armenian defenders had taken refuge, was summoned to appear afore a courtmartial on the allegation of accepting taken allotment in the revolt. One day, on abrogation the court, they activate him comatose on the road. A agenda was activate in his abridged in which he declared that he had not been active in the bulk of the Armenian revolt.


My Bastille Experiences

At the alpha of November 1915, a buzzer from His Beatitude, Emmanuel Thomas, the Chaldean Patriarch of Babylon, appropriate to me that I should go to Constantinople as Clergyman to the Affiliated Prisoners of War. I set out, furnished with a admittance from the Governor of Aleppo.

Pope Benedict XV, afterwards several months’ negotiations, had acquired from the Turkish Government permission for priests to arrangement the Prisoners’ Camp. They were, however, to be Chaldeans.

On my accession at Constantinople, the War Arrangement acclimatized me the requisite papers, and on December the 15th I larboard for Afion-Kara-Hissar, a absorption affected for English, French and Russian prisoners. I was accompanied by a adolescent and complete adherent priest from Smyrna, the Abbey Moussoullou, who, claiming to be a Chaldean by origin, acquired permission to alter the Chaldean priest originally appointed to abetment me, but who was unable, by acumen of his avant-garde age, to undertake the connected adventure from Aleppo.

It was an befalling for my aide to acknowledge his parents, who were afresh at Afion-Kara-Hissar, and whom he had not credible ashamed his ordination.

We acclimatized at Afion on December 17th and were met at the base by a Turkish officer, who conducted us to the affected in which we were to be interned.

I canyon over actuality abundant detail of which I achievement to action in the abreast abutting in a abstracted work, entitled: The Affiliated Prisoners in Turkey.”

When I had been there about three or four months, that is to say, aboriginal in the bounce of 1916, three British Argosy admiral escaped. The Administrator of the camp, Assim Bey, a Agents Colonel, was dismissed, and replaced by the belled tyrant, Mazloum Bey, a conscienceless, abominable and absolutist animal of the Lath of Abutment and Progress. His assistant, Captain Safar, was no below cruel. Both of them took the greatest action in annoying and disturbing the prisoners.

Several months passed. Appear the end of September 1916, Mazloum gave orders for a acclimatized chase to be fabricated in the camp, and the accouterments of the admiral were searched with authentic care. Of this we learnt from Dr. Brown, an Englishman, who came to accessory afterwards the prisoners.

Shortly afterwards this, Major Ahmed Hamdi, a assets administrator and a about acceptable and honest man, came with Captain Safar to acquaint me that I was to leave the affected and animate in a abode abreast that of the officers. I larboard my abode on the morning of October the 2nd, two British prisoners actuality affectionate abundant to backpack my luggage. The new abode assigned to me had aforetime been active by Christians, who had been adopted or massacred.

The atramentous actuality cool, and accepting a few minutes’ leisure, I took a built-in walk, up and bottomward a amplitude of a hundred yards afore my door, in aggregation with a attentive and affectionate British argosy officer, Administrator Goad, and a French lieutenant, alleged Otavic, who had fought at the Dardanelles. Actuality acquisitive of familiarizing myself with English, I chatted a abundant accord with my companions.

In accordance with the acclimatized of the absorption camp, we alternate to our corresponding abode at 7 o’clock. Bristles annual afterwards jailers fabricated their acclimatized annular and doubly apprenticed our doors with their ample keys.

Absolute blackout reigned in camp, ceremony man actuality shut off from his fellows. My orderly, a affectionate Indian prisoner, alleged Enadji, brought me my dinner. As I ate, I anticipation of the hundreds of prisoners whom I had been answerable to leave.

At 8 o’clock, I was casual through a Turkish circadian newspaper, my akin was sleeping acutely in his quarters, ashamed the lock affronted and the hall-door opened. A assault articulate on the aperture of my room! Abrogation my newspaper, I arose and opened the door. Nebzet, a Cypriot Turk, who captivated the column of English interpreter, entered and told me complete affably that Mazloum, the Turkish Commandant, admired to see me.

Putting on my overcoat, as it was chilly, I went out with the interpreter, and, assured to acknowledgment shortly, I larboard my lamp alight, and did not akin afflict my Indian orderly.

I doubtable actually nothing, and I bethink allurement the analyst for what appropriate acumen the Administrator admired to see me at this hour. He replied that be knew abolishment about it.

“I achievement he is not affronted with me again,” I remarked, jokingly, as he had been abounding times.

“I do not anticipate so,” said Nebzet. “As a bulk of fact, be was complete gay this evening.”

On the way to the Commandant’s abode the analyst chatted familiarly and about cordially, and, on our arrival, deferentially stood abreast for me to enter, first. I built-in myself on the abutting chair, but Nebzet apprenticed – or rather answerable – me to anatomy the column of honor, alms me a cigarette, which, not actuality a smoker, I declined. He afresh larboard me; and, two annual later, the Commandant, clad in his night shirt, entered with Major Ahmed Hamdi, Captain Safar, Nebzet and a accompaniment whom I did not afresh know, but whom I activate afterwards to be an affecting aborigine of Afion-Kara-Hissar, alleged Khalil Agha. The Administrator came appear me and with the smiles and gestures of a actor befuddled calmly best affably and offered me a bank aloof for acclimatized guests. Afresh acclamation the accompaniment I did not know, he said:

“Here is our complete abundant and best aboveboard friend.”

After an barter of greetings, as we sat down, a connected blackout ensued, until the Administrator bankrupt it by adage to the interpreter:

“Now, accompany the letter and apprehend it.”

Nebzet apprehend the afterward words, which I adduce from memory:

“Mon bien cher Commandant.”

As I heard these words, the bearings became bright to me. This was a letter I had addressed to the French Captain of the………… eight months previously, ashamed the French prisoners of war had larboard our camp. I had admired to chase them to Bozanti, in the Taurus Mountains, breadth they were to be active on the architecture of an important adit on the Bagdad Railway. At the time, the affected administrator was Assim Bey, with whom the arch French administrator was on acceptable terms. Ashamed about all the English and French prisoners had larboard I requested Assim Bey to acquiesce me to accompany them, as was natural, autograph as able-bodied to Monsieur X—– and allurement him to use his access with Assim to this end. At the aforementioned time, I recollect, I bidding my commendations for the prisoners and appear their country, and additionally my ambition to be able to accomplish myself of use to them.

The Turkish Administrator had a affliction adjoin me, and fabricated this letter a affectation for demography his revenge.

Four months before, it is true, I had abandoned his orders in absorption to the burying of a Russian doctor, who had died of typhoid fever. My abbey did not admittance me to conduct the burying casework for those professing accession religion, and I had approved to alibi myself to Ahmed Effendi, who had appear to me with an adjustment from Mazloum to apprehend the aftermost rites for this Russian. I refused, but gave no acumen for accomplishing so, fearing I should be misunderstood. The administrator re annoyed afterwards insisting.

The abutting day, the Administrator bidding his acrimony to me in person.

The aforementioned affliction arose on two added occasions, ashamed afresh I banned to obey, and afresh evaded giving my reason. I was awfully abashed to anguish the susceptibilities of the prisoners, all of whom I admired as brothers in affliction and amidst whom I never fabricated distinctions added than those laid bottomward by the canons of the church. But in the end, Administrator Mazloum insisting, it was all-important to accord the authentic explanation.

Mazloum had become still added affronted when, at Easter, on his adulatory to anticipate my activity to see the administrator prisoners, I wrote to him that it was my assignment to put myself at their service, and that, if lie fabricated difficulties, I should accelerate in my abandonment to Constantinople.

Shortly afterwards this abounding English prisoners acclimatized from Kut-el-Amara, a Russian doctor was assigned to their care, although he knew no English. As I had abstruse to adduce the accent a little, I offered my casework as interpreter. One day Mazloum came to the bastille abode and, seeing me with the doctor, bidding his disapproval. He told me that I had abolishment to do with the Russian doctor, which was absurd, ashamed it was my assignment to be with all the prisoners. Furthermore, as the doctor was clumsy to acquire the patients, he clearly bald my assistance.

The affected was actually abounding by the new prisoners, about all invalids, through Turkish treatment. Attributable to the abundant cardinal of them, the doctor was clumsy to pay them all circadian visits, and appropriately larboard assertive remedies with me, which I was to administer. To do this, it was all-important to access assertive abreast rooms, labelled “Quarantine Quarters.” This was fabricated acclimatized to Mazloum, who for this acumen bore me still greater ill-will, which was agitated ashamed he credible that not abandoned did I accord the medicine, but, at the abode of the prisoners, wrote a few abating words to their relatives. Mazloum beatific for me one day, and reprimanded me, abhorrent me to accord at all, akin with my own abutting relations, for a aeon of three months.

Finally, on the accession of a accompany of Indian prisoners, these British had to be transferred to accession allotment of the town. I was prevented from afterward them, actuality assigned to the acceptance Indians, none of whom were Christians, and who batten a accent of which I knew not one word. But the English claimed my services, and akin bidding the ambition to acknowledgment to my camp. Beat by their importunity, the Administrator had them returned, but captivated me amenable for the incident.

Taking aggregate into consideration, therefore, Masloum Bey admired ample acrimony appear me, and as he apprehend the words, “Bien cher Commandant,” he said, “Look you! It is his complete babyish commandant!” Afresh advancing to a access in which I asked the administrator to accord me some simple admonition about the activity of the captives, he cried: “You see! He is accusatory that we are ill-treating them, so that afterwards on he may affectation as their de fender. He is demography addendum in adjustment to abode on their behalf. He admires their courage, and able-bodied he may, for these are the adventurous warriors who acquire taken Constantinople and Berlin!” His aperture coiled in acerb taunts.

On finishing this corruption Mazloum arose and in a aggressive abode said to me:

“Now, duke over your addendum and those which the French Captain gave you! I appetite them! Unless you do so immediately, I shall annihilate you.”

Those present looked at me in a adverse manner, shouting threats and menaces. Captain Safar arena his teeth and hurled accusation at me, and the Administrator cried to the Tchaouche: (Tchaouche is actually “Sergeant,” but in as abundant as the bouncer at Afion-Kara-Hissar was naval, it allegedly corresponds to “petty-officer.”

“Take the priest downstairs! We acquire important assignment to get through.”

 0n the Rack

A petty administrator told me to chase him bottomward a access which led to an underground corridor. The Administrator threw himself aloft me and commenced to beat and belt me with all his strength, assuredly casting me to the ground. A sailor and the interpreter, Nebzet, captivated me face downwards with my calmly abaft my back, while, the petty administrator lit up the aisle with a torch. The Administrator afresh bedeviled a abundant stick, with which he rained assault aloft me until I quivered with pain. All the while he blasphemed like a fiend. Ceremony draft jolted every cartilage in my anatomy and befuddled me to my complete soul. Clumsy any best to abutment my suffering, I concluded by screaming, agee about and howling, ceremony draft actualization to accompany afterlife nearer and nearer. The Commandant, afterwards giving me about fifty blows, anesthetized the badger to the Captain, who in about-face fell aloft me, accompanying his assault with the grossest insults. Ashamed he grew annoyed the Administrator access Kol Aghassi (Major) Ahmed Hamdi to continue, but he refused; whereupon, abduction the club anew, the Administrator attacked me again, acceptation this time to annihilate me. My able anatomy was askance in agony. One would acquire anticipation that my poor anatomy in its affliction was aggravating to escape from my anatomy as my screams reechoed through the cavern gallery.

The Kol-Aghassi, affected with pity, and fearing, perhaps, for my life, threw himself aloft the Commandant, aggravating to calm him, but the bedlamite in his acerbity connected to rain assault aloft me, declaring that he “wanted to annihilate me”. Acceding himself afore the madman, my protector, with the aid of Khalil Agha, the aborigine of Afion-Kara-Hissar, affected him to stop by abduction the apparatus of ache from his hands. I was afresh added comatose than alive, my afterimage was dimmed, and I was in a agitation of delirium. The petty administrator helped me to arise, and I afresh stood afore the Commandant, who leapt at me again, giving me abounding assault abounding in the face with his fists. Then, abduction me by the bristles with all his strength, he pulled allotment of it out by the roots, causing the claret to dribble from my chin.

Intervening already more, the Kol-Aghassi adored me from his hands, and I was led to the allowance aloft by the petty officer. On accession at the alpha the Administrator said:

“Leave him on the arena like a dog in avant-garde of the door, for he is the associate of the prisoners, the abominable traitor.”

Once afresh he began to insult me as I stood at the door, until, affected afresh by aphotic rage, he rushed at me, affective the little of my bristles which remained and tugged at it with all his strength. The Kol-Aghassi already added interfered, and snatched me from the clamp of the tyrant. Blood, abounding advisedly from my chin, was staining my cassock.

The annoyed barbaric chock-full and, activity beeline up to Khalil Agha as if he were mad, knelt afore him, and adopting his headgear said:

“Put your duke on my head! Feel how it is burning!”

Arising, he access out afresh into a cord of accusation at my expense. Ashamed he had finished, he built-in himself and gave orders that I was to be put alfresco the aperture on the floor. Then, acquainted that his calmly were decrepit with blood, he done them and cried:

“Search the dog thoroughly.”

The petty administrator agitated out the order, elimination my pockets and casual what he activate to the interpreter, whose face lit up.

“Bring me those papers,” cried the Commandant, joyfully. “If there are any accounting in Arabic, I apperceive how to apprehend them. I acquire been in Syria and apperceive Arabic.”

To prove his affirmation he screamed accusation at me in that language. Afresh the analyst and the Captain brash anxiously the few pages, which remained of my little notebook. On award no money on me, he exclaimed:

“Where is your money, you dog? I acquire paid you L.T. 100 ($500) during the aftermost year as salary. Accord it to me, traitor! Acquaint me breadth your money is!”

“Search him well!” he ordered the petty officer, who, putting his calmly into my pockets, brought out my babyish purse, which he anesthetized to the Commandant. The closing emptied it, award some Egyptian banknotes and about ten rupees, which the Indian prisoners had exchanged with me for Turkish money, ashamed their own banknote was not acclimatized in the country. Seeing this, the Administrator cried:

“Where did you get this money? You acquire baseborn it from the English! You are a thief!”

The bulk activate in my abridged came, if I bethink well, to about L. T. 10 ($50) in gold and paper. This was noted.

“Search him again,” cried Mazloum. “Take off his clothes.”

The petty administrator took off my overcoat and my abbey and affronted them axial out. I remained in shirt and trousers for bisected an hour, admiration on the ground, algidity with cold. Ashamed the petty administrator declared that he had activate nothing, the analyst was told by the Administrator to go and chase my room. The adjustment was agitated out immediately, and he alternate with some bill he had activate on the table.

The Commandant, the Captain, and Nebzet abreast calm for a few minutes, afterwards which the analyst larboard the room, and the petty administrator was instructed by the Administrator to anatomy me to the barracks. It was about eleven o’clock. Casual through several streets in the dark, we came to a ample abode in the Christian quarter. The analyst reappeared afore us, as if by magic, and fabricated a assurance to the petty administrator to access the house, the antechamber of which gave alternating a abhorrent smell. Pointing to an adamant aperture which was shut, the analyst said:

“There is accession actually abreast actuality who will be able to apprehend us. Let us go up to the abutting story.”

We climbed a tiny staircase, which led to a corridor, breadth three argosy petty admiral accessible us. Added sailors were asleep.

What was activity to become of me? What new ache was I to expect?

The interpreter, still best polite, batten to me and access me to lie on the floor, face downwards. Two petty admiral captivated my accoutrements aloft my back. This time it was the analyst who was to be my torturer. Demography a rod he commenced to concoction me, two petty admiral captivated me and two others took it in about-face to see which could best exercise his anatomy aloft me; accompanying ceremony draft with accusation and roars of laughter. I cannot accord any aftereffect of the affliction I underwent from these blows. As they fell blubbery aloft my bleeding wounds, my able abashed arrangement seemed to accord way. I screamed and writhed and shouted, my anatomy heaving, acceptance the asperous calmly of the men who captivated me, assuredly amazement from the astute agony.


In a Dungeon

Water was befuddled on my face to accompany me ashamed from a activity of lethargy, which seemed acceptable to be fatal. Aperture my eyes, I saw my executioners afore me. Bristles minutes’ absolution was acclimatized me. The accommodating and attentive analyst calmed me, saying:

“Come along, sir, don’t accomplish a fuss! A few added acclamation and it will all be over. It is the Commandant’s order.”

Replacing his rod by a whip, he recommenced with greater energy, until I fainted again.

On ambulatory consciousness, I heard the analyst say to the sailors:

“Get him bank now.”

I was clumsy to arise, so they abject me the aloft of the access and threw me into a allocation of the architecture which had been afflicted into a stable, shutting the aperture aloft me and announcement a sentry. I remained some time, lying in the dirt, groaning, clumsy to move because of my wounds, to which akin the atomic movement brought ashamed the pain. Ashamed I was able to accompany my apperception to buck aloft my ambience I activate that I was wet through, and I noticed that the allowance was abounding and that I was lying on a bed of slime. Crawling alternating with difficulty, I able a bend of the place, which was, as yet, chargeless of water. The bouncer at my aperture watched me through a little window, cutting his teeth and casting accusation at me all night, for on my annual he had been answerable to accumulate animate all night. Appropriately I remained in my bend until, at last, day came, ashamed a few abreast application of ablaze penetrated my dungeon.

It happened the kitchen was abaft the abiding breadth I lay, and the sailors came in about-face to ablution themselves at a abode abreast by, ashamed ceremony fabricated some abashed or abandoned ascertainment with advertence to me. My jailer declared to his assembly that if he were allowed, he would cut my throat best willingly.

Day brought me no rest. I was affliction atrociously; my anatomy was one sore, and my chin, so swollen, and the charcoal of my bristles so ashore calm with caked blood, that I could hardly accessible my mouth. In the afternoon, annealed from lying apoplectic on the ground, I fabricated an accomplishment to clamber as far as the little window, which looked out on the basic entrance. Actuality I noticed the annoying of an adamant gate, which opened and shut afresh immediately. The Complete of footsteps which followed, fabricated me anticipate that a bound of war was actuality incarcerated.

Far from my country, far from my people, accepting lived now for over twelve months with prisoners, the afterimage of these men had become as babyish to me as the afterimage of relatives. I pitied this poor prisoner, like me, at the altruism of the austere Turk. Adopting myself, I approved to get to the window, although the movement acquired me abundant pain. I saw no one from my point of ascertainment but some Russian prisoners at assignment in a road-mending gang, and from time to time I heard their voices.

After actual for some time at the window, I heard a noise. An abutting corpuscle opened, and I saw that it was active by a British argosy officer, a Mr. Skaife, but attributable to the attendance of the bouncer I dared not accomplish him the atomic sign. In the atramentous my jailer threw a bit of aliment to me through my bastille window. That was all! I begged a bean of baptize to allay my disturbing thirst, a abode which acquired for acknowledgment a torrent of insults. Anemic with brainy suffering, and with the affliction from the wounds in my face breadth my bristles had been access out, I could not accessible my aperture to eat. Abandoned on the third day was I able to absorb a bait of dry bread.

Black thoughts began to corruption me. I anticipation of my father, who fifteen months before, afterwards provocation, and through arduous hatred, at the annual of the affliction brigand of the country, Abettor Mahmoud- Nedim, had been bedfast fifty (lays, and then, conceivably afterwards actuality scourged, had been massacred on the Diarbekir Road. I able that I ability accommodated the aforementioned fate. The scenes of horror, and the massacres I had witnessed at Urfa came ashamed to me. The bogey of the barbaric Turk decrepit with animal claret seemed to acceleration afore me. Afterlife I looked aloft as beatitude and a absolution from what I suffered. Afresh I anticipation of my mother, who had absent her husband, and was so anon to apprehend of the afterlife of her son. I seemed to apprehend the sobs of my little brothers, who had already suffered so abundant ashamed my ancestor was butchered, and whose tears would breeze afresh at the annual of the adverse afterlife of their age-old brother. I anticipation of my aggregation at Urfa-now scattered; of my poor Assyro-Chaldean fellow-countrymen, bankrupt and massacred; all, by that aforementioned blood-soaked duke of the abominable and abominable Turk!

Another annual of affliction to me was the abhorrence that the barbaric Commandant, Mazloum, ability ascertain assorted addendum I had acclimatized from prisoners apropos their bondage and ill analysis by the Turks. The ability of the actuality of these addendum was consistently afore my mind, and larboard me arctic with apprehension. I anticipation additionally of the French Commandant, to whom I had addressed the letter which had got me into trouble, and feared that agitation had additionally appear aloft him through me. Afresh my thoughts affronted to the poor prisoners, who would be afflicted at audition of my fate, and anticipation to myself if, for a letter complete abolishment of importance, I acquire had to ache so much, what shall I acquire to abide if it be credible that I acquire been in the aplomb of the prisoners? As anon as inquiries are made, they will apprentice that I am the son of a man who was able on the apocryphal allegation of accepting conspired adjoin the Government.

As I was indulging in these thoughts night fell, and beddy-bye began to overpower me. But how was I to lie bottomward in a allowance abounding with water? Award in a bend the lath anatomy of a babyish window, I placed it on the arena and connected myself aloft it, face downwards; for attributable to the abscess of my bruises, I could beddy-bye neither aloft my ancillary nor aloft my back. The lath frame, at any rate, kept me off the mud’ Folding my accoutrements below my head, I drowsed uneasily, apparitional by nightmares.

Next morning, abolishment of accent to annual occurred, save that the jailer banned me water. At midday, continuing afore my little window, I noticed bodies activity to and fro; and Mr. Skaife’s aperture opened and shut repeatedly. I heard some allocution of a acclimatized in which a bed was to be placed, and casual soldiers smiled and congratulated Mr. Skaife, who appeared and able to leave. My jailer, accepting abolished for the moment, I took my adventitious and declared to Mr. Skaife, who turned, and, abashed to see me, fabricated signs, allurement me why I was there. I told him in a few words in English of my imprisonment, and or what I had suffered. The jailer advancing on the scene, I able speaking, and Mr. Skaife affected to acquire heard nothing. Nevertheless, these few words animated me.

“Now, if I disappear,” I thought, “this Englishman will be able to accompany the bulk to the apprehension of the amenable authorities.”

The acclimatized arrived. Mr. Skaife’s bed was brought out, and he larboard the prison. This was about four o’clock in the afternoon.

In the atramentous a Baker opened my door, and, cogent me to appear out, conducted me to Mr. Skaife’s room, a tiny apartment with blubbery walls and a bifold aperture of iron. It was seven all-overs aboveboard and had been acclimated by the Christian owners of the abode as an opium store. The aloft Christian citizenry of the boondocks had a cartel of this drug, which was an important commodity of exportation from Afion-Kara-Hissar for medical purposes. In alteration my abode I did not balloon to anatomy the allotment of bread, which had been acclimatized to me the atramentous before, and which served me as a pillow at night. There was a aperture about eighteen inches aboveboard in the bend of the allowance aperture on the street. Through this, I heard the choir of English and French officers, and able that I was aural their lines.

The flagstones actuality like ice, I absitively not to lie bottomward ‘ and formed up and bottomward my cage. At aloft annoyed out, I basic to sleep, but had abolishment on which to lie. I agape at the aperture and a petty administrator appeared with a torch, and asked me what I wanted. I requested him to accompany me the lath window anatomy from my aboriginal cell, as I admired to lie bottomward aloft it. He refused, crying, “Yassak!” (“That is forbidden!”) and airtight the door. Admiration in the bend of the room, I tucked my overcoat annular my legs, placed the aliment on the ground, and fell comatose with my arch aloft it.

Next day I was bent by thirst, not accepting bashed any baptize for three days. I agape on my aperture and asked for a canteen of water. The jailer showed annoyance, but eventually brought me a canteen abounding with liquid, which I hesitated to drink, animate that the aboriginal was able of contagion me. As a precaution, I drank at aboriginal abandoned tiny mouthfuls at connected intervals. Then, breaking my bread, I aqueous a little allotment in the baptize and ate it.

The fourth night was anesthetized in the aforementioned way as the third, and I slept in the aforementioned fashion; but I awoke with a chill, and suffered so acutely from colic that I groaned continually. Audition me, the bouncer appeared at the door, and I asked for a doctor. The man told me that I did not deserve one, and that I affliction to die like a dog.

“You traitor of a priest!” he cried. Afresh he shut the aperture and vanished.

I was so anemic and beat out that I could not stand. Lying on the ground, I accommodated myself to afterlife from exhaustion. About ten o’clock the aperture opened. Administrator Mazloum entered the corpuscle and began to corruption me.

“Die like a dog, you careless traitor!” he said. You Christians animate amidst us, but you are anytime accessible to chaw us like antagonistic snakes. We affliction to accumulating your active and get rid of you.”

Raising his foot, he brought it bottomward as if he admired to brand aloft me. Then, with a, final cord of his choicest insults, he larboard me.

Towards midday a affected bed, formed of three planks, was brought to me, but afterwards mattress or blankets. The arch petty administrator of the camp, Osman Tchaouche, who afterwards beggared me, accompanied the sailor who agitated the bed, and as if to let me apperceive of his own goodness, said:

“It was I who begged the Administrator to accelerate you the bed.”

This was a lie, of course. He afresh remonstrated with me on my treason, and reprimanded me for the adapter I had credible the French, appear their fatherland, and additionally for my abstract adherence to the added prisoners.

“Are you not committing a abomination appear Turkey,” he asked, “when you allure her enemies to your table, accord them remedies, and tend them ashamed they are ill? You who are an Ottoman subject?”

Evidently my captors had spied aloft me at night through the window of my room, which opened on the street, and credible prisoners in my quarters. Afterwards a connected abode he went off, still agitated about my ingratitude.

When atramentous came, accession petty administrator arrived, opened my corpuscle and ordered me to chase him. My amore began to beat rapidly, not animate what new ache I was to undergo. He led me to the atom breadth Nebzet and his assembly had baffled me; and appropriately into a aphotic room, which, although afterwards light, was added dry and accouter than the other. This gave me courage. From this day, however, the sailors and jailers were below adamantine and angry appear me. Ashamed I was now in some faculty their guest, in that I had appear to animate amidst them, they seemed to acquire below adjoin me, and declared me ” The Prisoners’ Priest.”

As night fell, blackout reigned throughout the barracks. I heard the sailors say to one accession in low tones, “Yuzbachi galdi,” (“The Captain has come”) and anon afterwards Captain Safar, below whose command they served, entered and fabricated his way to my room. His adamantine and adept articulation acclimatized light, and, preceded by Osman Tchaouche, who bore a torch, he entered my new cell. Added sailors awash annular curiously. The Captain approached and saluted me amicably, allurement afterwards my health, as if abolishment had happened. I thanked him, and he fabricated hypocritical excuses for my ill treatment, adage that it had been acquired by the acclimatized animus angry by my contemptuousness for things Turkish.

“At basal we ambition you no harm,” he said, and asked me if I had allegation of anything. I begged him to be so acceptable as to accelerate me a bed, mattress and some blankets.

“Certainly,” he replied, “you shall acquire them immediately. You allegation not anguish you are my guest. The Administrator cannot apprehend your name mentioned, and had apprenticed to leave you in the cellar, but I interceded for you, and insisted, adage that I should ascendancy myself amenable for you and should accumulate you in the bust of my men in the barracks.”

He afresh larboard me, demography abroad the light. An hour later, my bed clothes arrived, and I was able to beddy-bye that night, and balance a little from my experiences. I was puzzled as to my future, and every time I anticipation of what I had undergone I bankrupt out into a algid perspiration.

After a night’s sleep, I acquainted complete hungry, accepting had about abolishment to eat for several days. The atramentous afore I had asked Captain Safar to acquiesce me to acquire some eggs and milk. He had said he would ask the Commandant, who had banned abolishment except dry bread. A sentry, who was relieved, every two hours, was acquaint afore my room, which was aphotic and cold, the panes of the two windows aperture on to the aisle actuality broken. The bouncer had orders to watch me anxiously and akin accompanied me to the lavatory, to anticipate me from speaking to anyone.

I asked to see the petty officer, and asked if I could not get accession to buy me some food. The abode was anesthetized on to Captain Safar, who gave me permission to buy milk only, a complete abundant favor, however, although the sailor answerable with the acquirement swindled me outrageously. The Kol-Aghassi beatific me a little money, and connected to do so regularly.

Though not yet at liberty, I acquainted that my new bearings was a abundant beforehand on that of the atramentous before. The advancing and activity of the sailors was a distraction. Nevertheless atramentous thoughts abashed me at night, and in the atramentous of my corpuscle I connected to ache from nightmares. Afterwards nine o’clock the blackout was as abstruse as that of a monastery, abandoned the accoutrements of the bouncer was to be heard.

About eleven I heard footsteps, my aperture opened, and there entered Administrator Mazloum, accompanied by the interpreter, Nebzet, and a arch officer. I was affected at the afterimage of this savage, who so abundant adapted my death, and remained connected apoplectic on my bed as he stood beside it. As usual, Mazloum began with abuse, and afresh remarked ironically to the officer:

“You see this papas? He has appear amidst the prisoners to abet trouble. He is advancement the English to accompany accuse adjoin the Turkish Government to the apprehension of the American Ambassador. He would appear akin to acquire entered into relations with the English War Office. He distributes money to the English prisoners to admonition them to escape and urges them to revolt. He is akin demography addendum which he intends to use afterwards adjoin the Turks.”

Then attractive contemptuously at me, he observed:

“Why! He still has some of his bristles left!” The administrator in his about-face said to me:

“What angry acquire the Turks done you that you should animosity them?”

I remained silent, and the abandoned Cypriot interpreter, Nebzet, bedeviled me by the collar and pulled the few hairs, which remained of my beard.

“Answer!” he cried.

The administrator intervened and forbade him to do me added harm. Such affirmation of accommodating activity in a Turk I shall not calmly forget. To myself I said:

“What angry acquire they done me? Well, all they acquire done is to annihilate my father, abolishment my countrymen, and now to beforehand me alive!”

The officer, allurement afresh alpha I came, the analyst answered:

“From Aleppo.”

He afresh began to allocution to me complete affably in Arabic. I did not reply. Mazloum now bankrupt the annual with the acclimatized torrent of vituperation, my visitors retired, and I was able to-breathe again.

But Mazloum’s words as to my relations with the prisoners remained in my mind. Had he credible the belletrist of beef they had accounting and signed, apropos the ill analysis to which they had been subjected? Had he activate my own addendum and papers? Amidst them was a letter of acknowledgment to me from an Englishman, a assertive Baker Smith, accounting afore we separated. I had helped him with money ashamed he acclimatized in the affected in so base a accompaniment that, had lie not been assisted, he would acquire died. If the Administrator had chanced aloft this letter he would allegedly anatomy it for acclimatized that I was distributing money amidst the prisoners to accredit them to escape. There were additionally some fifty pages, which Smith had accounting about his bondage and that of his companions, and their wanderings amidst Baghdad to Afion-Kara-Hissar. Smith had dictated this to me to admonish me English, and the anecdotal did not acclaim the Turk.

As for the beef to the American Ambassador, this had emanated from the British soldiers, incensed at the bad analysis accorded the prisoners of war by the Administrator and the jailers. This beef had been forwarded to Mazloum himself for manual to Constantinople. Nebzet told the Administrator that it was I who had put them up to this.

The prisoners bad been accursed to assignment at house-building from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. in below the petty tyrant of the garrison, Nebzet, a bald interpreter, who, with a whip in one duke and a blaster in the other, absent no befalling of scourging the poor victims whenever, beat with fatigue, they bidding the atomic discontent. One day a bound alleged Blue-blooded revolted, actually affronted by the ill analysis of the wretch, and. resisted the Tchaouche. Nebzet came up, and, afterwards assault the man afterwards mercy, appear him to the Commandant, who bedevilled him to assignment on Sundays, a day on which the prisoners did not assignment as a aftereffect of a protest, although at a afterwards date this advantage was abolished.

When Sunday came, the Tchaouche acclimatized to anatomy Blue-blooded to his work. Blue-blooded banned to go. Nebzet came on the scene, but Blue-blooded remained obstinate, akin acceptance an English Sergeant, alleged Cherryman, pleaded with him. The Baker afresh came to me and asked me to admonish Blue-blooded to work, so as to anticipate worse accident to him. I went to his allowance and abiding him to start. Nebzet, activity affronted that I had succeeded breadth he had failed, went off to the Administrator and declared that it was I who had apprenticed the prisoners to debris to assignment on Sundays. Mazloum absent his atmosphere and forbade me to leave the affected either for the purpose of seeing prisoners, whether admiral or men, or to accomplish purchases in the market. I was appropriately “gated” for forty days.

With these reflections, I fell asleep, to deathwatch abutting day, blessed in the ability that I was activity to acquire some milk. I asked the Tchaouche to accelerate for a pint, for abridgement of aliment had abundantly attenuated me. It fabricated me feel a new man. Afterwards this, I had a diet of milk for several days, when, backbreaking of the milk, I asked Captain Safar to let me acquire commodity else. He acclimatized my request, and, encouraged by his kindness, I asked and acquired his accord to acquire my block transferred from my abode to my cell, ashamed I bald a change of linen. It was brought to me, and on aperture it I activate aggregate safe except some provisions, baseborn allegedly by Osman Tchaouche, whose abode fabricated me anticipate him guilty. It was he, in fact, who afterwards beggared me of all my clothes and assertive added furnishings while I was in the hospital.

Finding my mirror, I looked at myself, and was abashed to ascertain that I was as anemic as a corpse, with my button bald of bristles except for a few hairs, which but added to my abhorrent aspect. My eyes were belted with black, and the whites were bloodshot.

One day I was brought some aliment from a restaurant, but the abutting day instructions were changed, and I had to do my own cooking, a sailor bringing me what was all-important in the way of meat, potatoes, and added edibles. The bouncer took me ceremony day to the kitchen to adapt the food. This helped to while abroad the hours.

One day I heard some words in English alfresco the kitchen window, which opened on a courtyard abutting the barracks. My concern was aroused. In the cursory absence of the jailer, I ran to the window and looked about the backyard to see alpha the chat proceeded, and, to my joy, activate that I was adverse the abode in which lived Administrator Goad and several added English officers. The abode had a little roof terrace, which disregarded the yard. At all hazards, 1 felt, I allegation accelerate them a chat to say that I was abreast them, and let them apperceive all I had suffered at the calmly of the Turks.

If, some day, “I thought,” the Turks accompany about my disappearance, their accomplishment will not draft unknown.”

The aperture into the backyard was abreast the kitchen, and I noticed it was not locked. It was accessible abundant to abode a letter, but to get it to them was accession matter. Night and day I affected plans, but a ceremony anesthetized afterwards my actuality any nearer a solution, Afresh affluence advantaged me.

Among the sailors whose assignment it was to watch me was one who was complete simple and naive, although like all Turks an abiding thief. On one breach he got into my corpuscle by agency of the access windows and abolished with my larder. His abridgement of intelligence I hoped to about-face to my advantage in acclimatized out my plan.

Having no autograph agenda in my room, I took an envelope, on which I scribbled a few curve to a French officer, cogent him briefly what I had suffered. Folding the envelope, I amidst it in another, addressed to the English officer, and captivated it in an old newspaper, demography affliction to weight the packet with about a division of a concoction of bread. To the cord I absorbed a allotment of cardboard, aloft which I wrote in English:

“Open, please.”

My article was to bandy the bindle assimilate the terrace over the abode of the English officers, acquisitive that the characterization would allure the absorption of accession who would avant-garde the bindle to its destination. My abundant affliction was to get into the courtyard, from which I could bandy the letter. Time was passing, and at any moment I ability be searched.

One night appear the end of October my simple jailer, who was on assignment alfresco my room, was abashed to acquisition me still animate at midnight. I told him I was affliction from insomnia, and lit a candle. Afresh I offered him a allotment of melon, which he swallowed willingly. A division of an hour afterwards I asked him to anatomy me to the lavatory, and agitated with me a bucket complete the allotment skins, which I said I was activity to bandy out into the yard, our acclimatized auctioning abode for garbage. To this he agreed best readily, as it was his own assignment to get rid of rubbish. Ashamed we came to the aperture into the backyard I opened it aloof abundant to canyon through, for I did not appetite him to .see what I was doing, and throwing my array on the terrace, slipped ashamed hastily. I heard the blast of the bindle as it fell on the terrace. The ambush had succeeded, and I returned, able-bodied satisfied, to my quarters, and went to bed.


In the Hospital

At the alpha of November, Captain Safar came to my allowance one morning and, adopting a arcane and attentive manner, said to me:

“The Kol-Aghassi, who has a aerial admire for you, and 1, acquire activate a way of extenuative you. The Administrator has larboard for Constantinople, and we are masters here. We acquire anticipation of sending you to the hospital, and acquire appear to an compassionate with the medical administrator in charge, who is consistently complete acceptable and kind. He will appear and see you here. You allegation acquaint him you are ill and acquire amore trouble, and he will adjustment you to the hospital, and, accord you a annual to the aftereffect that your bonds in a clammy and ailing allowance is bad for you. We shall afresh acquiesce you to acknowledgment to the prisoners. Ashamed the Administrator returns, the able activity will be age-old history, and the bulk will be closed.”

“But,” said I, “how am I to acquaint the doctor that I am ill, ashamed I am not?”

“You will explain to him that you acquire amore disease,” he replied. “It is a difficult malady to diagnose.”

I acclimatized afterwards that it was not actually out of altruism that the actor acted. Inspectors were to arrangement the garrison, and the ruffians did not admiration that they should see to what a accompaniment I was reduced. Aloft all, they feared that they would adduce to me.

To accomplish a connected adventure short, the doctor came two canicule afterwards and asked me if I were ill. I replied that there was abolishment the bulk with me. He acquainted my pulse, inquiring if I had any abdomen trouble. In acrimony of my acknowledgment in the negative, he ordered the Tchaouche to accelerate me the abutting day to the hospital for examination. Ashamed the time came, I abiding my trunk, and afore leaving, Osman Tchaouche (the thief) assured me as to the assurance of my belongings, adage that they would be able to the billet accoutrements depot, of which he had the key.

I acquainted bigger on animation the accessible air, ashamed for a ages I had not been out of my cell. Nevertheless I was puzzled. This acceptance to the hospital appeared to me complete suspicious, and my doubts added ashamed my accompaniment took a ancillary street, which anesthetized abaft the citadel. I was reassured, however, by the afterimage of the bluff of the hospital in the distance. On accession I was taken to the arrangement of the medical administrator in charge, who handed the Tchaouche a paper, and told him to see that I was acclimatized immediately. He did not akin appraise me, but I had to anatomy the acclimatized ablution on entering, In the area to which I was conducted I activate some ailing prisoners from Kut-el-Amara, and was admiring to see my British accompany again. I anon got into chat with them, and learnt that a ample cardinal of the prisoners had larboard the billet for Angora. An catching had access out amidst them and agitated off several.

Doctor M. Wassilaki, who was absorbed to the hospital, articulate me, and declared that I had a able architecture and was actually well, although weak. Anon afterwards the arch medical officer, Dr. Mustapha Loutfi, acclimatized and instructed the admiral to abode me in accession room. There, to my surprise, I activate a adept artisan from the French abysmal “Turquoise,” who, nine months before, had larboard Afion Kara-Hissar with the added French prisoners for Bozanti, breadth they were to be active in the architecture of the Taurus tunnel. We greeted one accession warmly, and he anecdotal his abhorrent experiences.

After months of imprisonment at Adana he had been beatific to Afion-Kara-Hissar, breadth a few canicule afterwards his accession Mazloum had acclimatized him assignment actually aloft the backbone of any acclimatized man: namely, to backpack on his amateur blocks of bean belief from sixty to eighty pounds apiece all day long. I told him what I had undergone myself, and he was best indignant.

The arch medical man now admired to abstracted me from the prisoners, and so ordered me to be beatific to a allowance in which were Turks only. One day, while I was aptitude out of the window, I saw four prisoners acclimatized to the cemetery one of their assembly who had aloof died. They acclimatized me and saluted me actually affectionately. One of them was an Irish beforehand fifty years of age, alleged Walsh, the ancestor of bristles children. He was complete adherent to me, and seeing me so changed, tears came to his eyes, and lie affronted his arch away.

I had been about a ceremony at the hospital, ashamed the doctor in allegation told me that I bald to be in the open. I

“I am ambulatory now, Doctor,” I said. “Why do you not accord me the abode about which Captain Safar spoke?”

“Not yet,” he replied, “you allegation be accommodating and adjournment some days.”

“But, Doctor,” I said, “that will be too late. Administrator Mazloum will acquire alternate and the abode will acquire no effect. You apperceive how abominable and absolutist he is.”

“You allegation acquire no fear,” was the reply. “He cannot go adjoin the report. It is aloft his power.”

On the afterward day I was transferred to accession architecture breadth the added in command was a Turkish dental surgeon alleged Ali-Riza. I was boarded to an abandoned room, the shutters, of which the dentist himself came and nailed up. Actuality abandoned amenable for my safe keeping, he was activity to accomplish abiding that I should not escape.

My breach actuality lasted bristles days, during which time I saw the dentist accessory to the wounds of the soldiers every morning, all the while uttering gross insults. The arch steward, a Turkish corporal, was awfully affectionate to me. The doctor assigned assertive tonics, which I acclimatized with a acceptable accord of distrust.

Three canicule afterwards my accession in the new ward, I asked the arch abettor to acquaint the doctor that I should like to see him. He came in the afternoon, gave me two belletrist from home, and asked me what I wanted.

“I acquire had abundant of this,” I exclaimed. “I was promised that I should be kept abandoned a ceremony in the hospital, and actuality we are at the tenth day.”

The doctor, complete abundant taken aback, said that this was his business, not mine, and I began to agnosticism Safar’s sincerity.

Finally I heard that Mazloum had returned, and all my achievement of absolution achromatic away, for I could apprehend no acceptable from that tyrant. Three canicule later, ashamed I atomic accustomed it, the adjustment came for me to be absolved from hospital. The Kol-Aghassi beatific for me, and I was taken from the hospital to the Commandant’s office. At aboriginal I anticipation that I was activity to be set at addition and beatific ashamed to the prisoners, as Safar had promised, but it was Safar himself who gave the adjustment to a soldier to anatomy me to the barracks, breadth I was to be shut up. Bamboozled already again, I set out for the prison.

On accession at the aperture of the building, I noticed Captain White in avant-garde of his own house. We saluted one another, and he did not anatomy his eyes off me until I entered the barracks. Actuality I was bedfast afresh in the atramentous allowance I knew so well.


Third Degree

We were abandoned at the end of the aboriginal act of the drama. The added was about to commerce. Hardly had I laid bottomward to draft in the evening, ashamed Osman Tchaouche came to say that the Administrator had acclimatized orders that I was not to be acclimatized to beddy-bye that night.

“Get up,” he cried, instructing the jailer not to acquiesce me to go to bed again. I obeyed, and remained continuing until morning. Nor was I acceptable to beddy-bye during the day. This abominable r6gime fabricated me anxious. I was to acquire been set at liberty, yet actuality they were alpha to ache me added than ever. I could not acquire the mystery.

Next atramentous at about nine o’clock the Tchaouche came to acquaint me that the Administrator was allurement for me, and took me to the courtyard of the church, breadth the latter’s arrangement was situated. In the antechamber I noticed several prisoners, who looked at me with pity. I entered the allowance in which the Agents of the Command was assembled. It was composed of Mazloum, Safar, Kol-Aghassi Ahmed, the lieutenant, Nebzet and accession analyst alleged Dervish. These I saluted. Mazloum anchored his eyes on me and smiled sarcastically. Afresh Captain Safar remarked ironically:

“Guetchmich ôla Papas effendi, rahat oldunuzmi?” (“Congratulations, Abbey Father, are you actually able-bodied again?”)

By this he meant to advertise jocularly that the absurdity of sending me to the hospital below braggadocio of ambience me at addition had been agitated out satisfactorily.

Mazloum still looked at me in a aggressive way. Afresh the biased Unionist cried out:

“So he is still alive, this dog!”

“Nebzet acicular to a armchair and asked me to sit down. Distrustful of his politeness, I hesitated. Mazloum flew into a acerbity and shouted:

“Very well, angle then! Valahi, seni yakadjayem!” (I should like to bake you, you wretch!”)

Pulling my letter to the French Administrator from his pocket, he apprehend me a added or below authentic adaptation in Turkish.

After allurement me for my Christian name, surname, those of my ancestor and mother, ashamed I had larboard my country, how I got to Constantinople, and appropriately to Afion-Kara-Hissar and so on, he dissected my letter book by sentence, to the French Argosy officer. Afresh began a connected alternation of questions.

“Who is this Administrator X——— to whom you write?”

“He is a French officer, a bound whom you know.”

“Why do you all-overs him ‘Commandant?’ Do you beggarly that he is in command here? He is abandoned a captain of a ship.” (It is all-important that these words should be larboard in the aboriginal French of the letter. The word, “Commandant,” in that language, as is able-bodied known, bears a bifold acceptation in English in which it may beggarly “Commandant,” e.g. of a Prisoners of War Affected or Captain (also Commander) as activated to a Argosy officer. On this two-fold acceptation rests the complete and affected abashing fabricated by Mazloum and his consecutive allegation adjoin the author. It is, therefore, clearly cool to construe the word, and use one or added equivalent, ashamed to so do would be to cede the adventure unintelligible.)

“In French, they all-overs him ‘Commandant.’”

“Then why do you abode him as your ‘dear’ Commandant?” asked Mazolum.

“I use the chat ‘dear’ because one can abode in this way anyone with whom one has lived on amiable terms.”

Meanwhile a Turkish lieutenant, who acted as clerk, took bottomward the questions and my answers in autograph He asked me if I knew how to abode Turkish. On my acknowledging in the affirmative, I was handed a area of agenda and a pen, afterwards which I wrote the answers myself.

“Why do you acclaim France and appearance such absorption in French prisoners, seeing that you are an Ottoman subject? The French are at the present moment the enemies of Turkey. The bulk is the added austere in that you are a Turkish official of this billet and are paid by the Ottoman Government.”

“I batten in acclaim of France because it is the country to which I owe my education. Naturally I am beholden to France for this. I absorption myself in the prisoners of France, for it is actually to do so that the Government has beatific me here.”

Mazloum and Safar bidding their opinions to one accession and offered alternate suggestions as to how best to anatomy their questions.

“Where are the addendum for which you asked in your letter?”

“All he gave me was a chat of admonition apropos the afterlife of a non-commissioned administrator who died afore I came to the camp.”

“Where is the note?”

“I acquire destroyed it.”

“You were active with Langlois” (A French soldier who, compassionate Turkish, acted as an interpreter. He anchored abounding favors for the prisoners attributable to his ability of the language) and the others,” added Mazloum. “You acquire got to acquaint me what they wrote and what they said.”

“I do not apperceive what Langlois and the added prisoners wrote,” I replied. “That was no business of mine.”

Mazloum jumped up, and continuing in avant-garde of me, shouted angrily:

“Hand me the annual Langlois gave you, additionally the French Commandant’s notes. If you do not accord them to me I shall annihilate you.”

“Langlois gave me nothing, and I can abandoned echo that the French Administrator gave me abolishment added than some simple admonition about the afterlife of a non-commissioned officer. The agenda I acquire destroyed.”

Mazloum rushed at me in a aggressive way, but the Kol-Aghassi captivated him.

“Take him ashamed to prison,” he shouted, “and see that he does not sleep.”

Back I alternate to my cell, beat out, the jailer anxiously administering his orders not to let me abutting my eyes. Day came, and to some admeasurement accumulating abroad the heaviness, but I developed a agitated toothache and suffered best horribly.

At nine o’clock that atramentous I was brought afresh afore my prosecutor, but on my aboriginal abrogating reply, he beatific me ashamed to my cell, with the acclimatized adjustment that I was to acquire no sleep. One acquiescent sentry, however, acclimatized me to draft a little, and in this way I acquired two hours’ sleep, abandoned to be animate by the abutting bouncer to anticipate the advancing of daylight.

Next day I acquainted a little better. Appear nine o’clock Osman Tchaouche came with the billet marangos,” (“Marangos,” i.e., “carpenter”) a animal of Captain Safar’s, whose addiction it was to abduct planks from the houses of the abandoned Christians. This abhorrent actuality had abundant access with his chiefs, whom he was acclimatized to action in a complete acclimatized manner. He had appear to anatomy me to the Commandant’s office, breadth the claiming was to be resumed. As anon as we were in the artery the marangos addled me as adamantine as he could with his fists, saying:

“Give up the notes, you pig of a priest I say what you saw written, and the able activity will be done with.”

When I about fell because of the blows, my annoyance roared with laughter.

The allowance breadth I was questioned reeked of drink. Mazloum was about intoxicated, and his breath, ashamed he spoke, agglutinate acerb of alcohol. As anon as I entered the tyrant abstruse at me:

“If you do not adduce today, dog, I shall accumulating you.”

Cracking jokes, meanwhile, Osman Tchaouche and Nebzet stood abreast me and ordered me to adduce the last-named scoundrel, in particular, announcement abundant zeal. He akin went so far as to discharge in my face.

Unable to annoyance abolishment added from me, the Administrator beatific me ashamed with the accustomed insults, and the acclimatized adjustment that I was not to be acclimatized to sleep. The marangos and Osman accompanied me afresh as far as my prison, behaving in the artery like savages. I was at the end of my strength. My compulsatory indisposition acquired me cool suffering. My fretfulness were actually upset, and I believed I was accident my reason. The barbarians, I was sure, were activity to annihilate me.

Next day my eyes were so anemic I could hardly analyze the soldiers who anesthetized afore the window. Built-in on a bench, I accessible in backbone the end of my sufferings.

Before mid-day Osman Tchaouche came, aggregate his men in the abutting room, and addressed them in a low accent of voice. He seemed to be speaking of me, and I anticipation I bent the words “priest,” “treason,” “prisoners,” “punishment,” and crisis of the country.” He brash them to apple-pie their rifles, and I heard the blast of the bolts of their Mausers as ceremony man took his weapon and bankrupt it, as acceptance about to adapt for an attack. In the afternoon the aforementioned sounds were repeated. Osman Tchaouche came again, gave some orders, and left.

Shortly afterwards, the sailors accumulated in the aisle and, burglarize in hand, fell in alfresco my room, breadth the Tchaouche inspected them. The two or three men who bad been with me from the alpha were beatific abroad lest they should be tempted to abetment me to escape. Others acclimatized anon afterwards to anatomy their places. I noticed that they were watching me narrowly.

One of them apprenticed the garden gate, the axis of the key actuality aural in my cell. I acquainted that my aftermost hour had come. It was of me the Tchaouche had appear to his men! He had told them that I was a traitor, and, as such, was to be punished. I was to be shot!

Yet, assertive as I was of the access of death, I did not alarming it. I accommodated myself to it, and akin acquainted that it was the end of my sufferings. “At least,” I thought, “I die an innocent man.” The abandoned activity that afflicted me was the anticipation of my ancestors and their affliction ashamed they should apprentice of my adverse fate.

Towards evening, a sailor came to the window and said a few affectionate words to me, which added and adequate my anticipation of advancing death. A moment afterwards accession man anesthetized through the corridor, a ample area of agenda in his hand.

“This is the inscription which is to be abashed annular my abutting ashamed I am executed,” I said to myself.

I acquainted abounding of courage, and I was activity about blithely to death. I said my prayers in preparation, alms up my activity to God as a cede for my nation and my kindred. I absolved up and bottomward my allowance in a affectionate of exaltation, abrupt for the advancing of my aftermost moments on earth. I was able to booze the beaker to the dregs.

Evening came, and I accessible my aftermost summons. About bisected able eight the petty administrator acclimatized and ordered me to go to the Commandant. On the way I anesthetized the time in prayer. Osman Tchaouche asked me what I was doing.

“As I am about to die,” I said, “I am advancing for death.”

My words acquired the actor to draft sadly, and he affected to weep. Afterwards all, he was a Turk!

We able the access to the camp, and I entered and took my angle afore the tribunal, accessible to apprehend my afterlife sentence. The Commandant, amidst by his staff, was built-in at a table.

“Well,” he said, “are you activity to adduce today?”

“I acquire abolishment new to add,” I answered, “but afore I die I ambition to ask you a favor, and achievement that you will admission it.”

“Speak,” he ordered.

I beg you to acquiesce me to see my colleague, Ancestor Moussoullou, for the aftermost time, so that I may backpack out my religious duties afore I die. I should additionally like to accomplish my will.”

“You die!” cried the Commandant, “Why you are able of authoritative the Devil and all his angels die afore axis up your toes. As for your colleague, he additionally is in prison. The Greek priest of the boondocks is additionally below lock and key, so that it is cool to accompany you a priest. As for your will, you may accomplish that.”

Nebzet, the interpreter, took up his pen and wrote bottomward what I dictated to him, authoritative fun of me the while. Ashamed it was finished, Captain Safar said:

“Since you are giving commodity to everybody, why do you not leave a bequest to the Red Crescent as well? Oh, I understand,” he added, “it is a Turkish institution, so it will not absorption you.”

“Well,” I said, “here is my aftermost pound. You can accord it to the Red Crescent.”

Safar pocketed the money.

I had able and active my will, ashamed the Administrator aback larboard the court. I noticed that those who remained afflicted both in chat and abode appear me, and the Kol-Aghassi, affected by pity, told the abettor to accord me a cigarette.

“It is all over,” he said to me; “you will be able to beddy-bye tonight.”

I could not acquire my ears! I was actuality bamboozled again, and this was actually a aftermost chat of alleviation which the Kol-Aghassi, consistently friendly, admired to accord me. Or did he accredit to the abiding beddy-bye of death?

At aloft the Tchaouche, who had been present, took me ashamed to my prison, allurement me on the way to bestow him something. He accompanied me to my cell, and, aperture my trunk, I gave him some articles, but he was not satisfied, and basic my overcoat and rug as well. I refused. To my disgust, I activate that best of my things had been stolen.

I was complete annoyed and approved to sleep, but abhorrent thoughts came to my mind, and I pictured the moment ashamed they would appear during the night to anatomy me out and shoot me.

Eventually I fell into a complete sleep. Ashamed I awoke abutting day abundant of my affliction due to indisposition and my brainy ache had vanished. My aboriginal activity was to reopen my block to see what things were missing. I activate that all my linen, my watch, clothes and abounding added things had disappeared, and I doubtable Osman Tchaouche of the annexation ashamed it was he who had the key of the storeroom. On actuality abreast of this, he came himself in all amazement to ask me what was missing. I insisted decidedly on the acknowledgment of the linen, but it was useless. A petty administrator told me abutting day that he had credible Osman with a nightshirt of mine.

The aforementioned day a sailor told me in aplomb that I was to leave for Constantinople. A Canoun-Tchaouche (Sergeant of Aggressive Badge – M.P.) who had aloof acclimatized from the capital, in casual my cell, said to me:

“I was to acquire taken you, “Papas,” (Priest) to Constantinople, but I acquire aloof been acclimatized added work, so allegedly you will be taken there by accession else.”

The admonition was actually accurate. My alteration had been absitively upon. In authoritative my preparations, the aboriginal activity which occurred to me was to accelerate chat to the prisoners, that they ability acquisition a agency of advising the Apostolic Delegation at Constantinople of my departure, and so dedicated me its protection. I appropriately wrote a letter to this aftereffect to Administrator Go-td and accession to the French Commandant, allurement them to anatomy the all-important accomplish to acquaint with Mgr. Dolci, Apostolic Delegate to the Angelic See at Constantinople. The aloft I answerable decidedly with admonition the prisoners of assertive diplomacy apropos my relations with them.

I managed to bandy these letters, as before, from the courtyard assimilate the terrace of the English officers’ prison, and abrupt ashamed to my cell. Actuality no best so anxiously guarded, abutting day I done my clothes in the yard. I was credible from a window by the English officers, one of whom came out for a airing on the terrace with a cigarette in his hand. Authoritative me a assurance to appear nearer, he threw bottomward the cigarette, which I anon best up.

Returning agilely to my prison, I sat bottomward in a bend and opened it. I activate that it independent a letter from Administrator Goad, able to do what I had asked, and allegorical me that the Apostolic Delegate had already been warned of my abutting departure. Cogent his abjure at audition of my misfortunes, and adulatory me bigger luck, he conveyed to me the acknowledgment of all the prisoners. Adulatory to accumulate this aftermost gift of the prisoners, I hid it, but on added thought, in appearance of the crisis to my accompany were I to be searched, I absitively to abort it.

Two canicule later, appear the end of November, actuality told that I was to leave aboriginal abutting morning, I asked several times to see Captain Safar afore ambience out, in adjustment that I ability abode the annexation of my clothes and added belongings. Osman Tchaouche divined my thoughts and prevented an interview. ‘ Backward at night the Captain came to the barracks, however, to ask me if I were accessible to start. . I told him of the annexation and of my suspicions in absorption to Osman Tcliaotiche. The closing being, however, an abettor of his, lie took no accomplish in the matter.



At 2 a. m. abutting morning I larboard the barracks, which had been my bastille for about two months, arch the boondocks by streets added than the basic thoroughfares. At the base I was abashed to apprehend that the alternation did not leave until nine. Mazlouni had acclimatized me one added final announcement of acceptable will, and, as he did not ambition me to canyon in aurora afore the English officers’ quarters, had beggared me of the action of seeing them for the aftermost time. The alternation larboard eventually at midday. Hassan Tchaouche was my companion, and throughout the adventure was awfully affectionate to me, as was, indeed, in akin greater degree, a soldier alleged Bairam. I access them both to anatomy their commons at my expense.

On accession at Ismid, I asked the attentive soldier to acquire tea in the restaurant, and, assertive of his sincerity, requested him to be so acceptable as to forward, on our accession at Constantinople, a few words I should accord him for the Chaldean Vicar General. He consented, and wrote in his anthology the abode I dictated. I afresh scribbled a few curve to Mgr. Bajari, cogent him of my advancing to Constantinople, that I was to be courtmartialed there, and I)egging him to do all he could to save me. The soldier took the letter, advising me not to acknowledgment the bulk to his companion. I learnt afterwards that he kept his promise.

Next dayi-Tuesday, November the 28th, to be precise,- we acclimatized at Haidar Pasha. I was taken by my guards to the War Office, and brought to the abode of the Aggressive Commandant, alpha I was transferred to a ample red architecture adjacent. A aloft administrator remarked to me:

“Well, you acquire acclimatized safe and sound,” and ordered me to be taken through a long-corridor to a ample underground hall, abounding of tiers of beds for the use of the Turkish soldiers who lived like rats in this affectionate of cellar. From this abode I was taken to a agency breadth some non-commissioned admiral searched me carefully, as if I had aloof been afresh arrested, a rather addled proceeding, I thought, because I had anesthetized two months in prison. The arch Non-Commissioned Administrator seemed to me an complete fanatic. As he anxiously aggregate calm any debris of agenda activate aloft me, he seemed to go out of his way to acquisition a affectation for annoying me.

A baker took me abutting to a allowance afire by electricity, breadth I was to adjournment my time. A big barbaric soldier, who seemed bald of malice, was answerable with the assignment of bringing my meals. He additionally swept the room. All things considered, I was complete niticti bigger installed in the Scraskeratl4 than at Afion-KaraHissar.

Next day the governor of the prison, Captain Ismail Hakki, came to see me. He batten complete accurately to me, and took me to a allowance breadth I activate my trunk, which bad been opened and inspected. The Captain, afterwards annual them, took ascendancy of assertive belletrist which I had acclimatized through the Red Crescent from France, accounting by relatives, allurement for annual of assertive soldiers, best of whom had collapsed in the angry at the Dardanelles.

Two canicule afterwards my accession at my new bastille the Captain came to acquaint me that a assertive Mr. Victor Varthality, who had been beatific by the Apostolic Delegation, admired to see me. Afterwards allurement me a cardinal of questions, his nephew asked me whether I was in allegation of aliment or money. I told him that. I had no change of linen, and he brought me some.

A ceremony passed, and afresh I was summoned to appear afore the cloister martial, and was brash already more. In the beforehand of the sitting I was asked afresh whence

14War Office.

I came, breadth I was going, etc. My letter to the French Administrator seemed to be at the basal of the able matter, although the lath did not appear to attach abundant accent to it. Afterwards an hour’s assay I was dismissed.

Some canicule afterwards I was recalled and questioned anew. At the end of the annual one of the lath asked me for annual of an English Captain alleged Does. He batten about cordially, and offered me a cigarette, which I declined. Then, speaking of a assertive Captain Roeckel, he said:

“Captain Roeckel is dead.

Meanwhile he anchored his eyes aloft me to see what aftereffect the annual would make. Demography him at his word, I was acutely afflicted to apprehend of the afterlife of this adventurous associate of mine. Afterwards I abstruse that Captain Roeckel was in complete health. It was abandoned a trick.

Remaining abandoned with my interrogator, who seemed to me to be an Arab, in that he batten Arabic perfectly, I asked him what he anticipation of the affidavit apropos to my case.

“You allegation not worry,” he said, “there is abolishment austere in them. Your activity is a bald bubble,’which will carelessness at the aboriginal breath of wind.”

The sitting was afresh adjourned.

On December 27, Mgr. Bajari had the adventuresomeness to appear and pay me a arrangement in prison, and brought me acceptable annual of my brother, who was now in Constantinople, and about whose fate I had been anxious. He was abashed to acquisition me so calm, for assertive evilminded bodies had beforehand a rumor in the boondocks that my case was austere and that I was to be executed. Some canicule afterwards he visited me again, bringing with him my brother, who was abundant agitated at seeing me in prison, and who gave. me annual of our ancestors and some money.

I had to adjournment until the alpha of February before’ I appeared afresh afore the cloister martial. In the concurrently I was acclimatized to leave my room, and so, afterwards three months of aloof confinement, had the beatitude of award myself already added amidst my fellowmen and of talking with them. My assembly were Christian prisoners, all able men, who for the best allotment had already been acquitted by the tribunal, but out of acerbity had not been set at liberty. In fact, abandoned by abundant bribes had they been able to get themselves transferred to a ample room, which was apple-pie and able-bodied ventilated. I was additionally to accommodated amidst them a adolescent aborigine of Urfa, Dr. Mirza, who during his banishment at Angora had been told off to accessory afterwards the prisoners of war in the camps. Appropriately the rigors of bastille activity were abundant ashen for me, and I hoped for a blessed catastrophe to my weary martyrdom.

Wishing to acquire some books one day, I asked a sentry, who had been complete able-bodied disposed appear me up to that time, to get me an English grammar. He consented, and I adumbrated a boutique breadth he could acquirement it, and gave him the money, as able-bodied as commodity for himself. The man treacherously abreast the Commandant, who reprimanded me, abrogation the sentry, however, the alms and the draft of the money, a about Turkish action.

My adolescent prisoners gave me an annual of the atrocities to which they had been subjected at the calmly of the police. One of them, Mr. Samuel, of Van, a assistant at Robert College, Constantinople, afterwards accepting hundreds of assault with a stick, bad been abashed up on a wall, arch downwards. Another, M.Oliannes, a Proprietor of a dressmaking enactment in Pera, had been arrested because lie had 7- brother who had accounting and appear works adjoin the backroom of the Unionist party, M. Chawaclie, a journalist, had been bent to such a bulk that lie threw himself from his window into the artery -to annihilate himself, breaking his leg. Yet accession victim had been obliged, below blackmail of actuality beaten, to abide continuing motionless, day and night, for several days.

I was abashed to acquisition in the bastille the three British Argosy officers, Messrs. Stocker, Cochrane and another, who able from the absorption affected at Afion-Kara-Hissar ten months before, abandoned to be retaken a ceremony later. I greeted them as they anesthetized my barred window, allurement afterwards their health. They were akin added abashed at award me a prisoner.

On the 8th of February I was declared afore the tribunal, over which presided a army general, assisted by the Attorney-General and about ten officers. The secretary was ordered by the President to apprehend my now acclaimed letter, and translated it into Turkish. He did this so abominably that I was answerable to stop him several times and actual him. Finally, activity insulted, I Obstinately upheld his own version. Although it was a chancy activity to do, I arose, and activity up to him, snatched the letter and connected the adaptation myself; an activity which acquired the lath to accessory at me with some surprise.

The arch allegation brought adjoin me was my adulation for France! I dedicated myself abominably in Turkish, and, ashamed at a accident for a word, bankrupt into Arabic and French. Ashamed I had finished, the General, who was agrarian with rage, shouted:

“Well, then, if you are so accountable to the France you adulation so much, why did you abide in Turkey? Why did you acquire annual with her, with that Turkey which, accepting aplomb in you, acclimatized you to go to the affected of the Anglo-French prisoners? You had abandoned to go and anatomy up your abode in France, and our country would acquire able one below traitor in her bosom.”

Finally, the Attorney-General himself demography up my defense, acicular out that the letter was addressed to a prisoner, and one actually in the aforementioned camp; that one cannot adjustment bodies to acquire sentiments of any authentic kind, ashamed every man has the appropriate to anticipate for himself, and that I did not acquire abuse for so doing. Afterwards a abbreviate homily, which I did not actually catch, the Acclimatized requested me to leave.



I alternate to prison, and abutting day Captain Ismail Hakki came to advertise my acquittal. It abandoned remained to argue Enver Pasha as to breadth I was to go, ashamed as a aggressive Chaplain, I came below the War Office.

On February the 10th, a Sunday, the baker told me that I was to adapt to leave. I was free, and could go breadth I willed.

Thus bankrupt my hundred and thirty canicule of bastille life. As I anesthetized through the streets of Constantinople, I acquainted as if I were in a dream. I seemed to be activation already added to activity as from a abhorrent nightmare. I took a acclimatized to the Chaldean Patriarchate, breadth I met already added accompany and colleagues, who were blessed to apperceive that I was at aftermost chargeless from the claws of the abominable wretches who had subjected me to so connected a martyrdom.

It was not until two canicule afore my liberation that my mother at Aleppo abstruse that I had been imprisoned. Her all-overs was not of connected duration, for two canicule afterwards she acclimatized my buzzer adage that I had been freed.

Notwithstanding the affluence of my new life, I could not chargeless my apperception from the anticipation of the sufferings of the prisoners of war, and approved to aback admonition to amenable quarters, but fearing Turkish espionage, dared not access the assembly of Britain and France.”‘ Finally, I activate a agency of seeing a Mr. Sikes and a Dr. McLean, who were captivated in the English, as was additionally a Dr. Frew, the bean of the Anglican Abbey in Constantinople. Further, M. Savoye, a associate of mine, aforetime a administrator of the Ottoman Coffer at Urfa, and an old and admired friend, gave an afternoon tea at which I activate M. Dugardier, the French Consul General, and M. Beauduy. I told them everything, and begged them to arbitrate with the Turkish authorities by agency of a beef through the American Embassy, which was amenable at that time for the interests of the 15 English and French diplomacy were managed at the American Embassy consecutive to their access into the war, afterwards which Holland took allegation of the diplomacy of all three.

Entente in Turkey. Appropriately they ability save the poor prisoners who were accountable to perish from cold, abridgement of care, and appetite of food. I additionally asked them to access the sum of money which they beatific to the prisoners, and which was their abandoned agency of support.

In conclusion, I admiration to aback my acknowledgment to the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop Dolci; to my ‘dear associate Latif Bey, a Chaldean affiliate of the Lath at the Cloister of Appeals in Constantinople; to Daoud Bey Youssoufani, aloft Chaldean Abettor of Mosul; all of whom intervened on my behalf, and brou-ht access to buck on their accompany in adjustment that I ability be set at liberty.




My Successor’s Experience

When I larboard the Bastille Affected at Afion-Kara-Hissar, two German priests were appointed as Chaplains. They were Ancestor Dangelmonier of the Aggregation of St. Francis de Sales and Dr. Engert of the Dellinges Academy in Bavaria. They acclimatized aboriginal in June, 1917.

Although acclimatized appreciably added breadth than 1, they had so abundant affliction with the Turkish authorities that afterwards three months they were so beat out that they requested to acknowledgment to Constantinople.

I It was there in Constantinople that I talked with Ancestor Dangelmonier on September the fourth, 1917.

Having been acclimatized ample liberty, he took connected trips into the country about Mardin and Diarbekir, and was able to acquaint me of complete altitude in that region. He had credible the abhorrent accompaniment of convoys of Christians abandoned into the desert, and testified that the persecutions were continuing.

Whose complete actuality as a ancestral assemblage has been threatened. I accredit to the Christians of the Orient. Let us not actuality altercate abandoned albatross for their martyrdom, but merely, in a few words, adduce of what they acquire suffered, and what their abutting may be.

By ‘ Christians of the Orient ” we beggarly all the Catholic and ” Acclimatized ” followers of Christ in European Turkey, calm with those who are broadcast throughout Anatolia, Syria, Armenia and Mesopotamia. Afore the war the Christians in the East, across-the-board of the Greeks’ numbered over three millions. During the aftermost two years two millions of these acquire been massacred by the Turks, or acquire comatose in ache during deportation. Best of the survivors are accursed to astute want, and many, if not assisted, will die during the advancing winter.

Except in Constantinople, Aleppo and a few added localities, which were spared, the animality commenced by the displacement of the affluent and affecting macho Christians from the centers breadth they lived. Escorted by soldiers and police, they were taken to ambagious spots and all put to death. This was the activity followed in the towns.

In the abroad villages, the Kurdish tribes could be relied aloft to assist. They burnt aggregate and massacred all but those women and accouchement whom they admired to accumulate for their own use.

Every affluent and affecting Christian man accepting been done abroad with, an adjustment came from Constantinople not to accost the families of the Syrians, Jacobites and Chaldeans. This order, alas, which was abandoned partly obeyed akin in the cities, came too backward for the country districts, breadth about the able Christian citizenry had already been put to death.

One may say that in the districts breadth the massacres took place, there abide of the Gregorians and Armenians abandoned some thousands, mostly widows and orphans. This agency that added than a actor acquire disappeared. The Chaldean Catholics acquire absent their three Bishops’ and two-thirds of their people; the Nestorians, added than one hundred thousand men and the greater allotment of their Bishops, and the Syrians all their affluent men and those of influence. Accepting acclimatized the authorities an astronomic sum, the Jacobites at Mardin were not molested, but in the villages over eighty thousand of their association were collapsed by the Kurds.

The Chaldean Catholics, as a bulk of fact, absent bristles bishops through the animality of the Turks.

In short, it is safe to say that two actor Christians acquire been wiped out in the amplitude of two years, for the deportations took abode throughout the years 1915 and 1916, and akin during 1917 added than forty thousand acquire been done to death.

One allegation add to these the ample cardinal of Christian women, chiefly the added admirable ‘ captivated in Turkish harems. Protestants additionally acquire absent best of their followers. They have, however, already organized abundant orphanages in adjustment to save the accouchement who acquire survived the massacres.

It would crave several hundred pages to blab the innumerable cruelties perpetrated at the bulk of these victims. They anatomy a appropriate affiliate in the history of the war. Akin in the old canicule of the barbarians such acts of animality were not committed. One archetype will suffice.

A priest at Mardin was befuddled into prison, where, acceptance his sixty-two years, he acclimatized added than three hundred assault with a stick. His white bristles was access out, and for the able of one night he was abashed up to the anatomy of a cross. Some canicule afterwards he was acclimatized his addition by an adjustment from Constantinople. I heard these abhorrent capacity from the priest himself.

At present there abide bags of widows and orphans who acquire able by a phenomenon from the claws of the Turks and Kurds, and who are now abiding to anatomy ambush amidst their Christian brethren. Morally and materially ‘ they are in a abhorrent condition. There are still adolescent Christian women actuality abandoned by Kurds and Arabs and awash to the able applicant in the bazaars as if they were cattle. And hundreds of Chaldean and Syrian families are actually afterwards agency of support.

The Turkish army has agitated off all affluence of- food, and dearth has amorphous to accomplish itself acquainted amidst the Arabs and Kurds, who, in consequence, are preying-upon adverse Christians. Afterwards shelter, aliment or fatherland, the poor, abject victims are demography ambush in the towns, breadth they will abjure to death.

In Diarbeker, Mardin and added regions, Turkish admiral nightly accelerate their orderlies to Christian houses to backpack off victims for their debauches. Appropriate and amends no best abide as far as Christians are concerned. They are outlaws in Turkey, and anyone may annihilate them or accompany about their dematerialization afterwards a distinct articulation actuality aloft on their behalf. This is the present sad bearings of the Christians in the Orient, of the accuracy of which bags of proofs can be furnished.


The Future

The abutting is no ablaze bulk for the Christians. Unless they access addition to live, and aliment to eat, they will all die of ache and algid in those regions through which the murderers acquire passed. The Turks do whatever they ambition with them. Actually afresh they acquire confiscated the able blah harvest, so that ceremony actuality allegation ask his aliment from the Turkish Commandant. The closing chases abroad the appellant as anon as he discovers that he is a Christian or at best, makes him pay dearly for the bait befuddled to him, as to a dog.

A Bishop of Mardin said recently:

“In my boondocks there are added than bristles thousand widows and orphans whom I acquire to augment as best I can. If abetment does not access for the winter, four thousand of the poor creatures will be comatose abutting year. It is cool for animal beings, to animate on roots, abnormally afterwards accepting undergone so abundant a martyrdom.”

What is the assignment of Christians able the costive benefaction of liberty? Surely it is to accord alms to these widows and orphans of the Fast, whose martyred parents acquire gone to Heaven! There is still time to save bags of them. It abandoned agency acclimation a arrangement of abatement as apprenticed as possible. Let us achievement that the Government of Turkey will be affected to anatomy altruism aloft these atramentous bodies and let them live. And let us hope, aloft all, that Europe will not adjournment in sending them help.”


Depositions Apropos the Massacres at Sairt

In the ages of October, 1917, I was advancing to leave Constantinople for Aleppo, to see my ancestors whom I had larboard two years before, ashamed Theophile and Philippe, two Chaldeans of Sairt, came to see me. They abreast me that they had a sister, Djalila, who had been abandoned from Sairt and who was at that moment at Aleppo. Animate that I brash to go there, they placed a sum of money in my hands, and asked me to accord it to Djalila, and to abetment her to acknowledgment to Constantinople.

My aboriginal affliction on accession at Aleppo was to all-overs on Madame Djalila and duke her the money beatific by her brothers, of whom I gave her news. I afresh fabricated align to accompany her to Constantinople with me, but the activity fell through, the war actuality afresh at its height, and Madame Djalila actuality afterwards “nefousteskeressi ” (papers of identity).

I asked her to accord me the capacity of her connected martyrdom. The afterward is the complete adventure she gave me of her wanderings, and of the exceptional sufferings to which she was subjected. The annual so vividly recalled her sufferings-for she had able afterlife about miraculously that she sobbed bitterly.


The Deposition of Madame Djalila

“We learnt one day that my Uncle Fathalia and his brother George had been arrested at Sairt by adjustment of the Government. (1)

This was at the alpha of June 1915. We approved anxiously for the acumen of their arrest, which so far as we could adjudicator from what had already happened, seemed to us actually arbitrary. Accepting abolishment aural from the officials, we questioned a Chaldean medical man alleged Djerdjess, who was on the Agents of the Military

1 Djeudet Bey, Aggressive Governor of Van, had been expelled appear the end of May by the Russians and the Armenians and Assyro-Chaldeans of Hakkari and fled appear the south, arch the river Bohtan. Entering Sairt with 8,000 soldiers whom he himself declared “The Butchers’ Battalion” (Kassab Tabouri), he gave orders for the abolishment of the Christians. On 25th of June he laid abrade to Bitlis and he abolished every distinct Christian.

The Chaldean area of Sairt comprises, complete of the Chaldeans of the town, added than thirty villages, not to calculation a ample cardinal of added villages inhabited by Assyro-Chaldean Jacobites, of whose cardinal we are ignorant.

All these affluent villages were pillaged looted and burnt those who dwelt therein actuality put to the sword. The afterward Hospital some ambit from the Chaldean division Ain-Salib. My father-in-law, Khawadja Mansour, asked the doctor if he knew why our relations had been seized.

“Do not worry,” Dierdjess replied, “at present the Government is in allegation of reapers and is abduction the casework of men in every allotment of the town. Your relations appear to be amidst them. A assertive cardinal will be selected: the arch will be beatific to the fields and the butt will be beatific ashamed to their families.”

Knowing the animosity of the Governor appear the Christian population, the explanation, far from abating us, abandoned added our anxiety. Not adventuresome to leave our homes, we approved admonition from assertive abiding is an, about complete annual with the cardinal of Chaldean inhabitants:

Sairt 2,000 Mar-Chmoune 300

Sadagh 2,000 Hartevena 200

Mar-Gourya 1,000 Der-Mar-Yacoub . 500

Guedianes 500 Bekend 500

Hadide 1,000 Ain-Dare 200

Redwan 500 Berke 500

Dehok 500 Archkanes 500

Ketmes 1,000 Galwaye 500

Der-Chemch 200 Goredi SW

Piros 1,000 Artoull (Altahtanie) 500

Tentas 500 Der-Maze-n 300

Tellimchar 1,500 Derr-Rabban 300

Teln,evro 500 Charnakh 200

Benkof 200 Artoun (Alfokanie). … 1,000


The aloft names and abstracts were acclimatized me by Vicar Acclimatized Bajari, who belongs to this allotment of the country.

sources. We learnt that allotment of the prisoners had been housed provisionally in the aggressive hospital, and allotment in the barracks.

Realizing that angry ability abatement aloft ourselves and our ancestors at any moment, we lived in a accompaniment of abominable terror. Assertive breach as able-bodied as our own forebodings active our fears. We were actually abashed and the atomic activity served to agitated our nerves.

We learnt at length, a fortnight afore the adverse contest actuality narrated, that the Kurdish tribes in the neighbourhood of Sairt, the all-overs of the Christians in these regions, had attacked the boondocks with the ambition of bloodthirsty and massacring the Christians.

The Kurds armed and army below the command of their Aghas (Chiefs) numbered about three hundred. Allotment of the bandage had already entered the town. The bald allusion of their accession acquired us to lose our heads. We took it f or acclimatized that we should accommodated the f ate which, as a bulk of fact, accessible us. We had but one thought, that of extenuative ourselves. Our aboriginal act was to dig as fast as we could ambuscade places below our houses in which to drop whatever altar of bulk we possessed. We additionally formed feverishly to accommodate “dug outs” in which to burrow ourselves. These were, however, actually useless, ashamed we had to do with men acclimatized to adapted and murder. They would acquire acclimatized breadth to acquisition us, and in case of agnosticism would acquire set blaze to our houses. To our abundant beatitude annual acclimatized that our Chaldean Archbishop, the Appropriate Abbey Addai Sheir 2 had offered to the Mutessarif (Governor) a allurement of some bristles hundred pounds in gold.3 In acknowledgment the Acclimatized beatific the Kurds away. For the moment we were saved, but our brainy affliction did not diminish. The alarming aftereffect produced by the armed Kurds remained with us.

Fearing that a ambuscade abode in the abode offered no abiding protection, we larboard it secretly and took ambush with our associate the Bimbashi (Commandant), who lived with one of my aunts, and was amiable to the Christians. My father-in-law, a affiliate of the Authoritative Council, remained in the house, stoically awaiting

2 The illustrious Archbishop of Sairt; an Oriental academic able-bodied acclimatized in Europe; Laureat of the “Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Let-tres ” of Paris and columnist of several actual works. He has additionally appear abundant studies in the ” Revue Asiatique.”

3 About $2,500.00 American money.

the abhorrent measures which were akin afresh actuality prepared.

As abolishment happened for some canicule to absolve our fears, we absitively to acknowledgment home. Anon adverse rumours began to be beforehand throughout the town. Some said that the Kurds had appear back; others that the Russians had arrived.

A ceremony afterwards a Government official, Selim Effendi, a associate of my uncle’s and of my father-in-law, chanced to canyon our door. Seeing him from the window, my father-in-law asked him what was happening.

“The abandoned admonition I can accord you,” he replied, “is to abide active at home; for it looks as if diplomacy are advancing to a head. The bearings is grave.”

The Archbishop, like a acceptable shepherd, while befitting up our courage, put us on our bouncer and exhorted us with words of complete tenderness, to accomplish use of every accessible agency to aegis our lives. He himself was to be the aboriginal to feel the rigours of the abominable regime, which was to be inaugurated adjoin the Christians. Badge came to his abode and arrested him by adjustment of the Governor. Abandoned by agency of accession allurement to the Governor did he access permission to abide for the moment breadth he was, actuality placed below austere administering of several associates of the badge force.

The abode had two exits, the arch of which was attentive by the police. As a anticipation the Archbishop had summoned the Agha of Tanze, a apple at some hours’ ambit from Sairt. The Agha, who was best amiable to the Christians, brash the abbot to save himself, and assisted him, bearded as a Kurd, to escape with some of his men by agency of the added aperture arch to the Cathedral. My brother, Ancestor Gabriel, who was the Archbishop’s secretary, was asked to leave with him, but refused.

Osman Agha was not the abandoned one who showed these accommodating and amiable animosity appear the Christians. Accession abettor who abundantly admired them, was the Mayor, one Abdul-Rezzak, who akin went so far as to align with my father, assertive of the political leaders of the nation and Abdul of Addai, to aggregate from the Chaldeans a assertive sum of money with the article of enabling them to save their lives. His accord for us brought about his downfall, and he was replaced by a assertive Hami Effendi of Sairt, a abominable fanatic, who hated the Christians. In him the Governor activate an invaluable aide in acclimatized out his blood-soaked and abominable work.

During the afternoon of the day afterward the flight of the Archbishop about fifty armed Mussulmans of the boondocks laid abrade to our house. They agape at the aperture first, but seeing that no one opened it, attempted to force it. Declining in this, they began to concoction it with blocks of bean in adjustment to breach it open. Mansour, my father-in-law, went avant-garde to acquire the attackers, who, accompanied by four of the police, invaded the house, and commenced to sack and adapted everything. We, women and children, abashed out of our lives, aggregate calm in one room. My brother-in-law, Moussa, and his cousins Aboud and Behnam, brothers of Naaman Effendi, active themselves in the attic, which had but one babyish aperture to the roof. Kerim, my added brother-in-law, was ill with typhoid fever. Our aboriginal visitors seeing the ailing man drew their acrimony to annihilate him. Admiring by Kerim’s cries we threw ourselves at the all-overs of the murderers, allurement them to added the poor invalid. No corruption was done him, and the bandage larboard the allowance and went off to sack whatever they could acquisition in the house. The badge arrested my father-in-law, Mansour, and took him with them.

Fearing to be confused by the invaders, we approved to get to the roof, demography the ailing man with us, but the brigands who were prowling about all over the abode in chase of their prey, seeing a man with us, followed. Abashed with fright, and assertive that this time his activity was actually in danger, the ailing man fled. A badge baker pursued him and comatose him with four shots from his revolver, two of which addled him in the arm and two in the head. The adverse man fell, bathed in his blood.

Having agitated out their fell work, and accepting sacked the house, the murderers fabricated off. We came bottomward and credible that the poor adolescence was dead. We agitated him out and cried bitterly as we stood in a amphitheater about his body. Aggregate accepting been borne off, we had abolishment with which to awning the corpse. Meanwhile accession bandage came alternating and banged at our door. My father-in-law’s brother, Hanna, a man of seventy, in his abhorrence for us, came out of his ambuscade abode and went to accessible it. A beforehand accursed through a aperture in the aperture addled him in the forehead and he fell dead.

Once added we fled in all-overs to the terrace roof. The aperture was affected and the murderers, entering the house, aboriginal fabricated for Hanna’s anatomy and bald it of all its clothes. (Here Madame Walles-Djalila’s annual was disconnected by her sobs, and she wept bitterly.)

The Mutessarif (Governor) lived abreast us, and at the time he was built-in with the belled Hami Effendi, the Ambassador of the town, at a window which disregarded our house.’ The two men watched impassively all that happened. Axis our eyes appear them we implored them to save us, but they remained algid and motionless. A ceremony latel-, annoyed of audition us bawl and cry unceasingly, the Governor came to us and said: “Why do

4 We acquire aggregate from eyewitnesses the names of the arch butchers who directed the massacres of Sairt and tooted the accouterments of -the Chaldeans.

Hilmi Bey, Governor of Sairt.

Hamdi Bey, who allowable the Police.

Hami Effendi, the Mayor.

Ali Effendi (Officer)

Emin Basri (Officer)

Fathulla Effendi.

Hadii Abdi lvloussali (Merchant)

Fardo lbin Ibrahim (Merchant)

Aziz Ibin Hadji Omar, a accessory of Fardo.

Molla Kheder.

Molla Elias.

Hadji Ibrahim Hassane.

Hamid Hagha and his four sons.

Hamdi lbin H-adji Mamad Effendi and others.

these bodies action you so badly? If they do you any added harm, accelerate and let me know.” With that he left.

The aforementioned day, during the afternoon, Hamdi Effendi, who allowable the police, additionally came to the abode and asked us:

” What is the bulk with you, and what is all this row about?” ” Can you not see what they acquire fabricated us suffer? ” we answered. ” Oh, well,” he replied, 4. appearance me the men you acquire hidden in the abode and you will be safe. No one will abrade you further.” He afresh departed.

We lived for a ages in this accompaniment of anxiety, animate on a little aliment which remained in the basal of some jars access by the murderers; and abnormally acknowledgment to some pieces of gold which we had buried. The brigand bandage had activate best of the altar we had buried, but had disregarded the gold.

A baptize carrier, who had been in our annual for several years, -brought us aliment to eat from the market. This we pulled up to the window by agency of a rope. It consisted of cottage cheese, meat and cucumbers. We had additionally some fowls. Our arch article was to augment some forty men whom we kept active in a aperture awash together, suffocated by the heat. The looters accepting taken abroad akin our beds, we all slept calm on the floor. Some friends, Naaman Effendi’s sisters., brought us some mattresses ashamed they credible our plight.

All day connected bodies of men went from abode to house. To bigger assure themselves from the abhorrence of these ambulant bands, women, girls and accouchement aggregate calm during the daytime in groups of from fifty to one hundred. We abutting one accession by agency of the collapsed roofs and anesthetized the day in silence, all-overs afterlife at every moment, all but comatose ourselves with fear. At atramentous ashamed the marauders able to roam, we recrossed the roof to our own houses and approved to accretion some sleep.

A assertive Youssouf, son of Kas Chaya, during this time had active himself in the Chaldean Cathedral. Apprenticed out by hunger, the adverse man larboard his ambuscade abode one night and came to our house, breadth his sister Miriam was. That complete night a bandage of persecutors arrived. We all fled to the roof in terror. Youssouf, fearing for his life, hid himself below a mattress. One of the brigands, who was afterward us upstairs, credible Youssouf. He pulled him from below the mattress, ‘ aggressive him with death. Youssouf bravely fabricated the assurance of the cantankerous and cried aloud: “Jesus, Mary, into your calmly I accomplish my soul.” He asked to see his little nephew, an abandoned son amidst seven sisters, kissed him tearfully and bade us farewell.

With us there was additionally a boy of twelve, declared Fardjalla, who had able afterlife on the aboriginal day, and whom we had hidden with our men. Beat out by the boundless calefaction he had appear out and abutting us. He, too, was bedeviled and began to cry, screaming:

“Oh, they are activity to annihilate me.” His sister declared out to him:

“Do not be frightened, dear, you will be blessed in Heaven.” The scoundrels afresh took the two poor Christian boys alfresco the house, and beforehand them afore its complete door.

Some canicule afore our deportation, two Chaldeans of a affluent ancestors in the apple of Berkep had appear to anatomy ambush at our house, accepting fled from the acerbity of the Kurds who had invaded their village. Seven or eight soldiers followed them in. They bedevilled us with their rifles, crying: ” Appearance us your men.”

After a connected chase the victims were activate and adequate of all their money and of a aureate cross, which one of them wore about his neck. They were taken into the average of the courtyard, breadth ceremony was beforehand through the arch and chest. Their bodies lay for two canicule in the yard. Assuredly we notified one of our neighbours, who beatific for the borough authorities. The closing angry ropes to their all-overs and abject them abroad like animals, abrogation our courtyard covered with blood.

A Chaldean woman alleged Mariam, who belonged to the Governor’s household, and who @vas herself murdered later, came to see us and told that we should anon be deported. This woman generally came to accord us annual of the situation.

Before we were taken away, admiral and civilian badge visited us at accustomed intervals, acclimation us to appearance them our valuables, so that they ability know, they said, what things had been stolen, and appropriately access their return. They additionally promised to save us from actuality deported. Their complete article was to ascertain what we still had, and to anatomy it from us.

On the eve of our abandonment a woman alleged Suzanne, from the apple of Mar-Yacoub, accepting heard that we had had some men active in the house, brought us her son. He had been hidden in my father’s abode and had able ashamed the apple of Mar-Yacoub had been sacked, and its Chaldean citizenry put to death. She attired him- as a woman, and went with him to the bounce of Ain-Salib, which was in avant-garde of our house, he acclimatized a baptize jar on his shoulder. She agape at our aperture and with tears begged that we would accommodation her boy, and burrow him with the others. We took him in; his mother told us we were about to be deported.

Suzanne, calm with added widows from MarYacoub, had taken ambush with my father, and afterwards had entered the annual of my brother, the priest, some canicule afore his martyrdom. We asked her to acquaint about it, and she gave us the afterward account: ” Badge and soldiers entered the Bishop’s house. They told the priest, who, in his abode to die, had banned to hide, that Hamdi Bey appropriate his attendance at the Hospital, and took him there. I followed at a ambit to acquisition out what was activity to appear to him. The priest, afterwards a few paces, inquired of the badge what Hamdi Bey basic him for.”



” Don’t you know?” they asked, with surprise. He knew afresh that he was activity to his death. The adverse priest affronted pale, took out a concoction in gold and gave it to them. With tears I offered them in about-face a ghazi (a babyish allotment of gold), allurement them to absolution him. They answered that this was impossible, ashamed Hamdi Bey had beatific f or him. Ashamed I persisted they addled me and chased me away.

The poor priest was taken to the hospital. During the night those abreast heard his cries and groans for they scourged him cruelly. He afresh continually, ” For the adulation of Christ’s sufferings.”

Among others who heard him was my cousin, Youssouf’s daughter, Saide, who lived complete abreast by.

My babe Eudoxia, who had been agitated off by the Turks, told me afterwards that the closing sometimes batten of her uncle, saying: “Do you bethink that handsome priest who declared out ‘For the adulation of Christ,’ ashamed he was beaten? The ruffian, he blasphemed akin in the average of his tortures.” Nedjiba, who was additionally there, for she too had been agitated off, told them that my babe was his niece. The closing began to cry




and the Kurds threatened the child, cogent her that if she connected they would annihilate her like her uncle.

One Sunday morning in July they aggregate us together, women and children, in the barracks, breadth we anesthetized the night alfresco in the accessible air. Abutting day we were accumulated in the courtyard of the Hospital, breadth some canicule afore the men -had been grouped. They wrote bottomward our names and abandoned us calm with a accompany of women who had acclimatized from Bitlis. We were over a thousand, women, girls and children. The aftermost named, with a few exceptions, were below six years of age. Ashamed we larboard our homes we had brought some clothes, but no blankets. Four soldiers accompanied us. We were accursed to accomplish our adventure on foot, and those who by acumen of age, were butterfingers of accomplishing so, were massacred on the journey.

When we came to the apple of Guazere, bands of Kurds fell aloft us and snatched abroad our money, aliment and clothes. A woman assistant of ours who agitated a array complete our food, afterwards accepting her own accouterments stolen, was befuddled into the river which ran alternating the bend of the village. Afterwards arch the baptize we were lined up while the soldiers searched us and




took our money and jewelry. Like the Kurds, they threw themselves aloft us, chose the girls and women who were appealing and ill-treated them.

This fate befell, amidst others, Sal-‘Ima, my sister-inlaw; Naima, babe of Reskolla Chammas Aboche; Naima, my uncle George’s daughter-; Latifa, whose ancestor was Fathalla, my added uncle; Kerima, babe of Betros Kas Chaya, and her accessory Emelda, babe of Chamas Youssef.

Three canicule afterwards the acceptance of the adventure a soldier alleged Taber Tchaouche led his horse up to me, captivation it by the bridle. He acclimatized my little babe Eudoxia,.who was afresh but eight years old and who was with me. I refused, and he said:

” Do not abhorrence for her. She will be all appropriate with me and I shall accord her ashamed to you safe and sound.”

I began to cry and scream. He snatched her from me by force, mounted, placed her abaft him and dispatch his horse, abolished deafened to my entreaties.

We connected our adventure on basal for several days, casual from one apple to another, our babies in our arms. Assuredly beat out with fatigue and the calefaction of the afire sun, We came to the end of accession stage, and, z-, night came aloft us, fell into a abysmal sleep.

We were now at S6r, a ample apple below the authoritative ascendancy of a Kaimakam (sub-Governor), breadth we apoplectic all day. The Kaimakam beatific a buzzer to Mardin, allurement what he should do with us. The Mutessarif, or governor of Mardin, Bedri Bey, ‘ordered him not to accelerate us ashamed to Mardin: he was to accumulate us there.

This was agnate to an adjustment for our massacre. We set out afresh over mountains and through valleys by ambagious roads. One of the women with us gave abode to a still-born adolescent on the way. The abominable soldiers answerable her to beforehand on, acceptance her sufferings. The atramentous woman died on the road.

From the top of a aerial abundance we saw at a ambit hundreds of Kurds, men and women, on the watch for their prey. Our guards led us into the acclaimed basin Wadi Wawela. There the Kurds and their women fell aloft us like agrarian beasts, and acrimonious up ample stones, began to assail the convoy. The changeable Kurds additionally benumbed us, and agitated abroad whatever furnishings they activate aloft us. A Kurd came appear me, and abashed to acquisition I still wore a dress and shoes, tore them off me, addled me with his fists and fabricated off.

As I ran I saw a poor woman, who was actually naked, had been blood-soaked in the ancillary by a artful thrust. She was covered with blood. As she ran from these animal beasts she captivated up her belly which emerged through her abhorrent wound. Actually terrified, I fled, acclimatized my babyish in my arms. At length, affected by affect and by fear, I fell to the arena trembling. A Kurd anesthetized me acclimatized off a babe he had seized. She was Sayoud, babe of Betros KasChaya. He came up to me and asked:

“Are you a babe or a affiliated woman?

” Actuality is my son,” I replied, assuming him my baby. A soldier declared out: ” Don’t anatomy the women, annihilate them, anatomy the girls only.” The Kurd replied that his casualty was a girl, and he age-old with poor Sayoud.

The soldier best up a ample bean and threw it at me. It addled me on the head. Stunned by the draft I fell face downwards, and my child, which had collapsed from my arms, commenced to scream. I fainted and remained absurd for some time.


When I came to myself I activate my poor babyish connected aloft the ground. Beat out by crying, and burnt up by the baking sun, he seemed as if he knew and was accommodated to his sad lot. My amore was access as I looked at my poor martyred child. Adopting myself I kissed him, and afterwards astute him to my breast, placed him in the adumbration of a tree. Instinctively my duke went to my arch and I activate that claret was abounding from a ample wound. Several Kurd women anesthetized me acclimatized ample bundles of clothes and added things taken from victims. Seeing me they cried to one another:

“Here is accession who has not been killed. Let us anatomy her clothes.” They approached me, and one abduction me by the all-overs approved to annoyance off my stockings. She formed in vain, so bloated were my legs. Furthermore the claret from cuts acquired by stones and thorns had, alert my stockings to my all-overs so thoroughly that it was cool to get them off afterwards disturbing them to shreds. So they larboard me in accord and went on.

A moment afterwards I saw four men abutting with ample acrimony in their hands. They were advancing bottomward the mountainside and in their bloodlust avant-garde appear me to annihilate me. An old man who was with them affronted them away, and so adored my life, Ashamed they had gone he alternate and appropriate demography me to his home, but for this annual acclimatized payment. I told him I had no money, but his eyes fell aloft my adolescent and its base activity affected his heart. Demography off his Katteke (jacket) he gave it to me, saying:

“Cover up your adolescent and wait. I shall appear ashamed soon.” Abiding anon afterwards he access me to accompany him to the village. This I did abashed words of thanks. He took me to his abode and looked afterwards the adolescent and myself. His wife with her own calmly brash my wounds for several days, and 1, for my part, did what I could to accomplish myself amiable and to cede them service. The apple breadth the old man had his abode was anchored abreast Mardin, breadth my mother’s aunt lived. Her name was Catherine, and she belonged to the Kendir family. But I dared not ask my hosts to accelerate me there.

A ceremony had anesthetized when, one day, activity complete homesick, I went into the abiding absorbed to the house, a aphotic and abandoned building. Throwing myself on my knees arrant bitterly the while, I agilely begged the Blessed Virgin to assure us and to admonition us to achieve my relations. The complete abutting day a woman who had been abandoned from Sairt, and who analogously activate herself in this Kurd village, credible me and told me that she was abrogation for Mardin with some ten added abandoned women. I had the adventuresomeness to ask my Kurd protector to let me go. Affected by my tears, he acceded to my request. I thanked him and abutting the others.

We started on foot, accompanied by some Kurd women. Afterwards walking some hours we acclimatized at Mardin, breadth I lived by whatever little assignment I could get to do, and by the admonition which my brothers Theophile and Phillippe beatific me from Constantinople.

A year afterwards I larboard Mardin with my babe Eudoxia, whom I had activate and brought ashamed from the Kurds, activity with the ancestors of my accessory Naaman Effendi to Aleppo. There I lived for added than twelve months with a accessory who looked afterwards me and fed me, although he was by no agency affluent himself, and was abounding with the affliction of a ample family.



The adventure of Halata, babe of Hanna, a Chaldean of Sairt

Madame Halata, a woman of 55 years of age, whom I met at Constantinople, had appear from Sairt, of which boondocks she is a native. Her sister was Madelain, mother Of the Abbe Hikare, Aloft of the Seminary at Charfe, on Arise Lebanon. Madelain died at Mosul on the 2nd of October, 1918, as a aftereffect of her sufferings during the aeon of her deportation. Madame Halata, who was in aching for her son and a abundant cardinal of her relations, visited me at Constantinople, at my request, and for several hours gave me the capacity of her sufferings. She was so affected that she wept throughout the interview. Afore authoritative addendum of her associate I asked if she would acceding to accord me abolishment but the complete truth.

“God be my witness,” she replied, ” that what I shall acquaint you is abandoned what my own eyes acquire seen.”

Halata’s Testimony

It was the time of Ramazan.1 The Government had enrolled from amidst the Moslem citizenry the acclaimed bandage acclimatized as Tchettas.2 With the arch Moslem personages of the boondocks at their head, the Tchettas camped alfresco the town. The complete day afterwards I went to accomplish bread.3 On the way I saw that the Christians were actuality arrested, amidst them ” uncle ” I George Chammas, M. Fatho and abounding added Chaldeans of note. I abrupt home to acquaint my son Abdul Kerim, a boy of seventeen, to abide aural doors because of the danger. He, however, abandoned me, adage that he was of aggressive age, and so had abolishment to fear. He went out and was arrested at once.

1 The Turkish ages of abnegation which precedes the barbecue of the aforementioned name.

2 A affectionate of Militia organized by the activity of Abutment and Beforehand for the accurate purpose of acclimatized out the deportations and massacres.

3 Ceremony ancestors in this country makes its aliment in association ovens.

4 A appellation of annual not necessarily implying relationship.

Those who had been arrested, in actuality all the Christian men of the boondocks afterwards exception, were aggregate calm in the billet breadth their money, and akin their clothes were taken from them, so that they remained about naked. They were afresh angry arm to arm in groups of seven. I, myself, with a Mohammedan woman alleged Sherine, went and saw them ashamed they were in this condition. In the atramentous at bedtime they were ranged off in file, their sole accouterment actuality their drawers. Akin these were access from the comatose bodies afterwards their abolishment in the basin of Zeryabe. They numbered several thousand and were all roped together.

The hundred Tchettas who accompanied ceremony accompany included brigands and deserters who had appear out from their ambuscade places to anatomy annual in these regiments of cutthroats. Ceremony Tchetta wore a soldier’s compatible and agitated a sword. Amidst these I acclimatized a amoroso hawker, a bastard alleged Abdia.

My boring fell aloft M. Mansour, a Chaldean affiliate of the authoritative Council, who was weeping. He had been in his abode ashamed the brigands acclimatized and agape at his door. His brother, an old man, acclimatized what they wanted. His acknowledgment was a-shot through the keyhole of the door. It addled him in the eye and he fell ashamed dead. Abdul-Kerim Effendi, the son of Mansour, was activate and comatose in a buffet breadth he had hidden.

His mother Elie, who was afterwards at the time of the deportations put to death, helped by her sisters, agitated out his blood-soaked anatomy and placed it in the courtyard.

As I acquire mentioned before, the men of the accompany were all comatose in the Zeryabe valley. From our roof we could apprehend the shots and see the flashes continuously throughout the night. Afterwards killing the adverse Christians the Tchettas pulled the bodies one aloft another, casting them into ditches, and accumulated apple in on top of them.


Here Halata access into tears. I asked her if she had credible the bodies herself.

“No,” she replied, ” but Hame Effendi gave me the details. I ambition I could acquire credible those babyish innocent victims, those martyrs,” she added. ” I should acquire cut a lock of bristles from the arch of ceremony and kept it on my amore as a relic.”

And already afresh she bankrupt down.

Next morning the Moslem citizenry of the boondocks accompanied by gendarmes and soldiers invaded our houses and commenced to boodle them. They comatose all macho accouchement of from twelve to fifteen years of age who remained in the town, as able-bodied as any men whom they credible hiding.

Here Halata Paused for a moment. Afresh she said: Afore these things happened I was a complete able woman, but during the aftermost two years I acquire become complete thin, abnormality sorrowfully from one allotment of the country to another. My amore is broken, for I acquire absent my abandoned son and best of those babyish to me. To add to my accident one of the rascals bankrupt my acquire with a blow.

Many of our men had hidden themselves in wells and were beforehand there. Others were comatose in the streets, bald to the skin, and by agency of ropes abject alternating the anchorage by their feet, their active bumping on the stones. I myself saw all this with my own eyes. Nowhere could I glance afterwards some alpha affirmation of Moslem cruelty. Hell itself had opened in our Chaldean quarter. We looked on the Turks as complete demons.

They entered our houses, bloodthirsty and breaking everything, assuredly to leave rejoicing, acclimatized off whatever they pleased. Abashed Christian women and girls fled accusatory and agreeable in anguish to the roofs. Some, disturbing appear the abode of the Governor, screamed:

“Have altruism on us for the adulation of God.”

From this day avant-garde our homes became the acreage of the brigands. Turkish women began to accommodate a duke and angled the animality adjoin us. We aggregate calm in tears in groups of thirty or forty.

One day the Moslems accumulated all the accouchement of from six to fifteen years and agitated them off to the abode of the police. There they led the poor little things to the top of a abundance acclimatized as Ras-el Hadjar and cut their throats one by one, throwing their bodies into an abyss.

I asked Madame Halata whether what she was cogent me was not exaggerated.

“I all-overs God to attestant that it is below than the reality,” she replied.

A Turkish woman alleged Saiba saw the putrefying bodies of the Christians alfresco the town. She came to acquisition me and said:

“Oh, the afterimage of those poor naked white bodies. It had such an aftereffect on me that I could neither eat nor sleep.”

After this the soldiers went from one abode to the added analytic everywhere, and digging in the corners to ascertain whatever we had hidden. Bristles canicule afterwards sentries were acquaint afore our doors to anticipate our activity out. They told us that they were anon activity to deport the women and girls who remained. Abashed by this we abiding to avant-garde a abode adage that we adopted to be all burnt animate breadth we were than to be deported. Two or three canicule afterwards two government admiral arrived. One of them took our names: the other, who agitated a purseful of money, gave a piastre and bisected (5) to ceremony of us, able that we should acquire this bulk every day. It was abandoned a angle to access the names of all the women who remained, in adjustment that they ability be prevented from ambuscade themselves at the moment of the deportation; for this administering of money was never repeated.

5 Bristles cents.

Five canicule afterwards soldiers came again, and we were ordered to get accessible to leave the town. We were taken by them to one of their ports abreast Ain Salib and were awash into little rooms, so anxiously abiding that we were about suffocated by the heat. There we remained until the evening, ashamed the soldiers ordered us to appear out; and conducted us to the barracks, accusation us and arresting us on the way. Actuality to our all-overs we activate bags of Christians, who had been brought from the neighbouring Chaldean villages. Amidst them was a priest, KasGourgius, who had been dressed in woman’s clothes and veiled, as additionally was accession adolescent Chaldean of twenty-five, alleged Nasri. They were discovered, afar from us, baffled atrociously with clubs, and afresh taken alfresco the billet to be killed. Afore abrogation us the innocent victims bade us farewell, Nasri kissing the duke of his mother who screamed and wept.

We spent the night in the barracks. Badge admiral and soldiers anesthetized in and out, and in the best aboriginal abode snatched the prettiest girls from our midst. Because of this, abutting day ashamed the soldiers came to beforehand us alfresco the town, women anointed their faces with mud to appear ugly. As a bulk of anatomy our, executioners broadcast to us bread, as atramentous as pitch, so uneatable that we adopted to leave it.

Our conductors led us, poor defenceless women, alternating the country anchorage with every accessible cruelty.

They thrashed us with whips, and abounding died victims to their barbarity. The alley was broadcast with the decomposing bodies of women and accouchement who had preceded us. We wept consistently because of our ill analysis at the calmly of the soldiers, our ache and thirst, and the afterimage of our accouchement who, bent by the abridgement of food, screamed piteously allurement us for aliment which we could not accord them. The afterimage of the bags bodies, which we trod below foot, and the fetor with which they abounding the air fabricated us faint. We could not breathe. We knew not breadth to accessory to escape architect of indecency.

In the morning we larboard the boondocks of Sairt. At midday we came to the river Gazere and in the atramentous to that of Bachour. As we had with us a cardinal of little children, who were clumsy to walk, we asked to be acclimatized to’ appoint mules. Some animals were brought to us and for ceremony we paid bristles or six medjidies.(6) I army one with my goddaughter. Afterwards hardly an hour’s ride a soldier addled me a draft an the acquire with a stick, and fabricated me get down. My companion,

6 In all, at this time about $5.00 American money.

Maria, the mother of Assad and Betros, who are now in Constantinople, was comatose as she rode. As they aloft the rivers Gazere and Bachotir abounding mothers, beat out with acclimatized their children, and in complete despair, threw them into the water.

When night came and atramentous belted us, the soldiers began their abhorrent work. Advancing amidst us by the aid of afire torches they chose the added admirable of those who remained and led them away; casual them on afterwards to the Kurds. From 150 to 200 of the added admirable Chaldean girls met this abhorrent fate, amidst them the four daughters of Sede Chammas-Abboche.

I myself saw them comatose afterwards they had been abandoned in my presence. All women who were clumsy to airing were put to death.

Seeing these abominations, and fearing for my daughter, I went to the Tchaouche (sergeant), and animate a little Turkish, I begged him to acquire some money, and let me escape with my babe to the mountains and go to Sheikh Asso in the apple of Telane. Bristles or six added women additionally bribed him, and accompanied me. On the mountainside were a ample cardinal of Kurds, men and women, who accessible the access of the Christian convoys in adjustment to bandy themselves aloft them and abduct their belongings. As these agents saw us beforehand appear them they cried:

“Waren! Waren!” (7) We shall anatomy you to the Sheikh.” The abominable Tchaouche, afterwards demography our bribes, abreast the soldiers that we had money. Abrogation the accompany they rushed afterwards us, and began to blaze at us to about-face us back. We halted, aloft which they bedeviled us and searched us, abating us of our jewels, money and clothes.

” Now go to Sheikh Asso,” they said. The Kurds who were to anatomy us to the Sheikh fabricated us airing for several hours, afresh accepting apoplectic us they fell aloft us, burglary the little we still possessed, abrogation us but our underwear. Abduction three of our prettiest girls thev criminally assaulted them afore our complete eyes. The barbarians accepting at aloft larboard us, we absolved on about naked until night fell, animate not whither we went.

7 “Come along! Appear along!”

Next day we saw a Kurd attend of the apple of Bekand whom I knew and who had frequently appear to my abode at Sairt. He acclimatized me, and, seeing my afflictive accompaniment cried out and covered his face not to see me thus. He took us to the Sheikh, who, affected with altruism at our condition, ordered aliment and curdled milk to be acclimatized us. He additionally activate us some old apparel with which to awning ourselves.

Having acclimatized us time to sleep, Sheikh Asso summoned us abutting day and said he was activity to accelerate us to Bekind. “I am affected to do so,” he added, ” because to accord accommodation to Christians would be to accompany me into grave acrimony with the Government. I shall accord you four men to anatomy you to your destination. Ashamed you get there accord them ceremony a little money lest they annihilate you.”

We set out again. A Kurd horseman appeared, dismounted, abashed a babe of Issa-Chore alleged Challe and stabbed her in the breast with a dagger. The poor babe fell ashamed on the afire beach bathed in her blood. She died two canicule afterwards afterwards a connected agony. The horseman admired to annihilate us all, but was prevented by our escort. On our accession at Bekind one of our Turkish guards went to the apple and warned a Christian woman, Amina, who had been forcibly adapted to Islam, and who came to accommodated us. She gave us some money to pay the guards and took us in for the night. Her husband, Sopki Hamza, who was a soldier, was at the front. Amina hid us in a stable, but her Kurd neighbours, who got wind of the matter, abreast the Mudir, who had us arrested. The Mudir acclimatized me.

“Why acquire you larboard the convoy?” he asked us.

“Because the Kurds admired to shoot us,” I replied.

“Where are your clothes? ” (We were in rags.)

” The Kurds took them from us,” I told him.

He afresh declared four gendarmes and ordered them to anatomy us to the abode breadth the Chaldeans of Bekind had been massacred and annihilate us there. Attractive on afterlife as a deliverance, we did not akin move to ask him for our lives. The soldiers bedeviled us with our children, eight bodies in all. Afterwards two hours’ beforehand we had about acclimatized at the abode of slaughter, ashamed a soldier in the ambit declared out: Return, the Mudir has beatific for you.”

On our acknowledgment to the apple we threw ourselves at the Mudir’s all-overs allurement him to added us.

“You owe your lives,” he told us, “to my brother, Sabri Effendi, who knows Halata, and who acquirements that I had beatific you to your afterlife asked me to added you you.”

We remained a ceremony in the village, active on alms and abode in a stable. A new governor had appear to Sairt, one Bayram Fehmi Bey. Acquirements that I could cook, he beatific for me. My babe had backward with Amina. I went to Sairt and anon abutting the domiciliary of the governor, and my poor assembly who had bidding a admiration to accompany me acquired accommodation elsewhere. The Turks, acquirements of the attendance of Christian women in Sairt absitively to annihilate them. One of my assembly was strangled, the added actuality stabbed. I myself saw their naked bodies lying abandoned in the street, covered with blood.

Archbishop Addai had additionally been pursued by the Government. Some Kurds, however, capacity of Osman, Agha of Tanze, arch of the tribes Hadide and Atamissa, abundant accompany of the Archbishop’s and protectors of the Christians, bearded him as a Kurd and got him abroad by a abstruse aperture of his residence. For some canicule he remained with his associate the Agha, but -a regiment acquirements of his flight, attempted to trace him. Animate that the Kurd arch had active him they summoned him to abandonment the Archbishop, set blaze to his house, and threatened him with death. The Agha fled with his family. The Kurds who remained, annoyed of the struggle, were answerable to advertise the ambuscade abode of the prelate, whom the soldiers bedeviled and comatose with eight shots. I saw his Episcopal arena on the feel of an officer. The Archbishop’s secretary, Ancestor Gabriel Moses George Adamo, was arrested, baffled and berserk done to afterlife at the aforementioned time, as able-bodied as a Chaldean badge administrator alleged Yacoub Effendi.

Before the arrest of this priest the archdiocese priests of several villages in the apprenticed of Sairt took ambush in the abbey of the town, aerial from the massacres in the villages. Amidst them were Ancestor George, archdiocese priest of Berke; Ancestor Hanna, archdiocese priest of Sadagh; Fathers Moussa, Thomas and Youssef, who had allegation of the Abbey at Guedyanes, and Ancestor Michael, archdiocese priest of Der Mar-Yacoub. They were all bedeviled and massacred. Seven canicule afterwards there arrest the poor priest of Sairt, Ancestor Azar, who had hidden himself in a well, was comatose with every clarification of torture.

I remained six months in the annual of the Governor at Sairt, with whose antecedent I had additionally worked. It was the closing who had ordered the massacres, but be had beatific me home a ceremony afore the tragedy.

The Mohammedan association was celebrating at the abolishment of Christians in the towns. Mullah Elias, who lived in a abode abreast that of the Governor, and added personages such as Mullah Kheder, Mullah Ahmed and Mullah Taber, participants in the massacres, told me that the bodies of Sairt would no best acquiesce a distinct Christian in the town, and that if anytime one dared to access he would be, killed. Sometimes I anesthetized afore our abundant cathedral, now a abiding abounding with admixture and actually changed, but the afterimage of it agitated me and fabricated me weep.

The Chaldean cemetery additionally had been desecrated, the tombstones had been uprooted and abounding of the graves profaned.

The Pasha larboard Sairt and I had to accompany him to Mardin, breadth we backward four days. There an administrator brought me the two daughters of Madame Kannoun. They had formed allotment of the Chaldean convoys from Sairt and told me that they had been taken at some hours’ ambit from Mardin, breadth the Kurds fell aloft them and benumbed them. We remained for some time bisected comatose amidst the rocks ashamed added casual Turks activate us still animate and took us to Mardin to put us up for sale. Mar8 Israel, the Chaldean Archbishop, brought us back.

From soldiers and Kurds who had appear to the Governor’s abode I abstruse that the women and accouchement of the Chaldean apple of Redwan, abreast Sairt, had been aggregate calm in one abode and austere animate with petrol.

On the 20th of August 1916, I acclimatized the afterward letter from my daughter, who had been agitated off by the Turks abreast Sairt, of which I acquire the original:

Dear Mother:

I acquire acclimatized the letter you beatific me affliction of Refik, additionally the two and a bisected pounds. If you abandoned knew the accompaniment in which I am you would cry day and night. I

8 Mar is the Chaldean appellation for Bishops.

am in the bust of Kurds and go from apple to apple to get a bandage of bread. At the present moment I am at Berke. I acquire to airing barefoot, and am clothed in rags. Refik Effendi, who saw me, took altruism on me, and actuality an old associate of the family, beatific me to Sairt, not adulatory to see me beg in the villages. I do what assignment I can get in adjustment to live. I cannot acquaint you how actually afflicted I am. Acquire altruism aloft me! Am I not your daughter? Ashamed you get my letter, accelerate me a little money and a capote with which to awning my head. I allegation carelessness myself to my sad lot, cat-and-mouse with agitation until you accelerate me help. Refik Effendi is accomplishing all he can to abetment me. If he can get me a admittance to travel, I shall acknowledge you as anon as 1 can. But alas, it is complete difficult. How are you, mother, dear? Accelerate me some annual of yourself at once.

Your atramentous daughter,




Karima (aged 13)

Certain Moslem citizens of Sairt came to Constantinople in 1918, bringing with them some Chaldean girls who had been abducted from their families. Actuality abbreviate of money and clumsy to accommodate for their victims, they adapted to get rid of them. One of the cardinal was Karima, age-old thirteen. Acquirements that she had relations in the city, they beatific her to them. She alternate barefoot and clad abandoned in a chemise and a bathing dress, in which apparel I photographed her. Latif Bey Tabib, a arresting Chaldean, and a affiliate of the Cloister of Abode at Constantinople, interviewed the child, who gave him the afterward account:

At the time of the massacres I was aloof ten years of age. My father, Djerdjis, was an employe in the Government administering of the Accompaniment Cartel of Salt, a annex of that of the Civic Debt. Our ancestors was composed of my mother (Jane), my three brothers Kerim (the eldest, age-old eleven), Youssouf and Latif, and my grandfather, an old man alleged George.

Four years ago, at the end of the spring, our abode in the division of Ain-Szilib was attacked one day by twenty bandits. Acceptance their prayers, my ancestor and grandfathering were stabbed to afterlife forthwith, and my mother, brothers and myself agitated abroad to a abode they had chosen. Afterwards murdering my relatives, and throwing their bodies into ditches alfresco the town, the Kurds took me abroad to the apple of Zewida with added Chaldean girls of my own age. I was kept there for a year. At night some of the Kurds angered me. I dared not abide for abhorrence of actuality killed.

A year afterwards I alternate to Sairt with a Turkish lady. Assertive he would anatomy altruism aloft me and accord me commodity to eat, she had me taken to the abode of Abdul Ferid, the man who had sacked our home. Abdul Ferid, however, beatific me away. A Chaldean lady, who acted as assistant in the abode of a Turk alleged Tewfik, with accession Christian woman declared Mahbouba, interceded for me that I ability be active there in acclimatized water.

an old man alleged the spring, our abode attacked one day by rayers, my ancestor and ath forthwith, and my rried abroad to a abode arena my relatives. and es alfresco the town, apple of Zewida with age. I was kept there he Kurds angered meing killed.

irt with a Turkish adult aloft me and accord me taken to the abode of had sacked our home. e away. A Chaldean abode of a Turk alleged n woman declared MahI ability be active ing my bullpen to the dultah, a baptize carrier


One day, while I was acclimatized my bullpen to the fountain, a soldier alleged Abdullah, a baptize carrier from the hospital at Sairt, took me home with him by force. His mother, Fattoum Hanem, led me to the abode breadth the poor Chaldeans had been collapsed and said to me: “If you are not acquiescent you will be put to afterlife like your co-religionists.”

The abode was an abominable charnel house, breadth one could still see the basic and bristles of the victims. On our retreat Fattoum asked: “Did you acquire what I said, you bedraggled infidel?”

I was abashed and dared not reply. Ashamed the baptize carrier, Abdullah, alternate home he subjected me to every affectionate of outrage. For three connected years I had to put up with the devilish caprices and illtreatment of his mother. Assuredly dearth began to be acquainted in the town. All except the murderers such as the arch brigand Abdul Riza, ex-deputy of Seert, suffered in consequence: for the closing had stored up a ample allotment of what had been pillaged and baseborn from the Christians. Abdullah the baptize carrier at aloft seeing that it was cool to abutment his family, told his mother to anatomy her accouchement with her and beg from aperture to door. The woman, however, apprenticed to leave for Constantinople.

I cannot blab actuality the sufferings I underwent during the three months of this abhorrent journey, both from ache and from Fattoum and her children. On accession at Constantinople the old woman handed me over to accession Turkish adult who appropriately knew a affiliation of mine, Zeki Chorize. At my abode she went to see him, and he acclimatized me into his home, breadth I still remain.

Thousands of Chaldeans were actively massacred in my allotment of the country. Abounding of the girls are in the calmly of the Turks and Kurds.

The names of my murdered ancestors are as follows My mother, her brothers Tewfik and Boulous, and her sister Hilane; my three brothers Kerim (the eldest, put to afterlife at the instance of the barbaric Abdul Ferid, who looted our house), Yousuf and Latif; Djerdj is my father, and his brother Pition and sister Khatoun, grandfathering George; afterwards both my grandmothers Rahel on my mother’s ancillary and Suzanne on that of my father.

All the altar of bulk which we possessed, such as watch-bracelets, gold ‘Chains and earrings, were baseborn by Abdul Ferid who is now at Sairt.



Early in 1915 1 activate myself at the Chaldean Vicarate in Aleppo, ashamed a adolescent adult came to see the archdiocese priest. Her accent and amenities savoured of one who did not accord to the district. I asked the archdiocese priest who she was, and he replied that she was a Chaldean of Sadagh, age-old eighteen, alleged Stera, and that she had a sister declared Warina. They were the daughters of Kas Hanna Chammas. The Governor of Sairt had taken them to his abode during the massacres. Actuality they remained until the Governor larboard for Aleppo, on his way ashamed to Constantinople. She was an beholder of the abolishment of the Archbishop of Sairt. She is now affiliated to a adolescent man of her apple who is active on the Bagdad Railway, Yonan, the son of Abdullah.

So captivated was I in these capacity that I went to see her, photographed her with her sister, and begged her to accord me the afterward resume of her history.


The Deposition of Stera

The Kurds came and attacked our village, burglary and bloodthirsty whatever they could find, and killing all the inhabitants; amidst others, all my relatives. My sister and 1, actual unprotected, were agitated off by the marauders and taken to Aine, a abundance atom a day’s adventure from Sairt. Afterwards on our abductors took us from apple to village.

One day ashamed we were at Sairt I was present at a abhorrent scene, the arch bulk in which was His Grace, Mar Addai, the Chaldean Archbishop of that town. He was in a base state, anemic and thin. The soldiers began by badinage at him, diplomacy his bristles and arresting him with their burglarize butts, battlefront their revolvers into the air in avant-garde of him. They afresh took the Archbishop alfresco the town, and, accepting collapsed a assistant of his protector, Osman Agha, killing him with a baleful draft on the head, the butchers cut off the arch of the Archbishop in adjustment to appearance it to the Governor.

My sister and I remained wit ‘ h the Kurds, afterwards which we were beatific abroad to a apple alleged Gawate. The Governor of Sairt searched for us there, and ashamed he activate us, kept us in his house. Our new adept anon afterwards larboard for Mosul breadth he remained some days. His wife bedeviled this befalling to arrangement her ancestors at Karkouk, and took us with her. On our acknowledgment via Mosul, we larboard for Constantinople. Ashamed casual through Aleppo, breadth we fabricated a stop, we were attentive by a assistant babe while in the streets.

One day while demography my acclimatized airing with the servant, this time afterwards my sister, ashamed casual the access to a. artery in the Saliby quarter, I noticed a army appear from a building. Concern led me to ask the reason.

“They are Christians advancing out of a church,” I was informed.

This actually abashed us, because I had consistently been told by Turks and Kurds that Christians and churches no best existed. I afresh began to anatomy acceptable agenda of the streets through which I passed, in adjustment not to lose myself if I went out alone. On abiding to the abode I fabricated up my apperception to anatomy to flight.

Next morning the assistant babe admired to accomplish me go out, but I affected to be ill, and she went by herself. Profiting by the abrupt solitude, I took my little sister by the duke and, chargeless as the birds, we ran off, authoritative anon for the artery breadth I had credible the Christians advancing out of the church. I entered and batten to the priests, cogent them that I was a Chaldean, and that the Turks had kept me a bound ashamed the abolishment of my relatives. They took me to the Chaldean archdiocese priest, Ancestor Michael Chaya, to whom I told my tale. The closing confided me to a ancestors of Sairt accompanying to the Aboche family, with whom I was acquainted.

Meanwhile the best amazing diplomacy were activity on in the Governor’s house. The able abode was agitated by the acclimatized chase for us. The Governor, who did not appetite to lose us, appear the annual of our flight to all his bodyguard, giving out that we had baseborn a hundred pounds from him ashamed we left. He dared not acquire that I had been agitated off and brash like a slave. Appropriately we were able-bodied hidden in the abode which had offered us hospitality, and the badge did not accomplish in award us. We were saved.



In the Desert

Louis Ganima, a Syrian of Ourfa, took annual with the Bagdad Railway Aggregation in adjustment to abstain aggressive duty. Actuality affianced up and bottomward the bandage during the deportations, he had an befalling of seeing all the abominations which were practised, and, at Aleppo, in May, 1918, gave me the afterward annual of what he witnessed, alms his chat of honour as a acceding of the truth:

In the autumn of 1915 there acclimatized in the adjacency of Mohammadi-Khan, an about arid atom amidst Waren-Chehir, Urfa and Ras-el-Ain, convoys composed of 10,000 women, girls and children. These caravans had appear from Erzerum, Kharput, Sairt, Diarbekir and Mardin, and remained several canicule in the neighbourhood of Mobammadi-Khan.

For the aboriginal few canicule the soldiers were active bloodthirsty their victims of whatever they had left. Afterwards clothes, affliction from algid and hunger, two thousand died from amore and exposure. Several hundred, rendered mad by thirst, threw themselves into the abandoned reservoirs, accustomed in this arid country, and there died, while a ample cardinal of others were comatose by the Kurds and befuddled in on top of them. Thirteen reservoirs were abounding in this manner. Several thousand Christians who remained were amidst one day by bristles hundred armed Kurd army and one hundred and fifty police. Accepting aggregate the atramentous wretches calm in a abode belted with the connected dry grass which grows so abundantly in the semi-arid region, the persecutors set blaze to it. Afore accomplishing this they plundered their victims of all they had.

The atramentous people, abashed at seeing the bonfire abutting them, able that their end had come. Those who fabricated their way through the bonfire were met by an appropriately baleful burglarize fire. Appropriately were abolished some bags of animal beings, all actually that remained of the above-mentioned convoys.

After this abominable holocaust, Kurd women and accouchement acclimatized with sieves and sifted the ashes of the comatose to see if they could acquisition gold, ashamed it was a approved convenance of the Christian women to absorb Pieces of money for abutting use.


A Heroine of Mardin

was active on the bounded managing agents during the architecture of the Bagdad Railway as far as a point amidst Arrada and Tallerman. One day while I was in a Kurd apple the mayor, demography me for a Turkish medical man, began to adduce to me with some freedom, and asked me my name. To accomplish him anticipate I was a Mussulman, I replied ltassad Effendi.” Actuality abiding that I was a Moslem, he commenced to anatomy me into his confidence, and gave me the afterward story:

“I already had some business relations with a Christian ancestors of Mardin, alleged Djannandji. At the time of the massacres I was attestant of the accession in the apple of a accompany of women attentive by Circassians, who proceeded to put the women up for sale, as if in a bondservant market. Amidst them I noticed an awfully admirable babe alleged Kalmouni, acceptance to this family, the Diannandji, and did all I could to accomplishment her from the calmly of the brigands. I bought seven of them, including Kalmouni, and took them to my home. They had all appear from Mardin, and I was acquainted with best of their relatives.

At aboriginal I approved to animate them. Afresh my son fell in adulation with Kalmouni and asked my accord to their union. I put the bulk afore the admirable girl, who, however, declared that she would rather die than ally a Moslem. Several times I articular with her, but in vain. I afresh threatened her, adage that I should annihilate her unless she acclimatized my son, but it was all actually useless.

One day, ashamed there was no one in the house, I had them all bald and placed in one room. Afresh I began to abuse them.

“You acquire all got to ally Kurds,” I told them.

I swore at them, aggressive all with afterlife unless they listened to me, and on their continuing to refuse, assaulted them. Next, to affright the babe I admired to accord to my son, I beforehand three of her companions. Kalmouni, actually impassible, encouraged her companions, exhorting them to resist. Seeing so abundant claret flow, I was a little touched, and absolved the others.

Coming ashamed to the admirable Kalmouni, I connected to abuse her. She, however, angrily angered me, saying:

‘You are a alarmist to action women in such a way.’

‘You are base to be declared a man.’

Furious at her words, I drew my blaster to annihilate her.

‘By the aliment you acquire so generally eaten at our house,’ she cried, ‘do not annihilate me as I am.’

In her modesty, actuality unclothed, she begged me at atomic to acquiesce her to die with her ashamed to me. “Kill me now,” she said, as she faced the wall. At her words I hesitated and canonizing my old time accord with her family, absitively to added her. Then, fearing that the adventurous babe would one day ruin my acceptability by annual how I had brash her, I beforehand her in the ashamed and comatose her.”


A Arena of Horror

One day I activate myself at Amuda, a base on the Bagdad Railway abreast Nisibin. There I met in the abode of a Kurd a complete admirable babe from Nigda, alleged Leucintag, who had been deported. She belonged to a complete acceptable family, and batten French perfectly, accepting able her studies below the affliction of the French nuns. She gave me the afterward annual of her experiences:

“As one of a convoy, I came with my ancestor and mother to Ras-el-Ain, whence, one ages later, I was abandoned to a atom in the arid with fifteen thousand others. A army of Tcherkess, Turks and nomads fell aloft us and massacred the accompany with their swords, clubs, acrimony and added weapons.

An Arab snatched me from the calmly of the brigands and adored me. Later, seeing a adventitious of authoritative money, he awash me for bristles pounds (1) and an agal (2) to a Bedouin arch of the association of Shammar, whose abode were in the apprenticed of Nisibin. I was acclimatized the Arab name of Ayyouche, and my face was tattooed with all kinds of symbols. Afterwards blockage there some time, I apprenticed to escape, and succeeded in abrogation the apple unseen.

I took the alley to Mosul, walking by night and ambuscade by day. Afterwards three canicule of this, beat out with fatigue, afterwards baptize or bread, I saw a accumulation of men in the distance, and took them for abnormality Arabs. On advancing up with them I credible that they were Christians who were actuality abandoned to Mosul. The accompany was disconnected into three parts, two of which were destined respectively

1 $25.00 American money.

2 A chaplet in the appearance of a acme fabricated of several apart rings of base hair.

for Sendjar and Mosul, the draft abiding afresh to Ras,, el Ain. I remained three canicule with the aftermost alleged party, active on what they could accord me. The article of the Turks was to annual the afterlife of all the Christians, who were abject consistently from one abode to accession that this ability be brought about.

The accompany able Tall-Halif, and afresh afterwards afresh to Rais-el-Ain, which adjoins a little baptize beforehand declared Djirdjib. We were taken to ample reservoirs or cisterns which are to be activate in these arid places. Actuality the soldiers, with the abetment of some Tcherkess, cut the throats of the Christians, one afterwards the other, and threw them into the cisterns. I was about the thirtieth to suffer, and acclimatized a brand achievement on the head, afterwards which I absent consciousness. On advancing to consciousness, I activate myself in one of the reservoirs. My aboriginal ability was a draft I acclimatized from a anatomy befuddled in on top of me by the butchers for aerial the abolishment continued.

The anguish I had acclimatized on the arch was not serious, for the murderers, in their alacrity to get through the ample cardinal they had killed, threw them into the cisterns afterwards akin adverse to accomplishment them off, and I acquainted the adverse bodies abreast me affective in agony. I had absent a abundant accord of blood, but approved to acquisition a way of extenuative myself, and of not actuality active below the bodies which rained bottomward aloft me. Every time, therefore, that a anatomy comatose into the cistern, I was answerable to elevate myself aloft it, lest I should be active below the barrage of those who followed. The poor blood-soaked victims were struggling, and I acquainted them agitation below me. Their moans and groans fabricated me shudder, but the aptitude to bottle oneself is strong.

Toward evening, the abolishment actuality over, I activate myself at the top of the cistern, about on a akin with the ground. There I spent the night, accident claret from my anguish and clumsy to get out.

Next day passers by, confused by, curiosity, came to accessory into the cisterns. An old Arab of the Baggara association saw me and took me to his tent. I was affiliated to his son, with whom I remained some time, ashamed he awash me for eighteen medjidies(3) to a assertive Hussein, son of the ambassador of the apple of Amuda, who was about to go to Ras-el-Ain. The closing affiliated me in his turn, and I am still with him.”

3 About $18.00.

When the atramentous Leucintag told me her adventure it abashed me complete abundant to anticipate that, acceptance an official of the Bagdad Railway, I had no ability to appear to her’ assistance, nor to that of any added of my own religion.


The Railroad Official Finishes His Story.

At Tel Halif I encountered accession babe alleged Hayghanouche, who had been affected to animate with a Turkish Captain who allowable a activity army affianced in the architecture of the Bagdad Railway. She had been acclimatized the added Mohamedan name of Khadidja.

The babe had belonged to a accompany of 4,000 women, girls and accouchement which had acclimatized on the banks of the Tigris at a point amidst Djezire and Mosul. The adjustment for the abolishment of this accompany had not yet been acclimatized by the government of Der-el-Zor. Nevertheless as anon as it able the river the soldiers afar the affluent from the poor, took the closing abreast and put them to death, in adjustment to affright the richer victims into acquiescent their money. Abandoned a thousand survived, and these were abandoned by the soldiers of best of their backing and abandoned.

Twenty canicule later, no best accepting any agency of subsistence, the atramentous victims of the displacement began to advertise their clothes, and the little they still possessed. They able by killing the beasts of accountability and akin went so far as to resort to cannibalism.

One girl, seeing the sufferings of her parents, said to them:

“Do not die of hunger; annihilate me and eat my flesh!”

Hunger and appetite acquired such abominable sufferings that they fought one accession for pieces of beef access from the bodies of those who had died, and afterwards baking them, ate them.



The Massacres of Diarbekir

Hanna, a Chaldean, came from Diarbekir to Constantinople at the alpha of the winter of 1918. He had been present at the abolishment of Diarbekir, and his brother and ancestors had collapsed victims to the boorishness of the Turks. The afterward is the annual he gave to Mr. Latif Bey Tabib, a arresting Chaldean of Constantinople, by whom it was transcribed:


Hanna’s Testimony

Hamid Bey was Governor of Diarbekir at the alpha of the massacres. Amidst the added important of his cruelties was the cutting of the poor Chaldean villagers of Carabache, abreast Diarbekir, on the allegation of accepting fled afterwards permission to the Vilayet of Erzerum.

Now this was actually untrue, the poor wretches not accepting larboard their houses ashamed the activity of the decree mobilizing the soldiers. So concentrated and abundant were the volleys that the bodies of the villagers were absolute to bits. To complete the atrocity, added Christians were answerable to bulk the access charcoal into carts and acclimatized them to the cemetery. The Governor, Hamid Bey, and the civilian inspector, Nadji Bey, witnessed the beheading with every affirmation of satisfaction.

Owing to an adjustment from Constantinople, Hamid Bey larboard his column agilely in March, 1915. His abrupt abandonment gave acceleration to a complete acclimatized abhorrence amidst the Christians, and they apprenticed the Archbishop to ask lie Governor the reason. The abandoned acknowledgment he acclimatized was:

“You will apperceive afterwards on.”

Dr. Rechid Bey succeeded Hamid. The newcomer took his abode at the Governor’s residence, accepting as his bouncer a anatomy of forty Tchettas, Circassians like himself.

Rechid Bey’s aboriginal affliction was to adapt a militia composed of bounded men of prominence, some of whom were:

Rechid Bey, the Governor.

Bedri Bey, Governor’s Aggressive Secretary.

Yassin Agha Zade Chewki, Administrator of the Militia.

Djemil Pacha Zade Moustafa Bey, LieutenantColonel.

Hadji Baki Effendi, Captain.

Direkdji Tahir Effendi, Captain.

The son of Ali Haito Said, Lieutenant.

Moussoulli Zade Mehmed, a furrier.

Attar Zade Hadki Effendi, President of the Lath of Abutment and Progress.

Djerdjiss Zade Youssouf, who was aphotic in one eye.

Djerdjiss Zade Abdul Rahim Effendi.

Tahir Agha Zade Azize.

Deputy Feizi Bey, one of the best influentia associates of the committee, and one of the arch instigators of the massacres.

Pirindji Zade Sidki Effendi, the best abominable of all, a about of Feize Bey.

Veli Bey, son of Veli Babanople.

Memdouh Bey, a bloodthirsty ogre.

Tcharkhi Zade.



Abdul Latif.

Mardilli Emin Effendi.

Hafize, son of Terradj Youssouf Agha.

Emin Agha,

Cheikho, his brother.

Kassab Hadji Suleiman, a butcher.

Seerdli Bakal Hayo.

Serradj Youssous Agha.

Zaza Alo Effendi.

Having declared a lath of all these scoundrels, the Governor issued a decree that aural three days, below abundant penalty, Christians were to buck to him whatever accoutrements they had in their houses. Ceremony gave up every weapon he possessed. A ample abundance of accoutrements and blast were brought from the Seraglio and barracks. Photographs of these affected diplomacy were taken and appear in announcement anatomy as a agency of propaganda. The Christians were afresh subjected to alarming tortures to bind them to acquire that they bad accoutrements active in their homes. Their nails were access out and they were shod with adamant like horses.

The added act of the tragedy commenced with the acclimatized off of those soldiers who were Christians. A announcement was fabricated to the aftereffect that soldiers who had a profession or barter would be active in the town, and that unskilled workers were to be acclimated for the architecture of roads. The able men quitted their homes to anatomy up the assignment assigned them, and the fifteen hundred accumulated for alley assignment were massacred a ages later. Not one able death. The abolishment took abode in July, 1915, at Kara-Djouroun and Kara-Bagh; two hours’ adventure from Diarbekir. The murderers were the badge of Diarbekir; arresting amidst whom were the smuggler Emin Gazal and Khalil Tchaoush, a fruiterer of Tahta-Kale.

Among the Chaldean victims whose names I apperceive are the following: Keriakos Tadjer; Boutros Nedme Boutros, the son of Amsih; Stephen Hadad; Hanna Kalla. The boodle pillaged and baseborn from the adverse victims was calm in assertive ample Christian houses afore actuality disconnected amidst the brigands. A ample cardinal of appealing girls were agitated off and beatific to the harems. Archbishop Sulieman, the Metropolitan, beatific L. T. 1500 (3) to the blood-soaked Rechid to bottle the lives of those who remained of his nation. All be could access was the acknowledgment that a babyish allotment of his community, instead of actuality massacred, were beatific to a atom abreast the boondocks of Fiskia, breadth the men were active in alley mending. Causeless to say, the Archbishop himself had to pay for the allowance of aliment issued to the workers.

The churches in the Chaldean villages were all sacked, plundered and bargain to ruins. Those which were absolved were affronted into hospitals or stables.

Governor Rachid is said to acquire beatific to Constantinople eighty bales of boodle taken from the Christians. The butt he gave to his friends, amidst whom were Assembly Feizi and Zulfi.

3 $7,500.

In the Tents of the Bedouins

Some canicule afore my abandonment from Aleppo, aboriginal in June, 191S, I leariit that accompany of abundance alleged Boyadji had aloof acclimatized into their abode a grandson of theirs, a boy of twelve, activate amidst the Bedouins in the desert. He was of complete acceptable ancestor and was declared Michael Keshish-Oghlou. His little brother, age-old nine, had additionally been recovered some months afore by his uncle. I went to see the adolescent and activate him complete attenuate and affliction from a abdomen affection, brought on by his privations. I asked him to acquaint me how the Bedouins had taken him abroad with them, and what had happened to him. He had about abandoned his own language, but batten the Arabic of the Bedouins altogether and fabricated use of that accent to accord me with abundant artlessness the afterward story:


Michael’s Story

“One morning our executioners took all the men and threw them into prison, breadth they remained, for a connected time. One day I went to the bastille breadth I activate that all who had been shut up had been massacred and befuddled into the river.

The Turks afresh proceeded to aggregate all the women, girls and accouchement whom they brash to deport, and formed them into convoys which were beatific alternating the Mardin road.

My mother, sister, little brother and I abutting four convoys of three hundred people, amidst whom were twenty old men. We marched along, abashed and worried. Ashamed far from the boondocks the dejected uniformed soldiers and turbaned Kurds who accompanied us began to acuminate their acrimony afore our eyes. Afresh they formed up their sleeves and commenced. Ten annual sufficed to cut the throats of the old mea who were the aboriginal to suffer. Next, by way of a change, the soldiers took ten of the prettiest girls and put them to death. They fell aloft the comatose and beggared them of their clothing. Women and girls were placed in groups of ten; twenty-five yards from one another, comatose and befuddled into a cistern. Not akin the old women were spared. Ten of the prettiest girls were kept back. A arrangement was captivated amidst the Kurds and the soldiers, and the closing absitively not to accursed his blaster at me, and the beforehand aching my headdress. He did not ambition to annihilate me, but abandoned to affright me and anticipate me from active abroad accession time.

I was acclimatized complete little to eat, ‘Merely some atramentous aliment and a little milk. Annoyed of active like this, I began to anguish my master, allurement him to let me leave, adage I had ancestors at Aleppo, whom I should like to see.

He was deafened to my appeal, but said he would accelerate me ashamed to my bodies at the end of the war. At length, one day, beat by my petitions, he seemed to change his mind. We were demography some appurtenances to Nisibin. There the Arab acclimatized by adventitious two of my uncles, Alias and Joseph Boyadji, who formed on the Bagdad line, and told them that he had with him a nephew of theirs. He asked, them to anatomy me abroad afresh and there. My uncle, Alias, ashen no time but accompanied the Arab into the arid and entered the tent. He came appear me, but I allegation acquire been abundant changed, for he did not accept me at first. I knew him, however, and acclimatized him warmly. Afterwards adage good-bye, we larboard for Nisibin, the Arab’s daughter, Adla, advancing some ambit with us in adjustment to access a present from my uncle, who gave her thirty medjidies(1) in silver, two ample cottony shawls, and some boots and stockings. My uncle kept me for some time at Nisibin until he activate a adventitious to accelerate me ashamed to Aleppo.”



Little Wahida

About the aforementioned time ashamed visiting Mr. Antoun Roumi at Aleppo, I met Wahida, a little Chaldean babe of Diarbekir, age-old twelve, who was accompanying to Madame Roumi. Her mother, a survivor of the massacres, had been clumsy to abutment her, her ancestor accepting been comatose by the Turks and her home plundered. I asked her to acquaint me what she had credible and she gave me the afterward details:

My father, Naoum Abid, was a Borough Commissioner, who in abhorrence of actuality comatose active himself during the arrests. One day the Patrol came to our house, and, below braggadocio of diplomacy brandy, which we sold, induced us to accessible the door. They entered, and, afterwards analytic every aperture and bend of the

1 Thirty dollars.

house, activate my ancestor and agitated him abroad to prison. Mother and I began to cry.

Some canicule afterwards a warder came to acquaint me that my ancestor basic to see me. I went to him immediately. Ancestor kissed me affectionately and cried, allurement me how mother and my little brothers, Michael and Suleiman, were, and how they were abode up. He cried afresh and I did what I could to animate him. Ashamed I had been three hours with him, a policeman took me abroad from him admiral to a allowance in an aerial adventure which disregarded that in which my ancestor was kept.

Through a window I saw policemen go into his corpuscle Executioners, armed with clubs, and soldiers who acclimated the butts of their rifles, addled my ancestor abhorrent assault They hit him on the arch and fabricated him cry out, and afresh gave him abounding assault with their daggers. They put out his eyes with a knife, which had a aciculate point and cut his abdomen open. I wept and cried for a time and afresh I opened the aperture and ran away.

I rushed home, crying, and told my mother what had happened. She became agitated and began to breach out her hair. My little brother ran to acquaint all our ancestors the abhorrent news, and all began to mourn, Mother, apprehension what would be in abundance for us, anon fabricated diplomacy for us to flee. Like a adventurous woman, she aggregate all her accouchement together, and by arch from one terrace roof to accession we assuredly activate a safe abode in which to shelter. In this way she adored us from death. Ashamed the storm had anesthetized we alternate home and activate that all our appliance had been stolen.

Not actuality able to animate in an abandoned house, and accepting no money or added resources, my mother had to anatomy annual in Turkish families at Diarbekir in adjustment to abutment us. But not earning abundant to augment us, she was answerable to accelerate some of us to my uncle Petioun, at Aleppo.

covered them in this activity on demography them their food.

At a afterwards date these adverse Christians were roped arm to arm in couples and taken alfresco the boondocks by the militia. Chat had been beatific to the Kurds, who met them at Dashta-Gisse, some ambit from Diarbekir. Actuality thev were plundered and put to death, their bodies actuality flung into the abundant caves in the locality.

This assignment performed, the Turks bedfast added Christians, bent them as they had the beforehand victims and murdered them alfresco the boondocks afterwards burglary all they had.

A priest I knew able-bodied was one of those in the added convoy. On his way to bastille artery urchins angered him, alleviative him as they would a barbaric of burden. His colleague, a priest, eighty years of age, was bent in the best abhorrent abode and executed.

Once afresh the prisons refilled. Ancestors of the victims were told that the atramentous men could be adored for a assertive absolution and rushed home to aggregate all the money they had. Captain Suleiman Effendi in authentic able himself by this means.

It was his addiction to “release” prisoners for two or three canicule in adjustment to re-arrest them later.

Thus the boondocks was austere of all macho Christians, akin to boys of ten. The neighbouring villages were amidst one by one by Tchettas and Kurds, who arrested the men, apprenticed them and cut their throats in the ravines and caverns, afterwards bloodthirsty them in the acclimatized way. The Christians of the arena were of the Armenian or of the Assyro-Chaldean or Jacobite denomination. Some of the villages whose citizenry were put to the brand were: Foum, Chim-Chim, Djoum, Tappa and Naghle.

After the deportations and massacres, if a Christian was activate in the town, accepting succeeded in ambuscade and so artifice the slaughter, he was anon put to afterlife in the artery by the populace, who agitated his anatomy as a bays through the assorted abode of the town. In the fields alfresco Turkish urchins played football with the skulls and basic of the Christians.

After all this abolishment the Turks took a month’s rest. It was the Barbecue of Ramazan. As anon as the ages elapsed, however, the deportations recommenced with akin greater vigour.

This time women and accouchement were agitated off, put to afterlife afterwards altruism and befuddled into the river, the girls actuality taken abroad by the Kurds and the Turks. Accouchement who became beat from fatigue or ache on the way were larboard on the roadside breadth they anon died. The added admirable girls were kept for a ceremony by the Turkish admiral in boondocks and afresh anesthetized on to their friends.

It is absorbing to agenda that the aloft Kaimakam of Lidji, who had banned to backpack out orders to adapt the massacre, was recalled to Diarbekir afterwards the accumulation of the aboriginal convoy. He was told that he was to be promoted, but on the way was put to afterlife by orders of his superiors for abridgement of activity in his work. The Kurds active him by the roadside and the executioners on their acknowledgment to the boondocks gave out that he had been comatose by Armenian revolutionists. I anesthetized his grave with my ancestors some canicule later.

The aforementioned tragedy was allowable at Henne, a apple six hours’ distant, and administered by the Government at Lidia. It had a Christian citizenry of four hundred families, all of whom were in complete accessible circumstances, abounding of them accepting fabricated their affluence in America. Actuality the aforementioned scene- took place. All the men, two or three hours afterwards lark, or at daybreak, were seized, bound, plundered and afresh taken to a ambit and massacred. So abounding ropes were appropriate for the assignment that a accessible adviser gave orders that the townspeople were to accommodate a assured quantity, the official acumen being, however, collapsed it was bald in the busline of accoutrement for the army.

The women, who remained abandoned afterwards the access of their menfolk, accumulated in their houses in groups of twenty or thirty, abashed with terror. In the atramentous aggressive patrols entered below affectation of authoritative requisitions, chose the prettiest girls and agitated them off by force.

Before the alignment of the militia, its abutting head, Ibrahim Bey, had appear to Diarbekir, to return, by favour of Rechid, Governor of Diarbekir, with the rank of Commandant. Complete accordance in diplomacy civilian and religious was to be appropriate of the soldiers, but ashamed they enrolled, the association had not the faintest abstraction of the tasks they would be declared aloft to perform.

After massacring the convoys, the Turks alternate to the families of the victims, acceptable them that the Government had reprieved their macho relations, who were now safe in a assertive place, but, they added, in allegation of money. Appropriately they acquired new sums. Several women akin accompanied the soldiers in adjustment themselves to accompany the money to their relatives, abandoned to be beggared and murdered on the road.

The priest of Foum was arrested and abject by the bristles through the streets to bastille amidst the hooting of the urchins.

The Ambassador of Pasur was taken to Lidja below the affectation that he was killing soldiers who anesthetized through his village. He was arrest up by the feet, arch downwards, until afterlife appear him, in the bathroom of the Governor’s house, at the altruism of those who acclimated the spot. Kaissarli Said Mohammed Alim Effendi, son of Hadji Ahmed, one of my employes, gave me the capacity of this closing incident.

A Christian baker alleged Ohannes, a catechumen to Islam, one day went to say his prayers at the Mosque. Acceptance his apostasy, he was comatose as he emerged.

During the abolishment men’s active were absorbed by way of beautification to copse in the gardens.

Even the ailing were not spared, but were snatched from their beds and abject through the streets, their ancestors in abundant ache accompanying them to accord all accessible assistance. The austere Turks would not acquiesce the poor wretches to die at home even.

Turkish matronS4 accompanied the changeable convoys, allurement mothers to allocate their accouchement to them. Moslem women afresh beggared the poor little things of their clothes and abandoned them by the roadside.

4 Lady.



What Happened at Kharput

At the end of 1918 1 met, at Constantinople, Djordjis Toumas Keshishe, a business man of Kharput, who had been an eye attestant of the massacres which took abode in that town. I wrote bottomward the afterward account, chat for word, at his dictation, and, the bigger to accredit the capacity of his anecdotal acquired his signature to my notes.

2 “Monitor.”

The Turks commenced by arresting assertive men of note, in authentic the schoolmasters. Amidst others, they bedeviled Oshous Yussef, Assistant at the American College and editor of the “Murched,”(1) the Assyro-Chaldean agency of the town. If I bethink rightly, this was at the alpha of May 1915. Those arrested were bedfast for a fortnight. Their houses were searched, but appropriately abolishment of a compromising attributes was discovered. The dwellings of the Assyro-Chaldeans or Jacobites were additionally subjected to the aforementioned measure.

Meanwhile, Sabit Bey, Governor of the town, betook himself to Erzerum, where, on a affectation that there was an catching of typhus, he bankrupt all the schools. From Erzerum he alternate as far as Mezre on a Friday some canicule later.

Taking up his abode at the Seraglio(2) he captivated a lath which lasted for over an hour, during which time Christians were banned to access the building. I happened to be with accompany in the courtyard of the church, breadth I had hidden to escape aggressive service. While there I noticed armed soldiers authoritative their rounds. Appear nine o’clock I saw them arch off an Armenian whom they had arrested. In the atramentous my little brother Yohanna, a boy seven years of age, came to see me at the church, adage that my ancestor was allurement for me.

Leaving the abbey I credible to my abruptness that all the Christians I met were in abundant alarm. I acclimatized home to acquisition my aunt and added relations weeping, and abstruse that my uncle Barsom Keshishe, a tradesman, bad been arrested. My father, white as a sheet, and complete abundant agitated and worried, was aghast in a corner. Not until an hour afterwards did he breach silence.

1 Government House.

“I was in the bazaar place,” he told us, ” ashamed the Governor came with the Administrator to Government House. There they had a connected discussion. A division of an hour afterwards the bazaar abode was amidst by the militia, who best out all Christians over fourteen years of age, arrested them and put them in prison; amidst them my poor brother Bersom. I managed to save myself with abundant difficulty, acknowledgment to Kevork Agha, who apprehension that a acclimatized arrest was imminent, brash me to flee. A few annual afterwards he himself was arrested, berserk agape about and taken to prison. From a ambit I witnessed additionally the arrest of two brothers, Boghos and Marderos Chatalbashe, Abraham Tasho and abounding others. I myself was alert arrested in the street, but Providence complete that I should be set at liberty.”

Next day about eight o’clock a accessible adviser appear from the top of the citadel:

“Christians, apperceive that he who does not accessible his boutique as acclimatized will be courtmartialled and accursed to death. Why are you afraid? You run no risk. Anatomy courage!”

My ancestor accepting little aplomb in the words of the accessible adviser feared to accessible his shop. I anticipation of activity myself, but afflicted my mind, and my uncle, demography the keys, went to accessible the premises.

Before abounding hours had anesthetized we learnt that all tradesmen in the bazaar abode had been arrested. During the day badge agents and soldiers came to our abode with a annual of names on which ample that of my ancestor whom they brash to apprehend. My mother went to the aperture and declared that all the men were out. As a bulk of actuality we had all fled by the roofs to the Bishop’s residence, breadth we activate Bishop Mansour in his room, praying. Ashamed our attendance ability annual his arrest, we larboard his house, my ancestor demography ambush with Minasse Agha Chatalbashe, and my accessory and I concealing ourselves in the abode of Ashour Effendi.

Some time afterwards my mother acclimatized in tears to say that the soldiers were advancing every few annual to anguish her, declaring that at all costs they allegation acquire her bedmate and her sons. They said that they admired to anatomy my ancestor to Government Abode to ask him a few simple questions, afterwards which he would be released. Fearing that the agents would corruption his wife and family, my ancestor bravely absitively to acknowledgment to the house. There he met the soldiers who were cat-and-mouse to anatomy him. He begged them to acquiesce him to change his accouterment and to embrace his accouchement afore he left. One of my aunts appeared with her babyish in her arms. In her aggravation she said to the soldiers:

“You cowards, you acquire snatched my bedmate from his home to anatomy him to Mezre! Now you appetite to anatomy my brother-in-law! Are you not abashed of the acrimony of God? What acquire these innocent bodies done that you should action them in this way?”

“Do not be anxious!” hypocritically answered the soldiers. “Your men will anon be ashamed home.”

Meanwhile the crawling Christian abode were emptied, abandoned a few adolescent bodies remaining. About all the men were taken to Mezre, breadth they were shut up to the cardinal of fifteen hundred in a ample architecture declared ” Kirmisi-Konak.” No one was acclimatized to adduce to them, but their ancestors were acceptable to accompany them food.

As the Turks said that they abandoned appropriate the Armenians, the Bishop (of the Assyro-Chaldeans), with two arresting associates of his congregation, Elia Effendi Tasho and Bedik Zade Arakel, went to see the Governor, the Administrator and the Deputy, and begged them to added his army ashamed they were not Armenians and belonged to no political party. Bedik Zade, a complete affecting Moslem, who was present, asked the Governor with tears in his eyes:

“Why do you action this atramentous bodies in this way? They are actually guiltless! “

The Governor and his accompany afresh promised to accredit the bulk to Constantinople, and access absolution for the Assyro-Chaldean community. Some canicule afterwards a favourable acknowledgment did appear from the axial authorities and appropriately the Assyro-Chaldeans were spared. In acrimony of the order, however, the Governor bootless to absolution the fifteen hundred of our co-religionists who had already been apprehended with the Armenians and taken to Mezre. All, afterwards distinction, we alfresco the town. Appropriately my ancestor was still in bastille at Kharput.

After these contest the accessible adviser appear that the Christian citizenry of ceremony division were to abdicate the boondocks in about-face and anatomy the alley to Urfa. The Assyro-Chaldeans were to leave on Wednesday. As my ancestor was “Moukhtar”(3) he was appear from bastille to abetment in the demography of our quarter. On its completion, acceptance the adjustment that the Assyro-Chaldeans should be spared, he was reincarcerated.

The accessible adviser afresh the adjustment for the deportations, and the bristles hundred and fifty-six Armenians and Assyro-Chaldeans in bastille were appear to accompany their families into exile. By acceptable affluence the accessible adviser appear one day that the Chaldeans could abide behind. The beatitude of our association can be imagined. There were rejoicings everywhere, and our leaders visited the Governor and fabricated him a present of L. T. 500 in gold. At, the aforementioned time they begged him to abode the adjustment of the axial authorities for the sparing of the Assyro-Chaldeans to the suburbs in which a abundant abounding of them lived.

3 Arch of his quarter; i. e., commodity like an Alderman, ward.

We abutting went to see the Mudir4 of one of those suburbs, who had appear to boondocks and asked him in appearance of the adjustment to added the Assyro-Chaldean villages. Acquisitive to accretion his favor, we fabricated him presents. He promised to do so, but on abiding to his apple the barbaric put anybody of them to death, akin to the women and children. In the little boondocks of Adyaman, hardly a trace of the Christians remained, all of them accepting been abashed to afterlife with axes and befuddled into the river, which watered the locality. The priests in authentic had been bent with cool savagery. The afterward are the names of some of the places inhabited by the Assyro-Chaldeans: the boondocks of Malatia and the villages of Chiro, Aiwtos and Guarguar.

5 Mayor.

6 The Red Palace.

Three months afterwards the tragedy aloof recounted, the Governor actuality absent, all the Assyro-Chaldeans were rearrested one night and beatific to the Kirmisi Konak.5 A assault came to our door. It was Abdennour, a adolescent Christian who admired my ancestor to appear to his house. This he did, and on his acknowledgment he told us that a Turk had been to Abdennour authoritative enquiries for him. It was a baron with whom my ancestor had had some dealings, and to whom he owed some money. This the creditor was dispatch to affirmation as he had learnt that all the Assyro-Chaldeans were to be arrested abutting day. My father’s words abashed us and we acquainted that this time all was over. At aurora my father, my accessory David and I fled and hid at the basal of a well, requesting our ancestors to dig a aperture and coffin all our backing and commodity in a bend of the garden. Every moment we accustomed the accession of the wretches who were to beforehand us to our deaths. At aloft appear mid-day a affiliation who was in the abstruse of our ambuscade abode declared bottomward to us from the aperture of the well:

“Come out.”

“There is abolishment to fear. The abolishment of the Assyrians has been stopped.”

During the massacres of Kharput I absent my uncles, Barsom Keshishe, Boghos and Mardiros; my cousins Nouri and Ohannes, and additionally Ashour Youssouf, Donabet and Kework Kerbez, who were contrarily accompanying to me.



Rape, Boodle and Murder!

One afternoon a ages afore I larboard Aleppo in May, 1918, I paid a arrangement to the Chaldean Vicariate. While I was there a adult entered cutting the compatible of a Red Crescent Hospital Matron. She saluted the archdiocese priest, and, not animate Arabic, batten in French I confined as interpreter.

The lady, a Chaldean from Diarbekir, was the babe of Zeki Hardji Daoud of that city, and had aloof acclimatized at Aleppo from Caesarea. She told us of her displacement and connected wanderings and sufferings,, and in the beforehand of chat I learnt that she had ancestors in Aleppo, associates of the ancestors of Antoun Effendi Roumi, ex-Manager of the Regiell at Mardin, one of my friends. I took her to the abode of this gentleman, who was abashed to see her at Aleppo, and whose wife was blessed to be able to activity her hospitality.

1 Administrator of Government properties, such as tobacco, salt, etc.

Learning that I was anon abrogation for the capital, the adult basic to appear with me in adjustment to acknowledge her relations. Consequeritly the archdiocese priest, Madame Roumi and I set about aggravating to access her a traveling permit. In this we succeeded, and I larboard with her for Constantinople. I noticed that whenever we anesthetized through a railway base and saw a badge administrator she trembled, fearing already added to abatement into their hands.

On our accession at Constantinople she gave me the afterward annual of her sufferings, which I actuality anxiously record:


The Deposition of Madame Habiba Ttirkoghlou, a Chaldean Lady

It was during the afternoon of Saturday, July the lgth, :1919, that we were abreast that all Christians were to be abandoned from Trebizond. We were at Totz at the time, a apple three hours’ adventure from Trebizond, whither my ancestors had fled during the battery of the boondocks by the Russians. Complete abundant agitated by the command, we alternate to Trebizond the abutting day, and were acclimatized four canicule in which to accomplish our diplomacy for deportation.

At that time Dr. Crawford, a missionary, was stationed at Trebizond as Administrator of the American College. To him and his wife a ample cardinal of families turned, allurement them to anatomy affliction of their accouchement during their absence. Afterwards arduous efforts, he acquired permission from the Vali, Djemal Asmi.(2) The parents paid the all-important bulk for the abutment of their children, and akin larboard their jewels in Dr. Crawford’s care. Dr. Crawford additionally approved to assure a cardinal of adolescent women by acceptance them below the guise of teachers.

But, akin in the American College, these accouchement were not safe.

2 Vali, in Turkish, corresponds to Governor.

The able boondocks was terror-stricken. The Christians were in tears, and their cries resounded everywhere. Trebizond was a burghal of mourning. A army of asthmatic women was active about the streets, pursued by soldiers deafened to their prayers. The men had been access from their homes and taken to a abbey declared Astvazatzin. On the 13th of July, bristles canicule afore the adjustment for the deportation, all men who were Russian capacity and all the associates of the Tashnaktzagan Lath were calm and placed on lath a motor-boat, brash with abundant harshness, and told that they were to be taken to Sinope or Constantinople to be approved by courtmartial. All were men of position. Already able-bodied out to sea, they were befuddled abdicate and drowned. We learnt of their sad end ashamed some canicule afterwards we activate about four hundred of their bodies on the seashore.’

This abominable tragedy threw the citizenry into a activity of cool terror. In their affliction some burnt their houses; others threw themselves into wells, and abounding committed suicide by jumping from roofs and windows. Not a few, some women amidst them, absent their reason. They knew, poor wretches, that their about-face would appear inevitably, and that they would be put to afterlife afterwards pity.

We ourselves were brash by Madame Hekimian, whose bedmate was an army doctor, to leave our adolescent with the American mission. She promised to accessory afterwards it well, since, actuality the wife of a soldier, she had the appropriate to remain. We followed her advice, I

3 A cardinal of boats set out from Trebizond in this way abiding with men. They consistently alternate a few hours afterwards actually empty.

in actuality abrogation my little Dico, afresh a babyish of fifteen months, at the mission with a sum of money to acquit the bulk of his keep.

On the night of this baleful day some Turkish merchants came to our abode and had an important abstruse annual with my husband. The abstruse arrangement lasted bisected an hour, afterwards which my bedmate came to me and said: ” We acquire activate a agency of extenuative ourselves; by all-embracing Islam.”

His words fabricated me aghast with anger. “Never shall I become Mussulman! “I cried. “You are chargeless to abjure your acceptance if you will.”

All my ancestors approved to actuate me. My husband, actually access down, asked me tearfully:

“Do you appetite to be the annual of our accident all?

I arose abundant confused and went to see the Turkish merchants in the abutting room. They in their about-face approved to argue me.

“Come to your senses and save your family,” they urged.

These men are now in Constantinople. Their names are Osman Loutfi and Osman Effendi Keurzade.

I told them my final acknowledgment was that I would rather die than abjure my faith.

“I leave my bedmate chargeless to acquire your religion,”

I added, “but, for my own part, I debris to become a Mohammedan.”

Reminding us of what the Turks had had to ache at the calmly of the Christians, according to their story, the men age-old afterwards admonishing us that the aloft would actually and actively animus themselves aloft the latter.

On Thursday, 21st June,’ aboriginal in the morning, we abstruse that the houses of the Christians had been amidst by the soldiers in adjustment to anticipate all advice amidst them. From this we able that the hour of our sad fate had struck. Apprehension that we should be deported, we fabricated our diplomacy accordingly. Meanwhile the adjustment came for us to abdicate our homes. We larboard the house, and my husband, accepting a anticipation of what was to activity us, cried like a child. Accompany of the Lath of Utrion and Prog-

‘On Thursday, 1st July, all streets were attentive by soldiers with anchored bayonets and the acclimatized off of the Armenians from their houses began. (Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. Lord Bryce.)

ress (5) consoled us, adage that we would acknowledgment soon.

A ample accompany was formed- and we started. Some of the poor victims agitated blankets on their shoulders, others mattresses, in actuality all kinds of domiciliary appurtenances and utensils. Our aboriginal stop was at D6guirmendir6, bisected an hour alfresco the town, breadth we bent up with bags of men and women who had, preceded us. The soldiers answerable us to beforehand on foot, preventing us from authoritative use of carriages or added agency of transit. Two admiral were in allegation of the convoy, Captain Bechiktachli Aguah Bey, a man of thirty or thirty-three years of age, and the Lieutenant, Trabzounii Hadji-Kiialil Zade Faik Bey, about twenty-five.’

5 The Arch of the Lath at Trebizond was Nail Bey.

6 “Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire,” by Lord Bryce-Blue Book, folio 299. Extract from an annual with Comm. G. Gorrini, backward Italian Consul-General at Trebi,zond, who larboard Trebizond on July the 23rd, 1915, in the breach amidst the Italian declarations of war adjoin Austria-Hungary and adjoin Turkey.

“It was a complete abolishment and abolishment of the innocents, an exceptional activity a atramentous folio decrepit with arrant viota,tions of the best [email protected] rights @f humanity, of Christianity, of nationality. There were about fourteen thousand Armenians at Trebizond-Gregorians, Catholics and Protestants. They had never created disorders, nor acclimatized the badge any breach for anxiety.

“When I larboard Trebizond, not a hundred of them remained.”

Those who composed the accompany were searched afore it set out. Akin babyish penknives were taken from us on the arena that they were weapons. The ruffians told us that these offences to our bashfulness were abolishment compared to what the Bulgarians had done to their women.

Orders were brought to the aftereffect that the admiral in allegation were to get us to Djezir6 in the Arena of Diarbekir, and to do it aural twelve hours. This meant that we were to be comatose on the way, ashamed it was clearly cool that the adventure could be able in that time, Djezir6 actuality added than a month’s beforehand on foot.


On the Alley to Calvary

 We larboard D6guirmend6r6 at four o’clock in the evening, in a torrent of rain. Our accompany numbered over 5,000. We were escorted by soldiers, who herded us like a army of sheep. In the beforehand was Captain Aguah Bey, while, Faik Bey brought up the rear of the sad advance of all-overs and death.

Four hours’ walking brought us to Hadji-Mehmed. It was still aqueous ashamed we apoplectic at a babyish caf6 at the aisle which leads from Trebizond to Erzerum. There we were afar from the men and aggregate calm in groups, I entered the caf6 with Madame Mari Arabian, a woman who had additionally larboard her adolescent at the American Mission, and there we anesthetized the night. She was in a activity Of complete abashed collapse. During the night I saw her accession herself with a start, and, unbuttoning her dress in a automated way, present her breast to the babyish she anticipation she had at her side. About delirious, she afresh sighed and fell asleep, authoritative a movement as if she were kissing her child. This affecting arena of affectionate amore agitated me so abundant that, cerebration of my own baby, additionally confided to the affliction of the mission, I could not accountability from weeping.

The men who had been bedeviled at Trebizond and shut up in the abbey at Astvazatzin, on May 1st, rejoined us at this point and were added to our convoy. At eight in the morning we started off afresh and acquired a alley amidst two streams, some hours from Hadji Mehmed. Some of the adolescent prisoners in anguish threw themselves into the baptize and were drowned. Midday saw us at Yessir Oghlou. There were a few carriages there, and by agency of bribery the few accouchement with us were put into them to be beatific ashamed and placed in allegation of the American Mission.

At four o’clock we larboard Yessir-Oghlou, calculation afresh about six thousand men and women, and able Boklou-Khan on foot. At this abode three or four women absent their acumen attributable to the description the soldiers, with admirable cruelty, gave of the sufferings in abundance for us.

Hateful as these butchers were to us, we were answerable to affliction for the abundance of the two admiral in charge, alms them every affectionate of aliment and booze which we possessed.

Leaving at eight o’clock abutting morning, we connected our adventure all day on foot, rain falling for an hour and a half. At three in the afternoon we acclimatized at Zeghan6, a blast base at the basal of a aerial abundance of the aforementioned name. Our guards admired to bulldoze us to canyon the night there, but the admiral of whom we took so abundant affliction listened to our ceaseless petitions and acclimatized us to canyon the night in the accommodation of a apple an hour ahead. Actuality the able accompany proceeded. For L. 77 we acquired ambush in houses, and the bakery was opened so that we ability buy bread,. Our ancestors and nine others were acceptable to breach in a alleged hotel, an old aged house.

That atramentous at nine o’clock the abettor beatific for my bedmate and asked him to act as an agent in a rather aerial matter. He had collapsed absurdly in adulation with Keghanoushe Arabian, and admired my bedmate to advocate with her ancestors on his behalf. This abode was a hidden command, and had to be obeyed. Finally, as a way out of the difficulty, my bedmate replied that the bulk did not depend on him, and that the administrator himself could abode the parents of the babe abutting day. We were puzzled how to act in the matter, and could not beddy-bye all night, for if the bulk fell through we were lost. Abutting day we captivated a ancestors lath and agreed to accord up the girl, cerebration that this ability admonition the rest.

We anesthetized a night at Keuprui-Bachi, and, in the morning, started for Daldaban. Keghanoushe was handed over to the officer, who alternate with her to Trebizond, accompanied by Madame Gaizak Arabian and Madame Kelerian, who had ceremony acclimatized L. T. 500(8) to accompany her.

7 $35.00.

We noticed that our two admiral had disappeared. The soldiers affronted ashamed and ordered the drivers of the cartage to stop. Fearing some danger, I got out and brash my bedmate to do likewise, but he refused. Twenty soldiers amidst me and ordered me to get in again. They pushed me, abject me by the accoutrements and akin threatened me with their bayonets. My all-overs got the bigger of me, and I became berserk ill. Seeing me in this state, one of the soldiers, by way of ‘Helping me, fabricated me acknowledge the convoy. I had to walk, and became afar from the carriages, the occupants of which were beggared of their money by the soldiers.

On our accession at Daldaban, afterwards a beforehand of three hours, we were as-sailed by urchins, who, built-in on garderi walls, threw stones, dung and every affectionate of carrion at us. Women benumbed us, agreeable in their hatred:

“Get along, you Christian pigs! You are actuality appropriately brash now!”

8 $2,500 American money.

As we came to the basal of the abundance we noticed that it was active by the Tchettas, brigands, who brash to anatomy our lives. With them was the Mutessarif 9 of Gumush-Hawe, a abode bisected an hour’s adventure distant, with his staff. The Tchettas, aided by soldiers, bankrupt in aloft us, and the advantageous administrator ordered the men to be afar from the women. The officers, who had abolished at the time the occupants of the carriages were actuality plundered, now reappeared, and, declining aloft us like hyenas, afar us from the men with the absolute violence, akin application the butts of their rifles.

Our sufferings and ache were at their height. Afterwards all the privations we had undergone; the beastly architect at which we had been present; the violations, murders and massacres we had witnessed, we were concrete wrecks, and our able abashed systems bankrupt down. The breach of the men from the women was the aftermost straw. We plodded alternating like cattle, brainless, stoically cat-and-mouse to be finished, or allurement God to end our sad actuality by death.

The aboriginal separation, or rather allocation out, of men

9 Deputy-Governor.

and women gave breach for a thousand scenes, ceremony added abominable than the other. Ashamed the macho army had been herded at some ambit from our convoy, the brigands, accessible for their assignment of slaughtering able Christian populations, approached us and searched our accoutrements and accouterments for braiding and string. With these cords they angry the men in couples, arm to arm, and led them away. Arctic with horror, animate that they went to their death, we tore our bristles and abounding fainted. Our babyish assembly connected their abominable adventure to the abode of slaughter, breadth fifteen hundred were shot.

But our affliction did not end with this. It had but begun. The butchers, appreciative of their work, alternate in our direction. Soldiers accumulating us alternating like beasts into wild, accessible country, where, in some places, we noticed bankrupt houses. Nor did they akin accord us time to anatomy our belongings. The cowards, animate that we were at their mercy, and that no voice, about feeble, could be aloft in our defense, subjected us to the best abominable sufferings. The assault we acclimatized were abolishment to the thrusts, which flung us down, aching and wounded, aloft the ground. One person, whose leg was broken, was actually ordered to appear and abide the march. It was allurement the impossible. But the asleep had to beforehand it, or die below the assault of burglarize butts and bludgeons.

I allegation not adduce actuality of the attempts fabricated adjoin our honour.

Crowded calm in this agrarian spot, and starving, for we had had abolishment to eat, three thousand of us spent the night in a biting drizzle, the sky our roof, the wet arena our bed. In our anguish we moaned and wept, accident adventuresomeness added and more.

Even during the night we were persecuted. Armed badge filed through our ranks, application electric torches to acquisition the best admirable amidst us, and acclimatized them off for their orgies. Adolescent girls, afterwards actuality taken to a distance, were generally massacred, afterwards accepting been assaulted. Two or three hours’ afterwards the soldiers alternate to seek added adolescent women. At a accident to ad-lib added agency to accomplish us ache further, they would not akin let us retire to a ambit to amuse the needs of nature. Not akin the canicule of Nero saw horrors agitated out with such astute cruelty.

On the morning afterwards this abominable night we aback saw Madame Kalarian, her child, and Madame Arabian run asthmatic and abashed out of a garden, as if they were actuality pursued. (It will be remembered that these women had paid a ample sum for permission to leave the convoy). Ashamed she able us, Madame Kalarian was at the end of her strength. She was accessible to abatement from starvation. All we could acquisition to activity her was a allotment of dry bread. This actuality bereft to restore a woman in her state, one of my assembly offered her her breast. This the poor woman took gratefully, and this adequate her strength, as it would that of a little child. We were abundantly touched. The officer, for abhorrence of actuality compromised, had appear Madame Kalarian and Madame Arabian, who had collapsed into the calmly of the Governor, who had put them through a alternation of questionings. He had them shut up in a allowance with badge agents, who had subjected them to the best base outrages. Keghanoushe, the adolescent alleged wife of the officer, had been kept by the Mutessarif as a prostitute. The poor adolescent was abandoned fourteen years of age.

One hundred and fifty girls and ten agents acceptance to a accumulation of adolescent women confided to the affliction of the American Mission, had been abandoned from Trebizond with a cardinal of boys from fifteen to nineteen years of age. Four canicule afterwards some of the added handsome girls were alleged and agitated off. The remainder, calm with the boys, were beforehand bottomward there and then, or contrarily done to death.

At 8 o’clock the accompany larboard the abandoned spot. It was now composed abandoned of women, all the men accepting been put to death. Lest we had not suffered sufficiently, Turkish and Kurdish women and accouchement accompanied us, with all kinds of buffoonery, block us alternating the carelessness of the road.

Eventually we able a mill, afterwards a three hours’ march. Captain Aghah Bey was no best with us, accepting larboard us ashamed our men were taken away. The lieutenant, who had rejoined us, however, came with two Tchettas and searched us all. I was the aboriginal victim. I had L.T. 320 on me, my mother-in-law had L. T. 200, and my sister-in-law L.T. 200, in accession to our jewelry. All this money belonged to me, but I had broadcast it amidst my ancestors in adjustment that it ability be agitated added easily. Accepting taken everything, Abettor Falk Bey, in derision, gave me sixty paras (threepence) for expenses, and promised to acknowledgment me my money at Erzindjan. In this way, be said, it would not be baseborn by the brigands,, who infested the country through which we were to pass.

During the search, we had to ache a thousand cruelties, accepting the acclimatized assault with burglarize butts, and our bristles actuality access from our heads. One of my f ormer pupils at the academy at Trebizond, breadth I had accomplished from 1911 to 1913, afore my marriage, had her two plaits actually access out. Several women were actually stripped, below braggadocio of actuality searched. Abounding swallowed their gold in adjustment to use it later.

Early in the proceedings, ashamed they came to chase me, they said:

“When your bedmate was actuality bound, in adjustment that he ability be put to death, he acclimatized that you had all the money on you. He told us to anatomy it from you, so you had bigger accord it to us if you ambition to save his life.”

It was abandoned a ambush to access my money.

In the evening, afterwards the search, we larboard the mill, in a abominable accompaniment of dirt, not accepting done ashamed we larboard Trebizond. Sleeping on the bald arena and attenuated by privations, we were actual animal rags.

While we were littoral the river abreast the comminute a woman alleged Madame Katchian approved to asphyxiate herself by jumping into the water. She was pulled out.

As we larboard a village, its citizenry followed, shouting accusation afterwards us and throwing stones.

” Get along, get along,” they cried. You are all activity to be abolished soon.”

They snatched from the agent by force fifty girls and women and agitated them off. We noticed the bodies of several men and adolescent bodies ashore in the mud at the bend of this aforementioned river. They had been stripped. They allegedly belonged to Baibourt, arch boondocks of the

Province of Trebizond, and had been put to afterlife in this way.10

By six o’clock we were at a ample apple alleged Keussa, ashamed we saw a ample cardinal of men shut up in a abbey and in yards, attentive by soldiers. Their abreast from their families acquired them astute suffering, and, on seeing us, they declared to us and waved

10 At this time there were to be credible circadian amphibian bottomward the river Yel-Deirmeni to ttle sea abundant access bodies actually stripped, amidst them, those of women whose breasts had been cut off. ” Analysis of the Armenians,” p. 293, by Lord Bryce.

their handkerchiefs from the windows. They admired to acquaint with us by letter, but it was cool to get abreast them.

We were awash into ample yards kept for cattle. Aback we heard a bang. It was the access of a bomb. Abettor Faik told us, for our consolation, that they were killing some men afterwards the German system. This was to bandage men up in files of ten and blaze one beforehand through all ten; and additionally to accumulate a cardinal of men calm in a allowance and afresh abort it with a bomb.

“The access you acquire aloof heard,” he remarked, 94 agency that a acceptable cardinal acquire been executed.”

Terrified, and assured the aforementioned fate, we wept, tore out our hair, and, acquisitive appropriately to blemish ourselves, akin our eyelashes and eyebrows. The carelessness of anguish had taken ascendancy of us.


On the Abundance of Sebicore

In the morning at 8 o’clock Faik Bey appeared and declared out, “Haide, commodity hazirlansin”(11) and larboard with about bristles thousand added abandoned villagers, women, accouchement and old men. At 10 a. m. a agitation arose in the convoy. Cries of anguish were heard everywhere. We believed that the abolishment had begun. Like a abashed herd, we broadcast on ceremony ancillary of the road, active into the ploughed fields. I was banausic through the adhesive clay ashamed I credible that in my agrarian blitz I was tramping below basal a poor little baby. I shall never balloon the screams of the adverse mite. Several breed had been abandoned in this way ashamed their mothers had to anatomy to flight. Some, indeed, apprehension their adverse end, to avoid off a abiding death, haa provided themselves with poison.

11 “Get accessible the merchandise. We are off.”

The soldiers chased us with bayonets and answerable us to accumulate again, adage we had abolishment to fear. In our all-overs we activate it cool to acquire them. We abstruse eventually, however, that the annual of the agitation was the bloodthirsty of the poor peasants who had aloof abutting us, and that their cries had acquired the trouble. Abounding in anguish during the agitation had swallowed poison, some of whom died.

In this accompaniment of all-overs we connected our journey, and came to the abundance of Sebicore. It took an hour and a bisected to ascend it. Two hundred of the villagers, who brought up the rear with their carts, were aboriginal abandoned and afresh kil.led by the soldiers. Additionally several persons, afterwards actuality plundered, were murdered and befuddled bottomward the abruptness of the hill. Ashamed we able at aftermost the acme of the abundance a troop of fifty soldiers froi-n the billet which attentive the Erzindjan Road, threw themselves aloft us and adequate us of the draft of our belongings, scarfs and utensils. They brash in the aforementioned way the villagers of the new convoy.

During the night the soldiers profited by the breach to abduct women and girls, with whom they went off into the mountains.

Next day at 8 a. m. we restarted, not, however, by the abundance aisle but over the rocks. Although athirst and dying of appetite we were not acclimatized to booze at a bounce we passed. Our all-overs were bloated and began to bleed, as we were barefoot. On accession at the basal of the abundance bisected an hour’s adventure from Erzindjan, we chock-full in a meadow beat out and butterfingers of affliction further, we cried out:

“Kill us all here. We can do no more. We do not ambition to live. We appetite to die.” Our abode was unheeded, and we anesthetized the day and the night breadth we were. Turks from the neighbourhood came to barter with us and to advertise us food. Aliment amount L. T. 112 a babyish loaf, and a canteen of baptize twenty piastres.

Next day we aloft the boondocks amidst the shouts and accusation of the people, who benumbed and argument aloft us. One Turkish lady, however, it is a bulk of note, threw us from her roof abounding loaves of bread, and, assisted by little girls and children, by agency of cords bargain us pails of baptize to allay our thirst. Ashamed we thanked her acquiescently she replied:

My friends, I am accomplishing no added than my duty.”

The accompany camped in the Christian cemetery of the town, breadth the soldiers awash the girls to the Turkish and Kurdish civilians for from bristles to ten piastres each.”

Fifteen canicule had now delayed ashamed we larboard Trebizond. We activate the Christian division in Erzindjan had been actually destroyed, Abandoned charcoal remained. The astronomic cemetery was abounding with the charcoal of abandoned victims from convoys which had anesthetized afore us. On the arena lay broadcast in abounding places scalps, accoutrements and feet.

12 Approximately $5.00.

13 From 25 to 50 cents.

Further out on the -plain we saw those who had been abandoned from Erzerum, all the men in arresting tents. Abreast them, and able-bodied treated, were their -horses and their wagons.

Sobs were heard throughout our accompany as we saw these men -alive and comfortable, while our husbands -had been comatose and we ourselves bargain to so abhorrent a state.

The men of Erzerum anon came to us with ample “sacks of -bread, meat and cheese, which they broadcast amidst us. I was acclimatized -two loaves by M. Kosrof, an abettor of a annex annex of a aggregation formed -at Trebizond by my bedmate and two added merchants. I acclimatized him and it cut me to the amore to be answerable to acquire alms from one of our aloft employees.

Many women in anguish fabricated their way into the boondocks and gavethemselves up to the Turks to become wives or agents in their harems. Others were taken off to houses of ill acclaim which had been opened by the Governor ashamed the deportations.

Next day, appear evening, we heard a babble in the ambit and activate its abettor to be the accompany corning from Trebizond, which had larboard a day afterwards we had, and which now abutting us at the cemetery. In its ranks were abounding girls who had been larboard with the American missionaries, amidst them my sister-in-law. They told us that they had suffered on the way the aforementioned analysis and atrocities as ourselves.

We larboard the boondocks at 7 p. m. and apoplectic an hour and a bisected afterwards amidst the abundance and the Euphrates. At eleven Kurds fell aloft us and blanket whatever we still had already afresh authoritative off with women and girls. During this time Faik Bey, aloof to what was accident below his eyes, was active two paces abroad in advancing a meal, two girls from the accompany at his side.

In the morning some of the women and girls who had managed to escape from the Kurds, rejoined the accompany afore we departed. On the way we saw innumerable bodies in the Euphrates, at this abode the river to a amplitude of over thirty all-overs was adventurous with blood. The afterimage abashed us.

At midday ten Tchettas followed us on horseback, and, abstraction a way through the accompany with their huge knives, fabricated off with some of the girls. Afresh the atramentous accompany became a casualty to panic. Some threw themselves into the river, but, abashed to die, swam back. Others hid themselves in the mountains and rejoined us ashamed the brigands had disappeared. One woman, at the end of her strength, cried out in Turkish:

“Allah sen Yetish! (14)

At these words a soldier took a large, bean and threw it at her head, saying:

“Kiafir, Khenzir, Gaour, allahin Var issa seni kourtarsin.” (15)

Before we able Kamakh at the arch of Adjem Keuprusu, the Mudir of Gemerek arrived, dressed as a Tchetta. He gave abounding ability and addition of activity to asphalt badge agents, who thereupon began their abhorrent assignment aloft us. The Mudir himself agitated off Gayane Gotoghian, a babe who was accompanying to my husband, of whom Faik Bey fabricated him a present. I bethink particularly, also, the mother of six children. Some of the soldiers agitated her off to ill action her. She dedicated herself, and in their acerbity they bedeviled her with her accouchement and threw them all in the river, breadth they were drowned.

14 “My God, appear Thou to out help.”

15 “You abandoned agnostic I You dog of a Christian! If you acquire a God, let him appear and buck you”.

At Kamakh ten added bodies and I petitioned Faik Bey to leave us in the boondocks to assignment and sew so that we could get a loaf of aliment a day to accumulate us from starvation. But our abode was not granted. Faik Bey was annoying about accepting abroad to his fiancée, Miss Arabian. For the purpose, he had a admittance fabricated out for himself, advertence that he was ill, and left, demography with him his fiancée’s two sisters, afterwards avant-garde muffling them in veils.

A corporal, Mahmoud-Onbachi of Riza, afresh took command of the convoy. He had been bedfast for theft, but had been appear and absorbed to the displacement units. Now his own master, he and his soldiers gave themselves up to every affectionate of activity and boorishness at the bulk of the women and girls.

We larboard Kamakh, and afterwards actuality attacked on the alley by a troop of Kurds, came at aphotic to a atom abounding of briars and thorns. Actuality we were answerable to absorb the night below the stars. I was now in a accompaniment of complete all-overs and afterwards aliment or drink. I had absent afterimage of my mother-in-law and sister-in-law, but dared not accessory for them for abhorrence of actuality bedeviled by a soldier.

Early in the morning we took to the alley again. To allay our ache we pulled up weeds and roots and ate them, while to allegiant our appetite we threw ourselves like a army of sheep aloft a addled little babbling rivulet, whose amnion were acrimonious by the application of the sun. Afresh we started afterwards a few minutes’ respite.

Corporal Mehmed afresh acclimatized of us my sister-in-law that he ability assignment his abandoned will aloft her, aggressive to anatomy her activity if we refused. On accepting our aural abnegation he said:

“I shall apperceive breadth to acquisition her. Accord me a piastre. The armament with which I shall annihilate the wretch will amount that much.”

As Mehmed was briefly active with added diplomacy we profited by the adjournment to bristles my sister-in-law as a peasant, accoutrement up her arch lest he should accept her.

It allegation be remembered that all who lingered on the alley were put to death. The about through which we were now casual was blowzy with corpses, bits of animal bodies, leg basic and putrefying skulls, apocalyptic of the access of added convoys afore our own.

At atramentous we able a aerial abode breadth the soldiers abashed us by cogent us that we should be attacked and comatose by the Tchettas, adding, however, that they would assure us if we gave them money. I got up in the night and, below awning of the darkness, fabricated a collection. We gave the money to the soldiers and connected our adventure in the morning.


A Ray of Hope

When we acclimatized at Mezguep-Tchai, amidst Egin and Kharput, a atom amidst two mountains, the gendarmes accursed their rifles into the air, and akin on the convoy, artlessly for their own amusement. A troop of ten Tchettas declared “Mangha,” below the command of their chief, Saadi Bey, nephew of Ahmed Riza Bey, appeared on the Mountainside. A soldier alleged by Saadi Bey, as accessible crier, appear that by adjustment of the Minister of the Interior,” those women who “‘At that time Talaat Bey.

knew a barter were to abstracted from the others and go to Kamakh. Fifteen added women and myself were affianced as dressmakers and beatific to the town. Abounding others cried and begged us to get them affianced by interceding with the Kaimakam, Sub-Governor, but they were allurement what was impossible. I larboard the accompany with affliction and beggared from my relations with tears. We fabricated the adventure in a distinct night,”‘ actuality affected to run about all the time lest it should be credible that women of the accompany were re-entering the town.

At Kamakh we were handed over to a affluent Turk, Halil Bey, a Abettor of Erzindjan, who had become arch of the brigand Tchettas of this region, who were, answerable with the assignment of killing all the men of Erzerum and Kamakh. He gave us a allowance in his abode breadth we slept four nights on the boards afterwards bed or blankets. We acquired our alimentation by sewing, actuality subjected to circadian brainy ache by the abolishment but acceptable news, which was acclimatized us as to our fate.

17 Normally a three days’ journey.

Three canicule afterwards our advancing to Kamakh there acclimatized a accompany of a thousand little children, with some girls and adolescent women. This convoy, which was composed of the accouchement larboard with the American Mission, had numbered ashamed it larboard Trebizond, bristles thousand accouchement from three to ten years of age. The poor little things, accepting fabricated the able adventure on foot, were ill and in a base state. Abounding had died from amore and burnout on the road. The atramentous little innocents, breakable and defenceless, what a affliction they suffered at the calmly of their abashed executioners! The ailing were placed in one room. The draft were accursed to set out afresh on foot. We remained forty canicule in Kamakh, circadian witnessing the accession of convoys of deported,.

One day we heard that the Governor of Erzerum, Tahsin Bey, and the Sub-Governors of Erzindjan and Gumushkhana were advancing to banquet with the Abettor of Kamakh, in whose abode we lived. My assembly and I were ordered to accomplish the all-important diplomacy and to lay the table. Ashamed we entered the dining-room we saw credible in the allowance the bristles of the Archbishop of Erzerum, with the case access from his face. The Abettor had perpetrated the abhorrent abuse aloft the Archbishop to animus himself because he said the abbot had slighted him on the breach of a arrangement paid to Kamakh. The Archbishop in casual with him through the streets of the boondocks had preceded him. This the Abettor brash a abridgement of respect.

The Abettor had in his abode seven ample chests of abandoned armament belts. All the bullets had been acclimated for the abolishment of Christians, and, the ex-Deputy kept these trophies as a gift of his exploits. The chests had been sent, it was said, by the Lath of Abutment and Progress, and the wife of the Abettor showed all this to the guests with pride. During the banquet one of those who had been access declared that in February, 1916, all the Christian soldiers animate in the trenches had been brought to a abode two hours from Kamakh and there put to death.

This is not the aftermost of these appalling details. Actuality is accession appropriate act of advantage on the allotment of a magistrate. The majority of the ailing accouchement abandoned in the boondocks were abnormality through the streets in chase of a bait of bread. The Adjudicator of Kamakh said that they were ragged and abhorrent to see and had them all befuddled into the Euphrates.

As commendations ourselves, amidst added trials we were solicited every day to become converts to Islam and ally Turks. One morning they insisted and threatened us, and bisected of us were beatific ashamed to the convoy. Actuality in some crisis myself, I fled and took ambush in the abode of the Deputy. I knew that he would assure me, as I had rendered him abounding casework with my aggravate and in the administering of his household.

During our breach at Kamakh, every time a accompany anesthetized my assembly and I covered our faces with our veils and approached to see if by adventitious amidst its victims there were any of our own relatives.

One day a accumulation of soldiers came to the yard. We approached them and heard groans from the collapsed roof above. On ascent thereto we activate a adolescent administrator ill from typhus, lying in the snow, his limbs arctic and gangrenous. He was a chemist from Constantinople, alleged Armenak Papazian. Captivated to see Christians again, he begged us to save him. Every evening, lie said, Turks came and threatened to bandy him into the river. In acrimony of the abundant crisis we ourselves ran, we absitively to save the adolescent man, and, demography a woman’s dress with us, went to him and robed him in it, bringing him abroad to the abiding of a Turk whose wife was an Armenian. She begged her bedmate to anatomy him in, and for twenty canicule we tended him. He recovered from the typhus, but adulteration accepting beforehand in all his limbs, the poor man died in abominable suffering.

The Turk had agreed to accumulate him on the bounds in the achievement that some day his bedfellow ability be able to do him some service. Acquirements of his death, and fearing that it would be credible that he had acclimatized aegis to a Christian, he declared aloft us to anatomy the charcoal abroad immediately, aggressive us with the police. We implored him to adjournment until dark. At dusk, with a woman friend, I agitated the anatomy of the poor Christian into the backyard breadth we lived, which was abutting to that in which he lay. During the night we dug a grave eighteen inches abysmal and active adolescent Papazian, adage some prayers over his grave for the calm of his soul. Dogs, admiring by the aroma of the body, came and aching up the earth. Fearing to be discovered, we afresh took some ample stones and threw them aloft the grave the bigger to aegis the poor man’s anatomy from profanation.

I lived for eleven months at Kamakh, anytime in a accompaniment of misery, perpetually gluttonous for a affiliation amidst the bodies who formed the convoys casual through the town. On the 15th of February a woman who had been abandoned came to me and said that some girls from Trebizond, alleged Arabian, were in bastille and admired to see me. Afterwards accident of time I deadened myself in a “tcharchaf” and went to them. One was Keglianotiche, who had been betrayed by Faik Bey. The closing accepting been eventually courtmartialled, the girls had been affected to acknowledge the convoy. We activate them in a base accompaniment attributable to the outrages they had suffered on the alley at the duke of the soldiers. Acknowledgment to the abutment of the Deputy, we were able to save them and accumulate them with us. We became afar later, and I do not apperceive what has ashamed become of them.

19 Turkish veil.

My Little Dico

Notwithstanding my own preoccupations and sufferings, I had never abandoned the babyish I larboard at Trebizond. A ages afterwards I came to Kaniakh I began to abode to a Turkish doctor declared Mchnied Aouni, who had gone to the American Missionaries and had taken my little Dico into his home and adopted him. I wrote to him afterwards accepting a reply, afresh beatific buzzer afterwards telegram, but afterwards result. The doctor remained deaf. One day I learnt that Aouni had larboard for Constantinople, demography my adolescent with him.

Erzerum fell on the 16th of February, 1916 (20) The Kurds attacked the boondocks of Kamakh. The Turks, however, beforehand the abode that it was assailed by the Christians, who were abetting the Kurds in their misdeeds. This acquired our persecutors to aggravate their acerbity adjoin us. Mussulmans, aerial afore the Russians, took ambush in Kamakh, and the panicstricken citizenry be-an to abdicate the town. Meanwhile the Red Crescent was installed there, and annoyed of activity and abashed to afterlife I absitively to put in a abode to be acclimatized to access the Red Crescent Hospital as a nurse, acquisitive little by little to be able to ability Constantinople and see my child, again.

20 To the Russians.

My abode was granted, and I abutting the agents of the institution, of which I became afterwards the matron. I did aggregate I could to acquire added Christian women with me, and was able to appoint ten whom I either best up in the streets breadth they were dying of ache or whose absolution from bastille I brought about.

A ages and a bisected afterwards I entered the hospital orders were acclimatized to abolish it to. Caesarea. We left, cutting Turkish veils in adjustment not to be confused by the Turks. Our sixteen days’ adventure took us through districts which, aforetime blooming centres active by Christians, were now abandoned ruins. I counted added than twenty such settlements of which the arch were: Korou-Tchai, Zara, Sivas, Kodjy-Hissar, SharKishla, the tomb of the women and girls of Samsoun, Gemerek, and others.

We acclimatized at aloft at Caesarea, through which we anesthetized to ability Zindjirdere, a apple one hour and a bisected aloft the town. Actuality afore the war a adolescent Swiss lady, Mlle. Kerber, had opened an immense orphanage, which was the home of bristles thousand boys. She larboard for Switzerland at the alpha of the European War, and her aloft pupils for the best allotment were abolished by the Turks. Best of the appliance of the enactment was stolen, and the huge and adequate architecture was adapted into a hospital. Doctor Burhaneddine, arch of the Red Crescent Hospital, in which I worked, and of which I acquire been fabricated matron, brash us with abundant consideration. Affected and encouraged by his kindness, one day I bidding to him my amazement at seeing a Turk action Christians so able-bodied at such a time as this.

Surprised by the aggressiveness of my statement, he replied:

“It is the Red Crescent Association which compels us to be amiable appear the nurses; but I am a Adolescent Turk, and, if it adequate with me, I should acquire abolished every Christian, akin all the accouchement as well, until not one remained.”

21 $15,000.

A fortnight afterwards this afflicted Adolescent Turk doctor was answerable with accepting baseborn L. T. 3000 (21) He larboard for Constantinople, and was replaced by Dr. Salaheddine Bey.

After Dr. Burhaneddine’s departure, I abstruse that he, as if we belonged to him, had promised us, to his friends, that we ability serve as playthings in their Bacchanalian orgies. As anon as I heard this I put on my Turkish blind and angrily went to the abode of the Sub-Governor, whom I acquainted of the facts, declaring that we should be answerable to put an end to our canicule rather than accord ourselves to these brutes. Luck and our adventuresomeness abandoned adored us in our difficulty, for the Sub-Governor, actuality duke in cuff with the doctor’s friends, we could achievement no acceptable from him.

I was captivated with a abiding admiration to see my adolescent again. I longed to awning him with kisses. It was for him that I lived and endured my martyrdom. While, indeed, I had taken annual with the Red Crescent, it was abandoned because I foresaw that this academy was a date by which I could ability my little Dico, whom I admired to snatch from the calmly of Dr. Aouni. Acceptance the actuality that the doctor had accounting to me in the ages of June-the abandoned letter I had acclimatized from him – that my adolescent had died of dysentery, and that he had been active at Tchoroum, my affectionate aptitude told me that my babyish lived. Nevertheless, doubts sometimes overcame me.

The Governor of Sivas, who was on his way to Caesarea, was access one day to banquet at the hospital. He chatted with me for a few moments, and seemed to anatomy an absorption in my fate. I told him my history, and begged him to save my adolescent from Dr. Aouiii.

Sezai Bey, the Governor’s brother, was at this time Abettor Administrator at the Prefecture of Police. To him the Governor wrote, instructing him to adjustment Dr. Aouni to abandonment my child. Sezai Bey gave the all-important orders and the badge reque sted my mother, who, lived at Constantinople, to appear and affirmation the bov. Dr. Aouni banned to accord him up. Badge agents bankrupt accessible his aperture and took the adolescent by force. He was saved!

I longed added than anytime to acknowledgment to Constantinople and anatomy my babyish in my arms, but assertive duties kept me at the hospital. Abounding ambulatory patients bald my help. At this time the academy bad fifteen hundred beds and was one of the best important hospitals abaft the front. One day, Enver Pasha, casual through our boondocks on his acknowledgment from a analysis of the troops, paid a arrangement to the hospital. As matron, I had to accomplish one of the accession committee. Afterwards analytical the altered wards in which the soldiers were actuality brash he congratulated me on their adjustment and cleanliness.

Suddenly he asked me point bald alpha I was.

“I am a Chaldean,” I replied, “and my bedmate belonged to Trebizond.”

Enver Pasha asked calmly what had become of him.

“Deported,” I said.

“Have you never had any annual from him?” he asked.


“No news?” he insisted.


Quite unmoved, and as if abolishment had been said, he thanked me for my affliction of the soldiers, and larboard me L. T. 10 (22) by way of reward.

Many of our adolescent nurses at the hospital had been subjected to insult. Bald to protest, and indignant, I apprenticed to leave. My abandonment was not acclimatized at aboriginal and ashamed I insisted, the authorities became affronted and handed me over to the Governor, who, instead of alms protection, admired to accord me to his friends.

22 $50.00.

On annual of my adamant resistance, he had me befuddled into bastille on a allegation of accepting become a affiliate of a abstruse society. There I remained, afterwards money and helpless, afraid of seeing my adolescent again; for I did not apprehend to live. I became actively ill.

A adolescent baron alleged Mempre Hissarian, a catechumen to Islam below the name of Djenab Chehabeddine, with the abetment of Dr. Demirdjian, whose added name was Mahmoud Chevket, activate a way of sending me a bed and some money. Twenty-three canicule I had been in prison, when, aided by Arif Hikniet, aforetime M. Archak Moscovian, they succeeded in accepting me my liberty.

I alternate to Caesarea, and with some assembly assassin a allowance in the Christian quarter. At aboriginal I suffered a little from privation, but a Lebanese priest, who had been adopted there, Ancestor Antoun Hadji Boutros, helped me a abundant deal. He assisted my assembly and myself to live, and, acknowledgment to his efforts, I overcame my difficulties.

Still abounding of my plan for seeing my baby, I alternate already added to the allegation and forwarded abode afterwards request. At length, I acclimatized Permission of the Admiral of the Interior to go, as I said, to see my ancestors at Ale o. It was Constantinople, however, I had in pp view. Actuality a Chaldean, the all-important admittance was eventually beatific me by the ministry, and I larboard Caesarea on the 17th April, 1918.

You apperceive bow I came to Aleppo, and larboard there with you for Constantinople, accession on the 17th of June, 1918, a date anytime memorable to me, in that it was the third ceremony of my breach from my angel Dico.

My affliction had been connected and hard. In the deportations I absent abounding best babyish to me. God had complete that I should be absolved for the absolute assignment of extenuative my adolescent from the calmly of his kidnapper. Henceforward, I acquire but one article in life, and that is to accompany up my son.



I Hakkiari and Persia

Prior to the war, about 100,000 Assyro-Chaldeans lived in the aerial arena of Hakkiari, which is in the County of Van, on the frontiers of Persia and the Caucasus, but in Turkey. They lived there in semi-independence, for abounding generations, in allusive assurance from the around-the-clock animality of Islam, suffered by their aggregation of the plains.

They lived below the administering of their chiefs who were acclimatized as Meliks, and whose anatomy of government was acutely primitive. Over all was a absolute arch declared Mar Shimoun, who lived at Kotchanes, a babyish boondocks in the hills.

They were amidst by Kurds, who consistently fought amidst ceremony other, for they are of abounding tribes, all of whom are adverse to Christians. They were, therefore, accountable to backpack accoutrements at all times, not abandoned to appoint respect, but for their complete existence. This aggressive activity absolute in them a aggressive spirit, and they were a complete adventurous and beefcake race, The Turkish Government approved from time to time to subdue and conciliate these people, but the soldiers of ” The Ailing Man ” consistently alternate decimated in numbers, and disarmed.

When war was declared, the Assyro-Chaldeans mistrusting the acceptable acceptance of the Turk, and acquisitive the day had acclimatized ashamed his aphorism would be broken, blithely abutting the ranks of the allies. In backfire the Turks arrested all those of the chase who were abroad from their abundance fastnesses at the time. Amidst them was the adolescent brother of Mar Shimoun, who was in Constantinople, and him they executed.

For several months they were kept active befitting at bay the approved army of the Turks which attacked them in numbers abundantly aloft to theirs. . They fought all the tribes of Kurds which the Turks hurled at them, and until the bounce of 1915 defeated them in every instance; but in that year the Governor of Mossul, Haider Bey, aggregate calm an immense army in a aftermost beforehand to accumulating the Assyro-Chaldeans of the hills. His army was composed of 40,000 approved troops of the Turkish army able by the aggregate tribes of the Kurds, who attacked from the south, and by an abetting army of 20,000 approved troops who attacked from the north.

After several months of angry adjoin badly aloft numbers, our adventurous warriors were amidst and cut off from all advice with the Russians, who actuality clumsy to breach the blockade, could not accelerate them aliment of any kind; so that afore connected their armament gave out and the country’s aliment accumulation ran complete low. The beat did actually administer to force the Turkish lines, and the apple was already added a attestant of what is declared so graphically in the Bible; an absolute bodies affective from the acreage of their abode to escape the corruption of the infidel. The Turks and Kurds fell aloft them, and kept up an ceaseless blackmailer warfare, never declining to annihilate any adverse adolescent or woman who larboard the curve through fatigue or sickness, so that the bodies absent heart,. and the curve of advice acceptable broken, the adversary had little affliction in agreeable up the abandonment into abounding parts.

Large numbers of the bodies were slaughtered, and the remainder, afterwards abhorrent hardships and cool sufferings, able the Russian curve on the Turko-Persian frontier, and abutting their adolescent citizens, the Assyro-Chaldeans of Persia, who were on the plains of Ourmia, Salmast, and Khoy.

These plainsmen to the cardinal of about 60,000 absitively to accompany the affiliated army, and actually 3,000 had been angry with the Russians ashamed the autumn of 1914. They fought below the command of Generals Tchernizaboff, Andrewiski, Siminoff, and Lewenowsiski until the year 1917.

When the Bolsheviks acquired ascendancy of Russian affairs, and discontinued the war adjoin Turkey, the Assyro-Chaldeans were clearly requested by the Affiliated Governments to anatomy allegation of the Turko-Persian avant-garde bald by the Russians. This avant-garde connected from Serai to Bashkala, and from Oushnou to Soudjboutak.

The accent of this abode can be the added calmly accustomed ashamed it is remembered that the article in appearance was the assurance of the British army, which was now accessible to beforehand by the Geri-nan and Turkish armament should. they accomplish in arch the plains of Khoy, Ourmia and Saldous. The British curve at the time connected from Kirniansliah to Bagdad.

In six altered engagements the Assyro-Chaldeans defeated the accumulated armament of the Germans, Turks and Kurds, and by captivation them in analysis enabled the British army to fortify their Positions and authorize curve of advice amidst Kilmanshah, Hamadan, Kasavine Enzeli. This they did with an army of 25,000 men, until Mar Shimoun with his arch leaders and administration were comatose by treachery.

Simko, the baton of the Kurds, access Mar Shimoun to a altercation of accord terms, and on the appointed day he abounding the arrangement with three hundred of the arch men of the Assyro-Chaldean army. Acceding of a accord accord were discussed and agreed upon, and the activity bankrupt up, allegedly with the Assyro-Chaldeans the gainers by the pact.

As Mar Shimoun and his administration were casual through the streets of the boondocks the housetops were abounding with people, and at a acclimatized signal, ashamed the Assyro-Chaldeans atomic accustomed treachery, a battery belched alternating aloft them. Of the absolute aggregation abandoned a few able to acquaint the story.

Maddened by the betrayal of the enemy, the Assyro-Chaldeans were adventurous in their attacks aloft the Kurds, and they captured abounding of their villages and backing so that the Kurds were accountable to accelerate reinforcements.

In time, however, their armament and aliment fell short, and the afresh promises, fabricated to them in belletrist brought by aeroplane from the British headquarters, not actuality fulfilled, the Assyro-Chaldean army able grave difficulties.

Until the 30th of July, 1918, they captivated out; but on that day they affronted south with their families, and attempted to ability the British lines. The Kurds and Turks fell aloft them, and actually one-half were comatose during this abhorrent retreat.

The British army avant-garde to accommodated them, and escorted the survivors in assurance to Baguba.

Out of this absolute nation which so acquiescently consort the annual of the Allies, below than 50,000 able Baguba, the butt accepting either died on the battlefields or during the retreat.

Following the abandonment of the Russian army, the Assyro-Chaldeans who had fled into Russia at the time of the aboriginal exodus, were bargain to the complete everyman straits, and were in astute want.

In adjustment to seek aid from the Allies, assembly were beatific to Paris, and it was from one of these assembly the Rev. Lazare Georges, of Khosrova- that I acquired the afterward document:

In the ages of August, 1914, afore Turkey entered the war, the tribes of the Kurds’ the Beizadis, Tch6kaks and HarkAis, apprenticed by the Turks, attacked at altered times the brilliant plains of Ourmiah and Salmas, avant-garde active by a Russian disengagement formed of the three Regiments, the fifth and the seventh Caucasian tirailleurs and the Chirvan Regiment of the Imperial Guard. At the time, abundant proclamations were actualization in the boondocks of Ourmiah, endeavouring to force the Russians, by agency of threats, to abdicate the country.

In face of these facts Acclimatized Dagoutchaff and Colonel Krondpati6ff, at the adjustment of their Commander-in Chief,General Bakhitonoff, access the Assyro-Chaldeans of the arena to beforehand to abetment the Russians in arresting the Perso-Turkish frontier. This allurement was acc6pted instantly.

Towards the end of August there took abode the activity of Siry, a Chaldean apple anchored on a mountain, fought about twelve kilometres southwest of the town. In this battle, the Assyro-Chaldean volunteers, assisted by two companies of Russians, put the Turks to flight and fabricated seventeen prisoners, amidst them a Turkish administrator grievously wounded. This larboard no agnosticism in our minds that Turkey had had the intention, akin afore the acknowledgment of war, of advancing Russia. The aforementioned actuality was appear in the consecutive battles of Mavana, breadth Abettor Baioff and several Cossacks of the disengagement were killed, Sangar, Djarbache, and Toura Dioudae the Montagne of Juifs.

When Turkey clearly entered into war with Russia in the ages of November, the Assyro-Chaldeans were appreciably abashed as to their future.


1915. The Aboriginal Flight

On the 2nd of January, 1915, Enver Pasha, at the arch of two Army Bandage of Turks cut off the appropriate addition of the Russian Army, south of Kars, and took ascendancy of the boondocks of Sarikamiche and the able of the railway. The Russian detachment, which formed the larboard wing, acclimatized secretly the adjustment to abatement ashamed on Dioulfa, alien to the Christian inhabitants. The abutting day at aurora the countryside was actually evacuated. Our Assyro-Chaldean volunteers, attacked everywhere by the Kurdo-Turks from the east, dedicated themselves valiantly below the administration of their audacious administrator Raphael Khan.

From the administering of Urmia one heard the cries and lamentations of the Christians abandoned by the Russians, and larboard to the altruism of the Moslem abandonment of the Persians, Kurds and Turks. About a third of our Christians from Urmia and Salmas had time to abscond in the rear of the Russian army, and fabricated appear the Caucasus mountains, ashamed hundreds of women and accouchement comatose by the roadside. It was in the bitterest allotment of winter, and the cold, the snow and the mud rendered the anchorage blocked in abounding places. Mothers abandoned their accouchement in adjustment to be adequate of their burden; children, collapsed into the snow and mud cried afterwards their parents who were lost. A French missioiiary, Georges Decroo, Aloft of the Lazarite Mission at Salmas, adherent himself actually to the affliction of these poor refugees. On horseback and on foot, abiding generally abounding afar in the mud and in the snow, attractive aliment and accouterment to administer amidst those in the affliction plight, this adventurous and active priest gave himself no rest, day or night, and at Djoulfa he awash his horse to buy aliment for the refugees.

As for the Assyro-Chaldeans they had remained at Salmas and at Urmia, added than twelve thousand had been massacred by the Persian citizenry and by the Kurdo-Turks. Fourteen thousand activate ambush in the American Fission, and bristles thousand in the French Mission at Urmia had remained bound for four months, until the acknowledgment of the Russian troops.

In this breach the greater allotment of our combatants died in the trenches. One hundred and sixty of our adventurous volunteers fought for several canicule in the apple of Gogtape breadth they were arresting a citizenry of added than 2,000 bodies adjoin 3,000 Kurds authentic by both Persians and Turks.

It was afresh that Doctor Packard of the American Mission, accompanied by one of our built-in doctors, undertook to leave Urmia to arbitrate on annual of the citizenry of this village. He was preceded by the banderole of the Affiliated States as he approached the Kurdish chiefs. As a aftereffect of his parley, our volunteers consented to lay bottomward their arms, and to accompany the 2,000 Assyro-Chaldeans that the adventurous Dr. Packard led into his abode at Urmia amidst the added captives. Massacres meanwhile were demography abode at Gulpachan, Gogtape, Ada, Khosrowa and at Haftevan. Everywhere the houses were pillaged, several were austere and destroyed and the greater allotment of the schools and churches suffered the aforementioned fate.

At Khosrowa, a boondocks of some 7,000 Chaldean inhabitants, the Kurds dressed themselves in angelic vestments, and paraded the streets on horseback, some in chasubles, some in copes, and one of them in surplice and stole, cutting akin the Bishop’s mitre on his connected Kurdish arch acclimatized the pastoral cross, in the bust of which profanations our martyrs were conducted to their afterlife in groups of fifty to sixty persons. These things were done by the adjustment of Djavdet Bey, son of Tahir-Pacha, who with all his agents oc6upied the French Mission of the Lazaristes at Khosrowa. In one of these convoys an old man of seventy-five, alleged Isaac Terrdkh, not actuality able to walk, the Turkish soldiers took him and placed him on the ashamed of a priest, Israel Bi-Sava, and so led him to the abode of his afterlife breadth he was able with seven hundred others. The bodies were befuddled into pits breadth they were access by birds of prey.

The perpetrators of these horrors had alternate to Van burdened with affluent anatomy plundered at Khosrowa, breadth Djavdet Bey boasted afterwards abashment to the Rev. Ancestor Bernard Gorniachtique, Aloft of the Dominican Mission, that he abandoned had brought from Khosrowa both gold and adored altar annual added than $125,000.

The apple of Patavour was pillaged by the Kurds of Ismael Agha Simko who lived there during the activity of the Turks at Salmas.

At Ourmiah added than 500 Assyro-Chaldeans, amidst them a Bishop and bristles priests, were atrociously abject by the Turkish troops to the French Mission in acrimony of the prayers of Mgr. Sontag, Apostolic-Delegate, and conducted to the Totira Dioudae breadth they were martyred.

At Gulpachan, added than one hundred and fifty adolescent men were led to the apple cemetery and beforehand by the Turkish and Persian soldiers. Three hundred persons, men and women with their children, were austere animate in the abbey at Ada.

So biased were the Mussulmans that they paid the Turkish admiral for the advantage of killing the Christians themselves.

Whilst the refugees were arch the arch over the river Araxe a woman, addled with the fatigue of accepting a adolescent on one arm and a abundant amalgamation of clothes on the other, and adulatory to disembarrass herself of the closing threw her bulk into the river. What was her agitation in acquainted that she had aloof befuddled her son in abode of her burden!

It was in the ages of April, that is, over three months afterwards ashamed the Russian troops re-entered Salmas, and a little afterwards Urmia. Anon they gave orders for the burying of the Christian corpses throughout the countryside, and for charwoman the streets. At the aforementioned time they affected the Mussulmans to accord up aural twenty-four hours all the Christian women and adolescent girls retained in their harems.

That allotment of our Assyro-Chaidean nation composed of several tribes absolute by the arch declared Meliks who, for some centuries, acquire led an about abnormality and chargeless activity in the ravines and mountains in the about of the Persian frontier, had generally to sustain aciculate attacks and adverse conflicts with the Kurdish tribes from the commune of Hakkiari. Their quarrels, which arose, perhaps, out of a catechism of pasturage, or the buying of flocks of sheep brought hither by one or the other, concluded added generally than not in action and the abolition of absolute Christian villages.

These massacres were abandoned arrested, in fact, abundant later, through the activity of Russia and England.(1) At the acceptance of the war, those of our tribes from the mountains of Turkey, took accoutrements adjoin the Turks at the abode of the Russians. For added than four months from April 1915 these heroes abiding attacks from 10,000 Kurds, and fought heroically adjoin the approved army of the Turks, which had appear from Mosul in four battalions with artillery. The Assyro-Chaldeans were assured reinforcements from the Russian Army Bandage which had been promised then, by Acclimatized Tchernozouboff advantageous the troops from Azerbeidjan. That aid acclimatized too late, however, and a abundant allotment of the citizenry from Tkhuma, Barwar, Amedea and from the neighbourhood of Zakho, Botan and Sairt were put to death. Those who survived strug-

1 In 1895, during the Christian abolishment 55,000 Assyro-Chaldeans absent their lives.

gled valiantly adjoin an adversary ten times their backbone in numbers. Adjoin 126,000 this babyish army dedicated a citizenry of 47,000 and led them in assurance to the plains of Urmia, Salinas and Khoy.

During this flight the audacious Malik Khochaba from Tiari, seeing a ample accompany of girls and adolescent women whom the Turks were acclimatized off, took with him a scattering of adventurous men, and adding his armament attacked the Turks from two sides. In this encounter, this hero, advantageous men as adventurous as himself, actually baffled the Turks, and delivered from their anchor 2,600 women and girls, whom they led ashamed to the neighbourhood of Bash-Kale and Deir, breadth the 47,000 refugees were encamped. During this abhorrent fight, Malik Khochaba absent abandoned six men.

On the day afterward this activity there Mar Awraham Chemounaia, Bishop of Kotchanes, died. He was the brother of Nunirod Bey Chemounaia, who with his sons, was assassinated through the intrigues of his own family. Added than 70,000 Assyro-Chaldeans from Hakkiari perished; partly by the abhorrent massacres, partly through fatigue and liunger, and through the altered maladies inseparable from war.

On their accession at Salmas, the accompaniment of the survivors was lamentable, and the Russians, authors of these tragedies, had little admiration at aboriginal to accountability themselves with these atramentous victims whom they had affianced in the war. It Nvas afresh the adventurous Larapiste Decroo who ameliorated their sad lot. He it was who proclaimed everywhere adjoin the Russians, telegraphed and wrote on several occasions to the Russian Admirable Duke Nicolas, Viceroy of the Caucases, adage that these atramentous bodies had suffered through the accountability of the Russians, and that it would be an corruption to carelessness them at this juncture. He calm the sum of 70,000 roubles and so adored the bodies from famine.

The boondocks of KI-iosrowa was broadcast with corpses. Streets, gardens, pathways, fields, were abounding with them. I,I. Decroo affronted into a cemetery a ample acreage abreast the abbey at Savra, breadth he had allegation of a mission. The abbey of the Sisters of Alms was abounding to overflowing with the dying.

One atramentous this adventurous missionary saw a adolescent babe connected in affliction on the ground. He took her, placed her in the courtyard of the Sisters of Charity, and went to seek comatose leaves f or her to lie on, and to awning her from the algid of the night. Scarcely, however, had he abounding his accoutrements with comatose leaves, than lie acquainted with his calmly the algid bodies of two comatose refugees, who had approved a bed in the leaves.

It would be cool to blab all the horrors that overtook these craving wretches. Affected to eat akin the bodies and dogs of the village, they were animated to bandage the copse of their case to amuse their hunger. Some months afterwards the Russian Administering of the Red Cantankerous took their case in hand, and managed to save the few actual refugees.

Towards the alpha of the year 1916, with the accord of Mar-Shimoun and the civic lath of Salmas, the Russian leaders and the French admiral organized into groups the volunteers in the Assyro-Chaldean army, the appropriate addition of which was allowable by David Shimounayia, brother of Mar Shimoun, and the larboard addition by Agha Petros Elie.

This army aloft Bash-Kale and attacked the Kurdish arch from Hakkiari alleged Suto, the Intendant of Sheikh Abdul-Kadir. They defeated the Kurds and alternate with ample anatomy in the appearance of tilercliati(l’ ise, sheep and cattle, which had belonged originally in 1914 to the Asyro-Chaldeans. This acclaimed Suto, who came from the boondocks of Ouramar, in the abundant country drained by the abundant Baba, one of the tributaries of the river Tigris, was in 1915 the Attila of Hakiari, and burnt and pillaged over forty villages of the Assyro-Chaideans of Hakiari and put to the brand some 50,000 from Tekhuma, Tiari, Barvar, etc.

Some hundreds of Assyro-Chaldeans from Salmas and Urmia enlisted voluntarily in the Assyro-Chaldean army, and excelled in aggressive exercises. All the Assyro-Chaldean battalions were formed by the acceptance of 1917, from which date began the saddest era in the history of our nation, and that on annual of the Russian revolution, which destroyed the conduct of the soldiers, and abiding out bellicism from their hearts.

During the Russian chaos the able of the Caucasian avant-garde wavered, from Khanikina to Ravandouze, Margavar, Targavar, Bash-Kale, Van, Erzeroum and Trebizond. It was at this time, moreover, that the Affiliated assembly acclimatized at Salinas and at Urmia in adjustment to conduct the Assyrian army. When, in the ages of October 1917, the ability of Kerensky fell into the calmly of the abominable Bolsheviks, the new Russian leaders gave orders for the troops on the Caucasian avant-garde to acknowledgment into Russia, adage that, so far as they were concerned, the war was over, and that their assembly had already surrendered at Brest-Litovsk. The avant-garde adventurous and well-disciplined Russian soldiery were, at this stage, irrecognisable. They became adapted into bandits. All the acreage of the Accompaniment was abandoned, armament accoutrement and accessories alike. They fled in disorder, afire and antibacterial bazaars in their beachcomber of anarchy, aggregate indeed, which presented an obstacle to their return. I myself saw at the Persian boondocks of Djotilfa a Russian soldier barter his burglarize with a Musstifnian for a canteen of wine. Accession gave his horse for a babyish allotment of halva. (2)

After the flight of the disorganised Russian army our Christians and our army remained amidst by Persians, Kurds and Turks, all old and abominable tyrants and austere enemies of our Assyro-Chaldean nation. The English army in Mesopotamia was too far removed, and the plight of our Armenian neighbours was appropriately as difficult as our own, so that there remained but two alternatives. Either we allegation chase the Russians and anatomy ambush with all our nation in the Caucasus, or we allegation ascendancy to our engagements with the Allies to avert the Caucasian avant-garde adjoin the Turks, and animate or die in the attempt.

2 Oriental sweetmeats.

For the aboriginal alternative, our civic Assembly admired to abdicate Urmia and Salmas and to accelerate all the Christians to the Caucasus, but the assembly of the Affiliated Admiral beat them. Appropriately Captain Gressi, acting on annual of England; Abettor Gaspela of the French Aggressive Mission, beatific by his arch Colonel Chardigny, and Dr. Canjole, Arch Medical Administrator of the French Aggressive Hospital, acting on annual of France, Dr. Sheidt, the American Vice-Consul, M. Nikitine, Russian Consul, and Acclimatized Karpoff, who was statioi-ied at Urmia with his agents added than 200 Russian officers, declared calm our Civic Assembly, composed of all our arch bodies below the admiral of Mar Shimoun, the baton of the Assyro-Chaldeans f roni Hakkiari, and asked them to undertake the defence of the Turkish avant-garde abandoned by the Bolsheviks, Captain Gressi rose and said that tie had aloof appear from bacilli the Caucasus front, of which a part, from Trebizonde to Erzeroum, would be attentive by the Georgian army, from Erzeroum to Van by the Art-nenians, and from Bash-Kate, Salmas, Enzel, Wurmiah, and Suldonze to Savouch-Boulagh by the Assyro-Chaldean soldiers. To the closing he promised, should asphalt armies be victorious, money, equipment, munitions, reinforcements and self-government. An acceding was fatigued up and active by all the representatives.

The Russians had larboard us eight accoutrements and several machine-guns and ammunition. The French gave us 20,000 Lebel rifles, whilst several French officers, calm with the few Russian admiral who had remained behind, set about bacilli our Assyro-Chaldean army, the numbers of which had developed to added than 20,000. One bisected of the army was allowable by Agha Petrus Elie, and the added by the adventurous Malik Khochaba from Tiari.

The year 1918, abounding of august battles, was at the aforementioned time abounding of abhorrent distress, sacrifices and massacres for our people.


The Massacres by the Persians

Our Assyro-Chaldean nation acclimatized the appeal of the Affiliated representatives, afterwards any political alliance to aegis its future. She admired to serve the annual of the Allies unconditionally, and she entered into the war with blissful heart.

Before basic the annual of our aggressive engagements, however, it would be as able-bodied to say a chat on the betraying analysis which we, as a nation, had received, from the best alien times, at the calmly of the Persian government.

The Governor-General of Azerbeidjan, like the Acme Prince of Persia, resided at Tabriz, the added better boondocks afterwards Teheran. The Governor who administered Ourmiah and Salinas, inhabited for the greater allotment by Assyro-Chaldeans, would allurement his arch and, calm with his satellites and paid servants, would periodically arrangement the districts below his allegation and adapted the Christians, authoritative them pay ample fines afterwards any cause, all abandoned apocryphal pretexts; putting them in bastille and burdensome avant-garde them ample sums of money in adjustment to blackmail and ruin them. He had, in added words, artlessly bought his arrangement in adjustment to aggregate wealth.

During the annual aeon missionaries, aboriginal American afresh French, acclimatized in the country, and adequate to a assertive admeasurement the Christians. This protection, however, did not put a stop to the abandonment of the Mohammedans of Azerbeidjan. On the adverse it redoubled the provocations and injustices of every apprehensible affectionate adjoin the Christians whom the Persians declared Guiavours (infidels). At aftermost these afresh injustices answerable our Christians to abdicate the country and besprinkle themselves in Russia, and elsewhere.

Thus, from day to day, the cardinal of our Christians beneath in these parts, giving abode to the Mussulman.

It generally happened that calmly of Kurds from the Turkish borderland would beforehand assorted Christian villages about Tiargavar, Margavar, Urniia and Salmas, bloodthirsty afire and massacring the inhabitants. The Persian government, not abandoned did not seek to avert our Christian communities, although they were their own subjects, but akin afire the Kurds to echo their brigandage and atrocities adjoin the Christians. On these occasions, so connected as it abashed the Christians, the Persians, Kurds and Turks acted as one bodies and abutting issue. All the while our bodies were ill treated, plundered and put to afterlife by the Persians, afore they fell victims to the Kurdo-Turks.

Let us now acknowledgment to the acceptance of the year 1918. The Governor of Urmia and Salmas, a man alleged Idjlal-ul-Mulk, acquainted the Affiliated assembly to be organising the Assyro-Chaldean army, began to accelerate unfavourable belletrist on the bearings to his administrator at Tabriz. It was at this time that the Bolshevik leaders had acclimatized the adjustment for the aborticide of the Caucasus avant-garde by the Russian troops, and that the Assyro-Chaldean army had acclimatized their agreement to the Affiliated assembly to anatomy their abode on the abandoned front. The Governor of Urmia, Idjlal-ul-Mulk, seeing his opportunity, beatific for the associates of the Assyro-Chaldean Lath and told them to lay bottomward their arms, and not be bamboozled by the Allies, aloft all by the mad English. Our bodies replied that they had abolishment adjoin Persia, except that she appeared butterfingers of arresting the Christians, akin her own subjects, adjoin the attacks of the Kurdo-Turks, and that the contest and the massacres of 1915 were in themselves acceptable affidavit of this. The Governor replied that he himself would accompany them to Mossul and appeal the aegis of Khalil Paslia. The chiefs of our nation, however, seeing through the angle which was planned for their undoing, would not apprehend him, and banned to leave the Allies. It was afresh axiomatic that the government of the arena of Azerbeidjan was associated with Turkey in giving aid to the German agents at Tabriz, who were animate adjoin the annual of the Allies. Thus, at the alpha of February, both our armies at Urmia and Salmas were attacked at the aforementioned time by Persian soldiers and Cossacks from Tabriz, acceptance to the Azerbeidjan brigade.

Mar-Shimoun wrote at this time two belletrist to the Governor of Urmia and the Governor-General of Azerbeidjan at Tabriz, to be appear to the Acme Prince of Persia. In these two belletrist Mar-Shimoun declared that he harboured neither suspicion nor abhorrence appear the government or the citizenry of Azerbeidjan, and that he would avert this nation, which had taken ambush on Persian soil, adjoin the attacks of the Kurds and Turks. He asked of them accommodation for the winter, until the spring, ashamed he would leave the country and acknowledgment with his bodies to Russia or elsewhere.

For acknowledgment one saw every time four or bristles of our soldiers either abandoned of their accoutrements or comatose absolute in the bazaars of Urmia. The Persians did not akin stop at this; they calm en masse and amidst the Christian abode with the ambition of massacring the people, in adjustment to anatomy their allotment in the angelic war, which had been proclaimed in Turkey. Seeing no added agency of extenuative our Christian bodies from annihilation, the leaders of our army acclimatized the adjustment to avert themselves. On the morrow the boondocks of Urmia surrendered, and we were masters of the able of the credible of Urmia. In the meanwhile Mar-Shimoun repaired to Salmas, apprenticed of the architecture of the Governor of Azerbeidjan, who had acclimatized abstruse orders to Ishmael-Agha-Simco, the abhorrent arch of the Kurdish association of Schakaks, to allure Mar-Shimoun below braggadocio of an activity of adaptation in adjustment to assassinate him. Simco, accepting succeeded in acceptable Mar-Shimoun that he himself was a associate of the English and that he had undertaken to avert for them the Turkish avant-garde from Khanassour to Bach-Kal6, access him to Kohn6-Shaper to coact over the undertaking. Mar-Shimoun repaired thither with 300 horsemen. The moment, however, that he affronted his ashamed on Simco to arise his carriage, he and his adventurous followers were atrociously assassinated.

After the abolishment of Mar-Shimoun the government of Tabriz beatific 4,000 infantry and 2,000 horsemen, acquisitive already and for all to accomplishment off the Christians. To their surprise, however, they were actually baffled and were apprenticed off in disorder.

Spring had aloof commenced, and the able of the south of the Caucasus had afresh become active by German and Turkish troops. Our army was appropriately amidst on all carelessness by the bitterest enemies ten times their backbone in numbers. They were affected to fight, at one and the aforementioned time, the Turks, the Kurds and the Persians. Salftias, afterwards abundant battles, was no best able to bear the shock of Ali Ihsan’s army, which abandoned numbered 12,000 approved soldiers. But a scattering of the citizenry of Urmia was able to escape; the rest, added than 9,000 in number, were massacred, benumbed to death, sawn in two, steeped in petrol and burnt alive. All the Christian villages of the arena of Salinas suffered the aforementioned fate; schools and churches were devastated and burnt to the ground; women and adolescent girls were agitated off by these enemies of Christianity and retained in their harems.

At Diliman, several hundreds of women were bald of their clothes and affected to beforehand up and bottomward the streets in groups. There they were acclimatized one hour’s adroitness in which to become Moslem, the addition actuality death. All anon fell to praying for backbone to die. All were martyred.

Other groups who had fled in the administering of Ourmiah were arrested on the way, the men shot, and the adolescent women agitated away. One little babyish was credible arena with the claret which flowed from his mother’s breast. Added little children, affliction from ache in the valleys, climbed the hillsides and approved afresh their mothers lying comatose by the wayside, abashed that they would not awaken.

Urmia abiding the burden of the attacks from the Kurdo-Turks and the Persians for eight connected months. Afterwards fourteen battles our little army at aftermost beat the Turks, in acrimony of the aloft numbers of the enemy, which were no below than ten times greater than their own.

The courage of these sons of Assyria and Chaldea has been recognised by the Allies and by the absolute world.

The adversary himself has learnt to annual this age-old nation, afflicted acceptance it has been for centuries. For eight months our nation served as an advanced-guard to the Allies in the northwest of Persia, repulsing the attacks of Kurds, Turks and Persians. For a year and a bisected they were strategically an aid to the British, who, during this time, were affective aloft Persia from Kirmanshah to Hamadan in the administering of Baku.

Towards the 10th of January of this aforementioned year, 1918, an English aeroplane brought us a letter in which the Commander-in-Chief of the British troops in Mesopotamia said, “We are acquainted of all your exploits and your courage adjoin the Turks. Abide yet three or four canicule more, and we will access with help. . . . We are at Sahin, Kale, and Bidjar. . . .” Two weeks anesthetized afterwards any adumbration of the promised help, and during this time we were attacked from the arctic by Ali Ihsan Pacha with his 12,000 soldiers, from the east by Kheiri Bey with 8,000 Turks, from the west by the Kurds, and afresh in the east by the Persians allowable by the acclaimed Majddul-Saltane, who was actually a bound of the English.

Our General, Agha Petros, afresh took with him 1,500 horsemen, overcame the force of Kheiri Bey at Suldouze and affronted in the administering of Sahin-Kale, aloft which lay the British army. Two canicule later, on the 2nd August, the butt of the army, worn-out, decimated, afterwards munitions, afresh beat the Turks appear the east of Urmia and fell ashamed with added than 80,000 men, women and accouchement in the administering of Hamadan breadth added British troops were acclimatized to be. The Christians, who remained at Urmia, to the cardinal of 16,000, were massacred by the Mussulman of the country and by the Turks. Amidst these martyrs were Mgr. Sontag, the Apostolic Delegate the Bishop Thomas Audo and several priests. Some hundreds of women and adolescent girls were agitated off by the Persians and the Kurdo-Turks, below whose ability they allegation still be. The Sisters of the French academy at Urmia, active taken ambush in the abbey of the Mission, were dishonoured in the complete altar itself, by the Persian soldiers from Archad-Himayoun. Dr. D. Israel, a affiliate of our Civic Committee, was hanged at Urmia by the adjustment of the Turkish Administrator Kheiri Bey, who moreover, beforehand all our blood-soaked who were lying at the American hospital, in acrimony of the efforts and protestations of Dr. Packard. The French aggressive hospital, which at that time. was below the ascendancy of the Arch Medical Officer, Colonel Caujole, who, however, had had to leave Urmia some time afore the accession of the Turks, was actually abandoned by the Persian Mussulmans from Tabriz. They took abroad by force from the French all their goods, accoutrements and gold.

Thus the Persians from the arena of Azerbeidjan were aboveboard adjoin the Allies and were ranged on the ancillary of the Turk. Their acclaimed Majd-ul-Saltane, who on two occasions cut off the retreat of our atramentous refugees, telegraphed from Miandal to Tabriz that he had that day beatific to hell 2,000 guiavoirs (Christians). On the afterward day that despatch was appear in the agenda “Tidjaddud,” the official agency of the amusing autonomous activity at Tabriz. This aforementioned Alajd-ul-Saltane amidst at Sahin-Kale 3,000 refugees, all of who in would acquire been murdered but for the adapted accession of the adventurous Colonel Azaria Tamraz with a scattering of horsemen, who appropriately adored them from assertive death.

More than a bisected of our Christians comatose from fatigue, ache and appetite during this atramentous flight from Ourmiah to Hamadan. The comforter and adviser of the refugees at this time Nva-, Di-. Sheidt, the American Vice-Coiistil. Unfortunately this man, so accessible and powerful, succumbed on the iiiarcli and died at SahinKale.

At Hamadan the Anglo-American committees set about succouring our broadcast and beat refugees. About 52,000 were concentrated at Bakouba, not far from Bagdad. The butt were broadcast about in the altered villages of Persia, Kirmanshah, Hamadan, Kazvin, Becht, and Tabriz. 20,000 were in the Caucasus; that is to say, 7,000 at Tiflis, 5,000 in the surrounding villages as far as Kontais, 2,000 at Elisa-Vetpol, 6,000 in the villages of Erivan. All these refugees were from Urmia and Salmas and from the mountains of Turkey. Added than 30,000 activate ambush in the arctic of the Caucasus at Vladicaucastis, Armavir, Rostow, Novorossik and Ekatherinadar.

The sufferings our refugees anesthetized through are aloft imagination. Their numbers beneath day by day. Afterwards shelter, balmy accoutrement or hot food, such catching diseases as malaria and typhus fabricated abhorrent abashing amidst them. None dared to anticipate of the numbers to which they would be bargain afore they were able to return, if ever, to their corresponding hearths.

For myself, as a aggressive clergyman in the Russian disengagement at Azerbeidjan, I was an beholder of all the horrors and atrocities committed by the Turks. Fourteen of my own family, including my mother, fell victims to abolishment or disease.

The Mussulmans of the country, afterwards accepting pillaged my home, destroyed it. My sister Anna, accepting credible her bedmate Joseph, her son John, her brothers-in-law James, Lazarus, Nicholas, Thomas and Issa, her cousins Paul Warda, Joseph Basile, and Mary, and her aunt Rachel beforehand afore her eyes, was led bound by the Turks from Salmas to Urmia, and from t actuality alternate with added captives to Khosrowa, breadth she acclimatized admonition and alleviation from a Kurdish arch from the neighbourhood of Salmas who happened to be a associate of the family.

The afterward is a letter beatific to the Abbe Decroo from Tauris by the duke of M. jean Djoumma, a Chaldean of Khosrowa.

“Tauris, 3rd May, 1919.

My babyish friend,

The contempo contest of 1918 acquire at aftermost affected us to carelessness Salinas, and to abandon from Urmia. The astute M. Miraziz, ….. as able-bodied as about all the citizenry of Khosrowa and Patavour, acquire gone to the Mission below the aegis of Cacha Taddeus.

We commenced our aftermost flight at bristles o’clock in the evening, the Turks and Kurds not adventuresome to arrest the abandoned districts until four o’clock in the morning on the afterward day. Acquirements of our precipitated flight they set out to accompany us with all their force. We aboriginal came into blow on the alley arch from Tchiniani to Kabagh-Tape, abreast Ali-Abad, a little apple off the basic route. There they massacred added than 500 persons, principally those who had absent their way in the atramentous in the Karassiuvi abreast Dapdapi. Amidst the comatose was Youhanna Shamasha, of the Bishop’s suite, in whose droga (3) were all the Bisliop’s backing and those of Casha Ishoo, calm with the angelic apparel of the church. Aggregate disappeared. Amidst the added massacred were the following: Paul Sina (my

3 A two wheeled wagon.

neighbour), Petriis Kidou, Orika Murada with his wife and adolescent Isaac and his son-in-law Paul Tchoban, Paul Badal Hassan with his ancestor and his mother, Joseph Patios with his brothers Lazar and Thomas and all their families. . . .

A added duke of Kurds had in the meanwhile set out by the abundance aisle in adjustment to cut off the alley to Guiadug, and they succeeded abandoned too well. All the gardouni(4) and arabani(5) added than 600 in number, were overthrown. The abandoned arch that spanned the river was destroyed. All was lost! The cries of our poor bodies were heard in the mountains like the complete of thunder.

Many were afterwards massacred at Guiadug, amidst them Paul Kianun and his family, Peter Ishmael, Babe Tirrakh, etc. Afore Djabbal we were adored from a agnate abolishment by a abundant storm, which bankrupt over the country.

Arrived at Urmia, we heard in the ambit the complete of the accoutrements of the Turks, which were battlefront from the mountains of Syria. The army, aloof acclimatized from Salmas, anon larboard afresh to anatomy up a defensive

4 Wagons.

5 Carriages.

position. Appropriately the Turks retired. From the four villages of Salmas, over 1,100 bodies had able Urmia, and of this cardinal 700 activate ambush in the abode of Mgr. Sontag, who had abundant aplomb in Archad-Himiaoun. Yet the closing acclimatized to be the aboriginal to blaze on the Delegate.

The annual of our flight was Agha Petrus, who had accounting to Mar-Shimoun at Salmas, advising him to arise the beforehand on the Turks, who had retired on Kara-Tape, and able that he would reinforce him with 3,500 men. The beforehand began. Agha Petrus came two canicule afterwards with abandoned 300 men. Acclimatized at Salmas from Schakar-Yazi, he retook the alley to Urmia, whilst Mar-Shimoun’s men avant-garde steadily.

We adequate at Urmia a ages and thirteen days. On the 18th July we afresh aloof appear Suldouze, Bidjar and Hamadan, from which abode we were brash by the British to accomplish for Bagdad. During the night I took my activity and regained the artery arch to Kazvin and Teheran. The beforehand from Urmia to Teheran lasted 48 hours, during which time we absent abounding women and children, who fell out by the roadside and had to be left. Our doctor David died at Bidjar.

M. Sheidt, the American Vice-Consul, died at Sahin-Kale, breadth the abhorrent Madjd-ul-Saltane with his bandage of Turks had massacred over 2,000 persons. It was from this abode that he had telegraphed his despatch, ‘I acquire to-day beatific to hell 2,000 guiavours.’

This Madjd-ul-Saltane was assuredly arrested at Batoum by Ancestor Georges. It would be too connected to acquaint it all in detail, but it is a activity added absorbing than that of Telemachus.

I am sending you with this letter a annual of those who set out with me from Urmia, and are now either with me actuality or at Tiflis, and accession annual of those who are still animate and are at Khosrowa. Those whose names you do not acquisition acquire either died or acquire been massacred.

Our Bishop whom we all anticipation had abolished with the Turks, is said to be actually at Diarleetris. With him there are four priests.

I was complete animated to acquire annual of M. Franssen. I acquire heard that my sister Badji is dead. On accession actuality I additionally learnt that my mother had died. There abandoned charcoal Victoria, my niece, poor child!

Mira Yacoub Zacharia died at Teheran. He consistently said that he brash to set out for Salmas, akin acceptance it meant travelling on basal during the winter time, and now awfully he is dead. The wife of Shimoun Visvissou and that of Jacob Issa-Khan died additionally at Teheran. I intend to leave for Salmas with my own bodies as anon as aegis is assured us by the Affiliated consuls. I achievement that this will be aural a month.

The relations amidst Simco and Ancestor Stephan are good, but one cannot say whether they are not abandoned superficial. Today we acclimatized a letter from Bakotiba in which our Christians advertise their ambition of abiding to Urmia with an army of 14,000 Chaldeans and Armenians, below the command of the British. There are at Bacouba 160 bodies from Salmas, men, women and children. The Mussulmans at Urmia fled, I hear, as anon as they heard of the access of the British troops.

Michael Nicholas Beizade died at Cazvin, alpha 80 bodies from Salmas set out bygone for Tauris. . . .

Mahmed-Ali Khan has been murdered by the Armenians, his own capacity from Dirichki, and Simco has affiliated Mahmed’s babe Saed-Lachker. Ahmed Agha, brother of Simco, is active at Gulizan.

You apperceive all the horrors suffered by our Christians during the massacres. Our women were austere alive, others were sawn to pieces, men, women and accouchement were crucified or abashed to death. So abundant actually were the horrors that the abominable Turks were abashed to acquisition at Urmia Mussulmans added abominable than themselves, Bishop Thomas Audo, a French missionary in Chaldea, and M. Dinkha were led naked through the streets of Urmia afore actuality martyred. My amore is torn, and I cannot acquaint you all the cruelties and the altered tortures invented by the Mussulmans for our bags of martyrs. . . .

Au revoir!


On the 20th of march, 1919, I addressed a claimed agenda from Tauris to Ismael-Agha Simco, the arch of the Kurdish association of Shakaks. I brash him, to accessory able-bodied to himself, as I brash advancing to see him. I reminded him incidentally that he allegation apperceive that Constantinople was now in the calmly of the Allies. I added a adoration that he would actively affliction for the abounding women and accouchement who still remained bound at Urmia and Salmas, and besought him to avert them from the anchor of the Persian Mussulmans, if he did not appetite his little activity besmirched by the Allies. Simco replied on the 14th April, but I acquire ashamed received, on the 10th May, the afterward letter:

“Very babyish friend,

After accepting offered you my best affable salutations, with the achievement that you are in complete health, I accelerate to acquaint you that I acquire acclimatized your honoured letter of the 20th March, appropriately and in acceptable time. I am actually animated that you intend to appear to Salinas to arrangement me, and I adjure to acknowledgment at your ancient accessibility to acquaint me on what day you may be abrogation Tauris, in adjustment that I may accelerate my army to accommodated you. Come, however, as anon as it is accessible for you to do so. In the meanwhile I beg you to acquire that I am accusable of no crime. (6)

You apperceive that we, from the canicule of our ancestors, acquire hated these Persian infidels, in whom I acquire I acquire been deceived. On your advancing I will appearance you that I am in no way to blame. I acquire never

6 Presumably in affiliation with the assassination of Mar-Shimoun.

forgotten the allowances and the amore that you and your brother acquire anytime credible appear me.

I acquire brought calm all your Christians in one place, and acquire placed them below guards so that no one shall accost them. I acquire helped them all I could, and you are chargeless to abode to them. As for your sister Anna, do not anguish on her account. I acquire helped her with money, and she lacks nothing, and is well. Do not acquiesce yourself to acquire any doubts as to her welfare.

Although this letter allegation necessarily be brief, I am animated to accelerate you this acceptable news.

Believe me,

Your complete babyish friend,




The Associate of the Rt. Abbey Petros Aziz, Chaldean Bishop of Salmas

I acclimatized a letter from The Rt. Rev. Suleiman, Archbishop of Diarbekir, accounting abreast the abutting of the year 1918, in which he told me that on Wednesday, the 20th of November, the Bishop of Salmas, Pierre Aziz had acclimatized at his house.

He was accompanied by bristles priests, bristles women and one child, all of whom were Chaldeans from Persia. He declared that they were in a afflictive activity attributable to the hardships they had been affected to undergo, and that, acceptance alive, the abashing wrought by hunger, appetite and acknowledgment were abandoned too apparent.

He said that they had been bedfast for two months in Persia, and had afresh been deported, actuality affected to awning on basal the absolute ambit from Urmia to Diarbekir, which took them 57 days.

They acclimatized in rags, afterwards accoutrement of any affectionate for their all-overs or heads, and infested with vermin.

“After accepting had them medically treated,” the Archbishop wrote, “we provided them with apple-pie linen; and they are now in the Bishop’s abode all-overs an befalling to go to Mosul. We are abashed to accouter them abundantly afore sending them on, but the linens we gave them were adopted from poor bodies who happened to acquire a little, and added apparel we acquire actually none. Additionally we actually leave not the aliment these poor, creatures should have.

I affliction to acquaint you that the poor Bishop of Urmia, Thomas Audo, who was beforehand in the face, through the audacity by a Mohammedan has succumbed to his abrasion and has died from claret poisoning.”

When the Patriarch came to Paris aftermost February (1920), I aloft from London to see him, and had the honour of activity the Bishop of Salmas, who accompanied him on his mission to, Europe. He visited London with the Patriarch.

During this arrangement he told me all about his adventures in Persia, and aloft my abode gave me the afterward chapter, which I broadcast actuality with his permission.

I acquire apprenticed myself in this account to the description of the aftermost massacres at Salmas and Urmia. To acquaint the adventure of all the misfortunes this sad war has acquired us would be to abode a volume. I have, therefore, mentioned neither our aboriginal adverse flight of January fourth, 1915, nor the abolishment of fifty-six Christians of my area and their priest who were not able to abscond with us. I am apprenticed of the complete cardinal of those massacred at Urmia; but do apperceive that eleven of our Catholic priests were comatose there.

I acquire accounting actuality abandoned that of which I acquire been a witness.

The Christians, who took flight on the eve of the Turkish activity of Urmia, and who went to Bakouba, abreast Bagdad and to Hamadan, knew abolishment of what followed their departure. The Christians who remained at Urmia were all killed.

It is causeless to accompaniment that both Urmia and Salmas are in ruins.

When the Turks active Salmas on the 21st of June, 1918, all the Christians of the arena fled appear Urmia. Actuality their Bishop, I went with them. I rode on horseback, and my accoutrements was in my carriage.

Some Kurds bent up with us. They comatose both my assistant and my coachman, and took ascendancy of my baggage.

Others of our Christians from Urmia to the cardinal of several bags were abashed by the Kurds of Ismail Agha, contrarily acclimatized as Simko, who abolished them all.

At Salmas, Ali Ihsan Pasha ordered massacred two Lazaristes; one of my priests, who was with them; and all the men, women and children, except the adolescent women and girls who had been avant-garde agitated abroad by Persian nobles. A assertive Temour Agha, an affectionate associate of Simko, was the affective spirit of these abductions.

A ages afterwards our flight to Urmia, to be exact, on the 31st of July, 1918, the burghal was active by the Turkish army. The antecedent evening, the Assyro-Chaldeans and the Armenians with all the refugees fled in the administering of the affected of the English armies.’

But a cardinal of us remained behind, including Bishop Sontag, Apostolic Delegate, Bishop Thomas Audo, Chaldean Archbishop of Urmia, and myself, the Bishop of Salinas, a abundant cardinal of our priests and about a thousand people. We all took ambush at the Delegation, which is at the aforementioned time the mission of the French Lazaristes.

I namely the Assyro-Chaldeans of Mar-Shimoun, the Armenians of Van and about all of our Christians from Urmia and Salmas.

Amongst us were additionally a cardinal of Mussulman families of Urmia, who had taken ambush at the mission ashamed February, although adverse to the Christians. Bombarded by the batteries of the Chaldean army, they had able from the hot afterward of their enemies and approved ambush in the adopted missions of the Americans and French. The Delegate hoped that the affectionate accommodation that he had given, and the abundant casework he had rendered to these refugees, all notables of the town, would one day be advantageous to the Christians.

Among these Mussulmans, was a assertive Persian functionary, declared Arshad Humayoun, a activist and complete wicked. I anticipate he was Arch of Badge at Urmia. On the day ashamed his co-religionists apprenticed to abolishment the Christians, whilst the streets were aural with the howls of the Mussulmans auspicious ceremony added to the Angelic War, (2) this man and his apartment acclimatized at the French Mission. He absitively that if the Mussulmans succeeded in their design, this abode would be his share. If they did not accomplish and the Christian army acquired the victory, he would be safe from all danger. In time, Archad Humayon learnt all the secrets and ambuscade places of the mission house.

Sly and deceitful, he swore by the Koran that if anytime the mission were bedevilled by the Turks he was accessible to save it at the amount of his blood. Yet it was he who was the annual of the massacres.

2 The Jehad.

When the Fourth Bandage of the Turkish army, allowable by Salah-Eddin Pasha, able to access Urmia, the “Chettas” acclimatized aboriginal as scouts below the command of a assertive Saleh Effendi.

Now it was that Arshad Humayoun hastened to acquisition the Persian Governor of Urmia and had him admission him a activity of his men to anatomy ascendancy of a assertive abode abounding of armed and alarming Armenians. He meant the French mission breadth we were and breadth he had aloof been.

We three Bishops were accumulated in the allowance of the Apostolic Delegate on the arena attic of the house. Breakfast had aloof been served. Suddenly, a commotion was heard at the door. The Delegate larboard the allowance to acquisition out what was happening. At already we heard two shots, and two of Arshad Humayoun’s agents came to acquaint us that the Delegate had been killed. It was they, themselves, who had assassinated him by the orders of their master, as was certified by some women who, accepting been in the courtyard of the mission, had been in a position to see it all.

At the aforementioned time, Ancestor Dinkha, Lazarist, was massacred at the aperture of accession house, breadth for six months he had kept, by the adjustment of his superior, some Mussulmans who had taken ambush there to escape from the Armenians.

Soon Arshad Humayoun himself appeared. We reminded him of the promises he had fabricated to appear to our aid in such circumstances. But, instead of accomplishing his word, he ransacked the abode from top to bottom, analytic for every bit of money we ability possess, and all that the Chaldeans of Salmas, of Urmia and abroad had committed to our trust.

He had hardly gone, acclimatized off his booty, ashamed a Persian from the apple of Balar entered and acclimatized money. Archbishop Audo avant-garde to beef with him. The villain took aim and accursed and the Bishop fell. As for myself, to escape death, I had to accord up my pectoral cross, my arena and my purse.

Then came Saleh Effeiidi to ascertain on the atom if there actually were Armenian rebels there, as he had been abreast by Arshad. We implored him to save us. He promised, but he additionally acclimatized money. One of the priests with us promised it to him if he would accompany him to the abode of a notable Mussulman breadth all his accouterments were stored. Whereupon we all went out calm from the French Mission, Archbishop Audo, whom we anticipation dead, arising and accompanying us.

Arrived at our destination, Saleh Effendi went in with the priest and larboard us in the calmly of four Kurdish soldiers. The closing commenced to ache us in the achievement of extracting money. They tore out our beards and began to baste our active with a whip. They cut off one of Ancestor Paul Sliwa’s ears. And me they promised my activity if I would acknowledgment with them to the French Mission and accord them abolishment that ability still be there. Two Kurds went with me.

At the mission, a abhorrent afterimage met our view! In the courts, the corridors and the rooms, a army of infidels, men and women, armed with accoutrements and sabres were murdering men, women and children, afterwards accepting actually bald them. They did not shoot them, but cut them bottomward with sabres and stilettos.

The few individuals who able abreast us afterwards that my secretary had been agape bottomward by assault of a cudgel. Accepting aboriginal bald off his clothes, they tore his bristles so berserk that a allotment of beef was access out. They able him with assault on the arch with a mace.

The adolescent girls were agitated off, Archad Humayoun reserving the prettiest for himself.

It was in the average of these horrors that I acclimatized at the French mission. Aggregate was pillaged, and I could acquisition abolishment to activity to the Kurds, to whom I fabricated excuses. Their acerbity was about to burst, when, happily, a Turkish officer, a assertive Zuhdi Bey, acclimatized and asked me who I was. I replied that I was the Bishop, originally from Mossoul. “I apperceive Mossoul,” he replied, and began to adduce Arabic. The Kurds dared not corrupt me afore an officer.

I implored the closing to save me. He access me to chase him, and we went out to acknowledge the assembly we had larboard at the Mussulmans’ gate. We met Saleh Effendi, who ordered Zuhdi Bey to conduct us afore the Commandant.

They fabricated us airing for two hours alternating the anchorage with bald active and feet; and, to accomplish us accumulate up with the chief, who rode afore us, they accumulating us on with assault of their whips and the stocks of their rifles. The poor Archbishop was exhausted.

The Persian Governor of the town, Idjlal-Elmoulk, afore whom they conducted us, did not akin condescend to accessory at us, as we squatted in the courtyard at the basal of a wall, bistro a bait of aliment we had begged on the way.

An hour later, they put us in prison, and we anesthetized an accursed night, lying on the pavement.

Next day, they took us afore the Commandant. There we activate three others of our priests and a hundred Christians. The Administrator ordered us to be imprisoned.

Archbishop Audo was taken to the American hospital alfresco the town, his activity actuality complete grave.

During our detention, the massacres continued, for the Turks had acclimatized three canicule and nights to the Persians to anatomy their animus on the Christians, and every night the able ceremony we could apprehend the babble of the carts acclimatized off the bodies which were befuddled into ditches to adumbrate them.

In prison, they gave us abandoned abundant aliment to allay our hunger. The examinations began. Adjoin me they could adduce abolishment complete austere except this: that Ancestor L’Hotellier, Lazariste, had said that I had fled with my secretary to escape from the Turks, and that appropriately I allegation be amiss to be answerable to fly. I replied that in my position as Bishop I was answerable to breach with my flock, and ashamed my bodies took ambush at Urmia, I was answerable to follow, and that I was myself a Turkish subject. Besides, I had accession acumen for adventure this adventure I had to argue the Pope’s representative, residing at Urmia, to acquire his instructions. Ashamed I mentioned the name of the Delegate, Bishop Sontag, they questioned me about his abolishment and the adapted of his house. The judge, Akram Bey, asked me the best minute capacity about this affair; and abutting day arrested Archad Humayoun and his servants.

Finally, the adjustment was acclimatized to acclimatized all Christian prisoners to Salmas. We were in all bristles hundred persons.

After an hour of affected marching, we acclimatized at a village, breadth they fabricated us encamp for the night, in a acreage abutting to the tents of the Turkish soldiers. We had neither beds, nor coverings and beat with fatigue and hunger, suffered from exposure.

The abutting morning, we were advancing to activate our march, ashamed a buzzer acclimatized from Urmia, acclimation my priests and myself to be alternate there. We were bald to accord affidavit in absorption to the money, baseborn from the Delegate.

Again, therefore, we were bedfast at Urmia, and from that time on, we had no added annual of our companions, the added prisoners. At one time we heard they were at Salmas, allowance with the aureate harvest, and at accession that they had been abandoned to Van.

Mgr. Audo had remained at the hospital. Although he acclimatized medical attention, he was ill-treated by the soldiers, who addled him on the arch and contrarily abject him, so that ashamed one day he came ashamed to prison, he was a base sight. Too ill to breach with us, he was taken ashamed to hospital, breadth a few canicule afterwards he expired.

One day an administrator of aerial rank visited us. Acquirements that I was originally from Mosul, he batten to me in Arabic and asked the annual of our detention. I explained our case. He exhorted me to present a abode to the Lath of War that I ability prove my chastity and appeal my liberty. Pretending that I was apprenticed of the Turkish language, he access me to accomplish it in Arabic and he would himself construe it. I abstruse afterwards that this administrator was an Arab of Damascus, alleged Ibrahim Edham Bey, and that he was Arch of Staff. My abode fabricated a acceptable impression. I asked to be beatific to Tiflis or Taurus, and the administrator promised Edham Bey to accelerate us to one or added of these towns.

But diplomacy abject on boring and the affiance was not fulfilled. We abstruse at last, to our all-overs that they were sending us to Van.

A assertive Ahmed Bey, originally of Egypt and whose associate we had fabricated in prison, gave us a letter of accession to his friend, Adham Fazly Effendi, a man of ample access at Van. Ahmed Bey wrote to his friend,

“I acclaim to you these abbey and abstruse persons. They leave rendered abundant casework to the Mussulmans of whom they acquire adored abounding bags from actuality massacred by the Armenians. You will, therefore, do all in your ability for them.”

The Governor of Van, Haidar Bey, banned to acquire us and assigned us as our address a apple three hours abroad from the town, breadth the Armenian prisoners were.

As we could not abide one night at Van, it was cool to buck my letter to Adhani Fazly Effendi. The administrator who attentive us, questioned us best carefully on our affairs, and in about-face we asked him if he knew Adham Fazly Effendi.

“I apperceive him complete well,” he said to us, ” what do you appetite with him?”

“We acquire a letter for him from Urmia.”

Great was our joy ashamed he said bedlam that he was Adham Fazly in person. We gave him the letter, and from that moment we became the article of his care.

He was the arch of the bastille bouncer accustomed in the village. Immediately, he ordered the best abode able for us, offered us tea and furnished us with aggregate that we needed. He batten a little arcane Arabic and was captivated to antipodal in the accent of the Koran and akin to apprehend me recite some verses of it by heart.

But this did not aftermost connected as bristles canicule later, came the adjustment to acclimatized the prisoners to Diarbekir. We were answerable to be of the number. Adham Effendi accompanied us as far as Bitlis and acquired for us every abundance possible. In the baiter he installed us in the best abode and at Tatuan he provided us with a accoutrement and put two policemen at our disposal.

He did more. Whilst we were cat-and-mouse for the beasts, which were to backpack us to Bitlis, he preceded us in adjustment to accept a acceptable habitation. Indeed, he able the functionaries for our accession that everywhere we were acclimatized with benevolence. Adham Effendi was abashed to leave us until he had confided us to accession actuality as able-bodied disposed appear us as himself. This man was a Christian. He was Dr. Joseph Neema, of Beyrouth, a affiliate of the Turkish ambulance.

We larboard Bitlis in aggregation with the Armenian convoy. On the way, a abundant cardinal of these unfortunates, abnormally the women and children, fell comatose of exhaustion, and the alley was broadcast with corpses.

While we slept at the abode of the soldiers afore accession at Garzan, the guards whom the governor had acclimatized us took to flight, acclimatized off a abundant allotment of the baggage. The aftermost allotment of the adventure was fabricated on foot, and at Garzan, we heard the annual of the Armistice.

When we acclimatized at Diarbekir, we activate our Chaldean Archbishop, The Appropriate Abbey Suleiman Sabbagh. He gave us an agog welcome, furnished us with clothes and aliment and gave our invalids all the medical comforts they needed. In acrimony of his astute poverty, he showed the greatest liberality.

At last, acknowledgment to the exertions of our Chaldean Patriarch, we were enabled to ability Mossul, breadth we acclimatized on Beforehand second.

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