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The altercation bouncing about the F-35 collective bang fighter echoes antecedent battles fought over aircraft tasked with confined added than one master. Perhaps the axial catechism in today’s agitation is whether a distinct aeroplane advised to accomplish abounding missions abundantly is a bigger and absolutely added affordable best than several airplanes, anniversary advised to accomplish a distinct mission flawlessly. In 1968, the Navy had an absolute answer: No. But were they right?
In the aboriginal 1960s both the Navy and the Air Force were arcade for new action aircraft. The Navy bare a carrier-based interceptor able of agreeable Soviet bombers hundreds of afar away, afore they could barrage all-embracing anti-ship missiles; the Air Force appropriate a supersonic, ground-hugging penetrator that could avoid in beneath adversary alarm and contrivance surface-to-air missiles.
Traditionally, anniversary account developed its own aircraft to accommodated its specific requirements. But in aboriginal 1961, anew appointed Secretary of Aegis Robert McNamara came up with a arrangement to save millions of dollars by application a accustomed airframe for the two actual altered missions. He was bent to assay the ascent costs of ever-more-sophisticated weapons systems. The aftereffect was a warplane that neither account decidedly wanted, one branded by critics as a “flying Edsel.” Former assay pilot George Marrett remembers it artlessly as “the affliction aircraft I had anytime flown.”
The Tactical Fighter–Experimental (TFX) architecture antagonism was launched in backward 1961. At the time, the award-winning was one of the best advantageous weapons systems affairs anytime awarded. McNamara alleged the General Dynamics entry, admitting arduous objections from a aggressive another lath that advantaged a Boeing proposal, mainly because the General Dynamics abstraction promised that the commonality would accommodate greater savings.
Then McNamara committed what the Navy saw as a basal sin: He appointed the Air Force to be the TFX affairs manager, banishment a afraid Navy to accept what would about be a adaptation of the Air Force’s bomber. Both casework initially agreed on a twin-engine, two-seat airframe, featuring a atypical swing-wing design. Aloft that, their architecture requirements bound diverged, and as “McNamara’s airplane” developed, so did the Navy’s action to it.
The Navy’s requirements anachronous aback to the 1950s, aback the Soviets began developing anti-ship missiles that could be launched at continued ambit by bombers able-bodied alfresco a ship’s air defenses. Remembering the adverse Japanese kamikaze attacks of World War II, American admirals had nightmares of swarms of these carrier-killers advancing their accessible action groups.
To counter, argosy tacticians accustomed Douglas Aircraft’s abnormal 1959 F6D Missileer concept. Clashing antecedent fighters, congenital to coil in bound aeriform battles with awful maneuverable opponents, the Douglas angle was artlessly a ample accomplished subsonic aircraft armed with adult all-embracing air-to-air missiles. The Missileer would apogee aeriform over the fleet, basically a aeriform missile battery. It featured a able alarm and side-by-side basement for bigger aggregation coordination, but lacked any trace of dogfighting capability. The prevailing abstraction was that the up-close, “knife action in a buzz booth” appearance of action was obsolete, and the Missileer was meant to accompaniment the McDonnell F-4 Phantom, which in 1961 entered account as the Navy’s capital fighter—itself a big, abundant airplane, which could booty missiles and bombs in abundant abundance but bound accustomed clumsy to about-face with the active Soviet-supplied MiG-17s of the North Vietnamese air force. Future air battles would be fought able-bodied aloft beheld range, won by whichever ancillary came able with the best sensors and missiles. The barrage belvedere could fly like a dog; the absolute dogfighting would be done by the missiles. The Missileer was canceled, but the abstraction acquired into the Navy’s adaptation of the TFX, which was anon appointed the F-111B.
General Dynamics lacked acquaintance in architecture carrier airplanes, so it partnered with admirable Grumman Aircraft to body the F-111B. Grumman had not alone becoming a acceptability for architecture boxy airplanes, it additionally had antecedent acquaintance architecture a swing-wing fighter prototype, the XF10F Jaguar. The Jaguar was adjourned in 1953, but acquaint abstruse would be activated to the F-111.
The F-111B was to be the best adult architecture of its era. Not alone would it be the aboriginal assembly warplane with a variable-sweep wing, an aggressive undertaking, it would additionally be the aboriginal to absorb afterburning turbofan engines, able of affective the aeroplane to Mach 2 while still boasting a continued ambit in fuel-efficient cruise. A brand-new, ultra-long-range alarm would acquisition targets for the new Hughes AIM-54A air-to-air missile, which itself had a 100-mile range.
The Grumman F-111B fabricated its aboriginal flight in May 1965, and problems with the engines bound emerged.
To accomplish the range, speed, and amble times appropriate by antithetical Air Force and Navy mission requirements, General Dynamics had alleged the new, ambiguous Pratt & Whitney TF30 turbofan engine. The turbofans formed able-bodied in cruise, but not so able-bodied during the flight action archetypal of aggressive operations. A alternation of compressor stalls bedridden the F-111 assay program, tarnishing the aircraft’s acceptability amid pilots.
“The F-111 took a abhorrent assessment on assay pilots,” says George Marrett, who absent accompany in assay flight accidents. Marrett, who aboriginal flew F-111s as an Air Force assay pilot at Edwards Air Force Base in California, would additionally afterwards fly the Navy’s adaptation as a noncombatant assay pilot. He says candidly, “I got the job because two Hughes aggregation associates were asleep aeriform the plane.”
Marrett accumulated hundreds of hours aeriform F-111Bs, at one point adamantly bringing aback an airplane, bedridden by flight ascendancy malfunctions, for a blast landing at Argosy Air Station Point Mugu. And admitting 188 action missions aerodynamics A-1 Skyraiders over Vietnam, Marrett considers his F-111B blast in October 1969 to be his abutting besom with afterlife in a continued aeriform career.
In his 2006 book Testing Death, Marrett wrote that although the F-111 was “grossly underpowered, and had poor cockpit afterimage for a fighter,” it was active in perfecting the Phoenix missile and its associated AN/AWG-9 alarm system. “I wouldn’t appetite to action one adjoin a fighter,” he says in an interview, “but absolutely as an interceptor, it would accept done able-bodied adjoin bombers and cruise missiles.”
Hughes Aircraft began developing the AIM-54 Phoenix missile in 1962. The capabilities accustomed were ambitious; it was appropriate to appoint targets at altitudes alignment from aloof aloft the after-effects to over 80,000 feet, aeriform at speeds abutting Mach 5 and at ranges of added than 100 miles. The AWG-9 alarm congenital to acquisition its targets was the aboriginal able to clue and appoint assorted aeriform contacts simultaneously, article the Navy actively bare to adverse the advancing missile swarm.
As with any cutting-edge weapons system, development was ambiguous and costly. Marrett spent 10 years aeriform Phoenix assay flights, ablution missiles from F-111Bs and afterwards F-14s at bombinate targets over the Pacific Missile Range, off the California coast. With argot in cheek, he calls himself a “test-range ace,” accepting attempt bottomward bristles drones. “All missile assay shots were critical,” he recalls; “we were told a abortion ability aftereffect in affairs cancellation.”
Surprisingly, the avant-garde swing- addition technology formed able-bodied on the jet. The absolute botheration from the Navy’s point of appearance was the airplane’s size. Alike afore its alpha flight, abounding in the fighter association resisted the interceptor, because it too abundant and too apathetic for dogfighting—which of beforehand it was not advised to do.
Some of the Navy’s own demands, such as side-by-side basement for crews cocooned aural a cockpit escape capsule, were allotment of the F-111’s weight problem. Not alone did the ejectable abridged add weight to the airframe, but Marrett recalls that assay pilots didn’t anticipate it would work. “We all looked at anniversary added and said, ‘Well, aboriginal guy that uses that is gonna be dead.’ And abiding enough, that’s what happened. It asleep one of my friends. The abridged afar [from the fuselage], but the ’chute didn’t deploy.”
The interceptor was big—it had to be, to backpack hours of amble ammunition and a amount of six 13-foot-long Phoenix missiles belief 1,000 pounds each. (With a best ascent weight of 88,000 pounds, a absolutely loaded F-111B was added than a analogously able F-14; both were far best than added fighters of the time.) Again there was the Air Force affirmation for a ground-hugging supersonic acceleration capability, which alleged for architecture appearance not capital by argosy planners that added weight and amount to the accustomed F-111 airframe. Commonality, forth with agent headaches, hindered beforehand and added costs.
Engineers formed tenaciously to accomplish the F-111B adequate for carrier duty. They akin added than a ton of weight from the airframe, which forth with aerodynamic refinements bargain the airplane’s landing acceleration to 115 knots (132 mph). Higher-thrust versions of the TF30 turbofan added performance, and redesigned agent inlets all but alone compressor stalls.
But by mid-1967, attrition from the Navy fighter association came to a head. Retired Rear Admiral Kenneth “Pete” Pettigrew recalls accessory a conference on the F-111 during his antecedent F-4 Phantom training at Argosy Air Station Miramar in the abatement of 1966. During the presentation, a manufacturer’s adumbrative was cogent the aggregate aviators how abundant the new F-111B was activity to be, alone to be again disconnected by adviser pilots insisting, “It’s not a fighter—cancel it!” The rep larboard in a huff, says Pettigrew, but not afore calling out, “You bigger alpha affection it, ’cause you guys are gonna fly it!”
Among adept fighter pilots aloof with the F-111B were some with action acquaintance over Vietnam, area admitting war planner’s assumptions, dogfighting adequacy was proving actual relevant. Retired Navy Captain Joe Brantuas was one of the aboriginal who alternate from Vietnam to advise access at Argosy Air Station Miramar. Colorful and outspoken, Brantuas was aloof of the new jet, asserting that “a lot of backroom was complex with that airplane. It was a weight about everyone’s shoulders. Pilots didn’t appetite it.”
What the pilots capital was an active fighter with accoutrements for close-in combat, not a big missile-armed bus.
During the F-111B’s continued development cycle, a articulate band had again approved to end it, claiming it was clashing for carrier operations. However, as continued as the F-111B remained the alone advantage able of accustomed the fleet-protecting Phoenix missile, Navy assumption cautiously accurate the aircraft.
In backward 1967 Grumman proposed its own another swing-wing fighter, advised alone to Navy specifications, able of both accustomed the Phoenix and dogfighting. The abstraction would eventually be appointed the F-14 Tomcat.
McNamara accommodated his position in February 1968, and the arguable F-111 affairs absent its arch apostle in the Pentagon. By then, the amount of the Navy’s adaptation had skyrocketed from a projected $3 actor per archetype to $8 actor ($59 actor in 2018 dollars).
Senior Navy admiral saw a adventitious to abolish article they never wanted. The final draft was delivered during a March 1968 audition afore the Senate Armed Casework Committee. Aback asked by Committee Chairman John Stennis whether new engines would accomplish the F-111B adequate to the Navy, Vice Admiral Tom Connolly advisedly replied: “Senator, there isn’t abundant ability in all Christendom to accomplish that aeroplane what we want.” That acknowledgment paved the way for the F-14. Congress beneath to accept added funds, and anon afterwards the F-111B affairs was scuttled.
“As a pat on the back, the Tomcat was called afterwards him,” confirms Brantuas, who knew Connolly personally. (McNamara would afterwards affirmation in an account that the Navy had sabotaged the F-111 program.)
As a adolescent aliment supervisor, Mike Glenn formed on the four F-111Bs loaned to Hughes Aircraft for Phoenix missile testing. Later, he would additionally abutment aboriginal F-14s aureate by the company. Glenn got a abutting attending at both big airplanes.
Not shy about cogent an opinion, Glenn believes the Navy would accept been acute to buy about 40 or so F-111Bs and arrange baby detachments of them to carriers for active air defense. “This would accept accustomed Grumman time to appropriately advance the F-14,” he explains. The Tomcats had their own allotment of teething problems. “By the aftermost F-111B built, Grumman and GD had formed out the bugs. I will acquaint you that [prototype] cardinal 7 could fly circles about our aboriginal F-14s—longer, faster, and actual maintenance-friendly compared to beforehand F-111Bs and F-14s.”
In his all-embracing assay of the TFX saga, Illusions of Choice: The F-111 and the Botheration of Weapons Acquisition Reform, Robert Coulam writes, “versus added aircraft, and absolutely for its active air aegis mission, the F-111B provided abundant increases in Navy capabilities.” Coulam additionally relates that although Navy Secretary Paul Ignatius (1967-68) believed that the F-111B had abstruse problems, “he additionally accustomed that the Navy had an ‘emotional’ botheration with the plane.”
In a 2003 interview, Ignatius would say of the jet: “The added I looked into it, the added I became assertive that the amount had accomplished such an affecting accompaniment that alike if the F-111B, the Navy version, angry out to be an accomplished airplane, and it wasn’t all that good, but alike if it did, the Navy still wouldn’t appetite it.”
One absolution again accustomed for ablution the interceptor was its perceived abridgement of carrier compatibility, but oddly, the aeroplane wasn’t activated aboard a carrier until afterwards its cancellation, and alone again “at the affirmation of Secretary Ignatius,” addendum Coulam.
In the summer of 1968, aback the fifth F-111B ancestor flew its carrier trials, Pete Pettigrew was aboard the USS Coral Sea. To the abruptness of many, the big interceptor completed its evaluations afterwards above problems. “It flew a nice approach, wasn’t too fast, and performed able-bodied on the ball,” says Pettigrew. “They were appealing blessed about it.” But he bound adds, “If all you were aggravating to do was acreage aboard ship…then the alike was all right.”
Although the Navy never capital any allotment of a collective TFX program, its adverse adaptation ability accept served as an able interceptor had it not been for alteration requirements and diffuse delays in Phoenix missile development. Upon the accession of the aboriginal F-14s, the actual Navy F-111s were relegated to boneyards. “It was like the Navy didn’t appetite both planes aeriform at the aforementioned time so they could be compared,” says Glenn.
With the Navy’s cancellation, all the compromises fabricated by the Air Force in advancing two-service commonality were for naught. Moreover, aback the Navy alone its planned buy of 705 F-111Bs, the advantages of economies of calibration were lost, accretion the amount of the Air Force planes.
Despite problems inherent to the adolescent design—which ironically included compressor stalls that resulted in the blast of abounding F-14s, an affair abundantly anchored for the F-111—the Navy rushed its Tomcats into service. They would be the aftermost of Grumman’s “cat” alternation of fighters (and the best famous, afterwards starring in the 1986 blur Top Gun), and far pricier than the F-111B they replaced. Accepting aureate both jets, Marrett thinks it was a acceptable abstraction to abolish the F-111B, and considers F-14s “the best all-around fighter I anytime flew.”
Several analysts accept acicular to the Navy’s acquaintance with the F-111 as a cautionary account for casework deploying the F-35. One arrangement the airplanes allotment is acrid acumen collapsed by a choir of critics afore the ability accustomed themselves in operations. Though the Navy never took to the F-111, the Air Force accustomed added than 500 in assorted roles, including cardinal bombing and cyberbanking warfare. Admitting an inauspicious action addition over Southeast Asia in 1968, Air Force F-111s would complete into aberrant advance aircraft. Indeed, altered versions of “McNamara’s airplane” went on to serve for 30 years, with EF-111 cyberbanking warfare variants deployed to the Persian Gulf as backward as 1998. The Australian air force best up two dozen more, and kept the F-111 as its capital advance aeroplane until 2010.
The Air Force and Navy accept accustomed that a distinct airframe can be acclimatized for their altered needs—the F-4 Phantom flew for both casework alpha in the 1960s until, for the Navy, able-bodied into the 1980s, and for the Air Force, into the 1990s.
Yet the agitation continues, as acrimonious now as it was decades ago aback the Pentagon alien the then-novel abstraction of an “affordable” joint-use warplane.
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