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Charles Lindbergh in the accessible cockpit of aeroplane at Lambert Field, St. Louis, Missouri in 1923 (Library of Congress photo)

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Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., 20-month-old son of the acclaimed aviator and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, was kidnapped about 9:00 p.m., on March 1, 1932, from the nursery on the added attic of the Lindbergh home abreast Hopewell, New Jersey. The child’s absence was apparent and appear to his parents, who were afresh at home, at about 10:00 p.m. by the child’s nurse, Betty Gow. A chase of the bounds was anon fabricated and a bribe agenda ambitious $50,000 was begin on the nursery window sill. Afterwards the Hopewell badge were notified, the abode was telephoned to the New Jersey Accompaniment Police, who affected allegation of the investigation.

During the chase at the kidnapping scene, traces of mud were begin on the attic of the nursery. Footprints, absurd to measure, were begin below the nursery window. Two sections of the ladder had been acclimated in all-encompassing the window, one of the two sections was breach or burst area it abutting the other, advertence that the ladder had burst during the ascendance or descent. There were no claret stains in or about the nursery, nor were there any fingerprints.

Household and acreage advisers were questioned and investigated. Colonel Lindbergh asked accompany to acquaint with the kidnappers, and they fabricated boundless appeals for the kidnappers to alpha negotiations. Assorted abyss characters were dealt with in attempts to acquaintance the kidnappers, and abundant clues were avant-garde and exhausted.

A added bribe agenda was accustomed by Colonel Lindbergh on March 6, 1932, (postmarked Brooklyn, New York, March 4), in which the bribe appeal was added to $70,000. A badge appointment was afresh declared by the governor at Trenton, New Jersey, which was abounding by prosecuting officials, badge authorities, and government representatives. Assorted theories and behavior of action were discussed. Private lath additionally were active by Colonel Lindbergh’s attorney, Colonel Henry Breckenridge.

The third bribe agenda was accustomed by Colonel Lindbergh’s advocate on March 8, allegorical that an abettor appointed by the Lindberghs would not be accustomed and requesting a agenda in a newspaper. On the aforementioned date, Dr. John F. Condon, Bronx, New York City, a retired academy principal, appear in the “Bronx Home News” an action to act as abettor and to pay an added $1,000 ransom. The afterward day the fourth bribe agenda was accustomed by Dr. Condon, which adumbrated he would be adequate as a go-between. This was accustomed by Colonel Lindbergh. About March 10, 1932, Dr. Condon accustomed $70,000 in banknote as ransom, and anon started negotiations for acquittal through bi-weekly columns, application the cipher name “Jafsie.”

About 8:30 p.m., on March 12, afterwards accepting an bearding blast call, Dr. Condon accustomed the fifth bribe note, delivered by Joseph Perrone, a taxicab driver, who accustomed it from an anonymous stranger. The bulletin declared that addition agenda would be begin below a bean at a abandoned stand, 100 anxiety from an afar alms station. This note, the sixth, was begin by Condon, as indicated. Afterward instructions therein, the doctor met an anonymous man, who declared himself “John,” at Woodlawn Cemetery, abreast 233rd Street and Jerome Avenue. They discussed acquittal of the bribe money. The drifter agreed to accouter a badge of the child’s identity. Condon was accompanied by a bodyguard, except while talking to “John.” During the abutting few days, Dr. Condon afresh his advertisements, advancement added acquaintance and advertence his alertness to pay the ransom.

A baby’s sleeping suit, as a badge of identity, and a seventh bribe agenda were accustomed by Dr. Condon on March 16. The clothing was delivered to Colonel Lindbergh and afterwards identified. Condon connected his advertisements. The eighth bribe agenda was accustomed by Condon on March 21, insisting on complete acquiescence and advising that the kidnapping had been planned for a year.

On March 29, Betty Gow, the Lindbergh nurse, begin the infant’s deride guard, beat at the time of the kidnapping, abreast the access to the estate. The afterward day the ninth bribe agenda was accustomed by Condon, aggressive to access the appeal to $100,000 and abnegation a cipher for use in bi-weekly columns. The tenth bribe note, accustomed by Dr. Condon, on April 1, 1932 instructed him to accept the money accessible the afterward night, to which Condon replied by an ad in the Press. The eleventh bribe agenda was delivered to Condon on April 2, 1932, by an anonymous auto disciplinarian who said he accustomed it from an alien man. Dr. Condon begin the twelfth bribe agenda below a bean in avant-garde of a greenhouse at 3225 East Tremont Avenue, Bronx, New York, as instructed in the eleventh note.

Shortly thereafter, on the aforementioned evening, by afterward the instructions independent in the twelfth note, Condon afresh met whom he believed to be “John” to abate the appeal to $50,000. This bulk was handed to the drifter in barter for a cancellation and the thirteenth note, absolute instructions to the aftereffect that the kidnapped adolescent could be begin on a baiter alleged “Nellie” abreast Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. The drifter afresh absolved arctic into the esplanade woods. The afterward day an bootless chase for the babyish was fabricated abreast Martha’s Vineyard. The chase was afterwards repeated. Dr. Condon was absolute that he would admit “John” if he anytime saw him again.

On May 12, 1932, the anatomy of the kidnapped babyish was accidentally found, partly buried, and abominably decomposed, about four and a bisected afar southeast of the Lindbergh home, 45 anxiety from the highway, abreast Mount Rose, New Jersey, in Mercer County. The assay was fabricated by William Allen, an abettor on a barter apprenticed by Orville Wilson. The arch was crushed, there was a aperture in the skull and some of the anatomy associates were missing. The anatomy was absolutely articular and cremated at Trenton, New Jersey, on May 13, 1932. The Coroner’s assay showed that the adolescent had been asleep for about two months and that afterlife was acquired by a draft on the head.

The Investigation: 1932-1934

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On March 2, 1932, afterwards a appointment with the Advocate General, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover had contacted the abode of the New Jersey Accompaniment Badge at Trenton, New Jersey. He acutely abreast the alignment that the U.S. Administration of Justice would allow Colonel H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the Superintendent of the New Jersey Accompaniment Police, the abetment and cooperation of the FBI in bringing about the alarm of the parties amenable for the kidnapping. He brash the New Jersey Accompaniment Badge that they could alarm aloft the Bureau for any accessories or assets which the closing ability be able of extending. The appropriate abettor in allegation of the New York City Office of the Bureau, which at that time covered the New Jersey district, was instructed appropriately and, aloft instructions from the Director, the appropriate abettor in allegation appear with the New Jersey Accompaniment Badge and the New York City Police, alms any abetment which the Bureau ability be able to accommodate in this matter.

During the abutting few weeks the Bureau was acting alone in an abetting capacity, there actuality no federal jurisdiction. However, on May 13, 1932, the President directed that all authoritative analytic agencies should abode themselves at the auctioning of the accompaniment of New Jersey and that the FBI should serve as a clearinghouse and analogous bureau for all investigations in this case conducted by federal analytic units.

On May 23, 1932, the FBI in New York City abreast banks in greater New York that the Bureau was the analogous bureau for all authoritative action in the case. A abutting watch for bribe money was requested.

The New Jersey Accompaniment Badge appear on May 26, 1932, the action of a accolade not to beat $25,000 for advice consistent in the alarm and confidence of the kidnapper or kidnappers. In acquiescence with a appeal fabricated by Colonel Schwarzkopf, copies of this alarm of accolade were forwarded by the FBI to all law administration admiral and agencies throughout the United States.

On June 10, 1932, Violet Sharpe, a waitress in the home of Mrs. Lindbergh’s mother, Mrs. Dwight Morrow, who had been below assay by the authorities, committed suicide by burning adulteration back she was about to be requestioned. However, her movements on the night of March 1, 1932, had been anxiously arrested and it was anon absolutely absolute that she had no affiliation with the abduction.

In September, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared in a affair with Director Hoover that all assignment on the case be centralized in the Administration of Justice. He requested the Director to back his angle to Advocate General Cummings with the advancement that the Advocate General accomplish a appeal of the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Account (IRS), either through the President or directly, for a abundant abode of all assignment performed by the IRS Intelligence Unit. On October 19, 1933, it was acutely appear that the FBI would accept absolute administration in so far as the Federal Government was anxious in the administration of any analytic actualization of the case.

The President’s Proclamation acute the acknowledgment to the Treasury of all gold and gold certificates was a admired aid in the case, inasmuch as $40,000 of the bribe money had been paid in gold certificates and, at the time of the Proclamation, a ample allocation of this money was accepted to be outstanding. Therefore, this actualization of the assay was emphasized.

On January 17, 1934, a annular letter was issued by the New York City Bureau Office to all banks and their branches in New York City, requesting an acutely abutting watch for the bribe certificates and, in February 1934, all Bureau Offices were supplied with copies of the Bureau’s revised announcement absolute the consecutive numbers of bribe bills. The New York City Bureau Office broadcast copies of this announcement to anniversary abettor administration bill in banks, clearinghouses, grocery food in assertive alleged communities, allowance companies, gasoline bushing stations, airports, administration stores, column offices, and telegraph companies.

Following the administration of these booklets absolute the consecutive cardinal of the bribe currency, there were additionally able and analogously broadcast by the Bureau bill key cards which, in acceptable form, set alternating the across-the-board consecutive numbers of all of the bribe addendum which had been paid. This was followed by common claimed contacts with coffer admiral and with alone advisers in an accomplishment to accumulate animate their interest.

Prior to this time, the casual of bribe bills had been appear to either the FBI, the New Jersey Accompaniment Police, or the New York City Badge Department, none of which had complete advice on this point. Therefore, arrange were accomplished whereby assay of all such bribe bills detected in the approaching could be anon conducted accordingly by assembly of the three absorbed agencies.

One of the by-products of the case was a accumulation of misinformation accustomed from well-meaning but uninformed, awful artistic individuals, and a deluge of belletrist accounting by bananas persons, publicity seekers, and frauds. It was essential, however, that all accessible clues, behindhand of the anticipation of success, be anxiously followed, and it was absurd in the all-inclusive majority of instances to actuate at the birth whether they would be actual or false.

On March 4, 1932, a con man alleged Gaston B. Agency was approached by Mrs. Evalyn Walsh McLean, of Washington, D.C., who acquainted that she ability be of actual abetment to Colonel Lindbergh in accretion the acknowledgment of his child. Mrs. McLean had become acquainted with Agency as a aftereffect of some analytic assignment which agency had performed for her bedmate some years before. Agency abreast her that he acquainted assertive he could defended a acquaintance with the kidnappers inasmuch as he had been arrive to participate in a “big kidnapping” some weeks afore but had declined. Agency claimed that his acquaintance was amenable for the Lindbergh kidnapping. The afterward day, Agency appear to Mrs. McLean that he had fabricated a acquaintance with the bodies who had the child. He auspiciously induced Mrs. McLean to duke over to him $100,000, to be acclimated in advantageous the bribe which he said had been doubled. Until April 17, 1932, he kept Mrs. McLean waiting, circadian assured the acknowledgment of the child. During this period, he declared to be ability negotiations with the declared baton of the kidnappers, whom he declared “The Fox.” Mrs. McLean assuredly requested the acknowledgment of the $100,000 and added money which she had avant-garde him for “expenses.” Back he bootless to do so, the case was angry over to the FBI. Agency and “The Fox,” who was begin to be Norman T. Whitaker, a disbarred Washington attorney, were apprehended, and Agency was afterwards bedevilled of abstraction and burglary afterwards trust, and bedevilled to serve 15 years in a federal penitentiary. Whitaker and Agency were afterwards bedevilled of cabal to defraud, and were bedevilled to serve two years anniversary in a federal penitentiary.

There were added attempted frauds which appropriate all-encompassing investigations afore they could be absolutely alone from application in affiliation with the Lindbergh case.

In all, there were actually bags of leads in all sections of the United States which were followed to their audible abstracts by the Bureau. The after-effects of all these investigations, no bulk how trivial, were reported. The activities of the accepted and doubtable associates of the alleged “Purple Gang” of Detroit, and assorted rumors and allegations apropos this assemblage were anxiously and thoroughly investigated. Abundant registries of boats were advised in a abortive endeavor to locate the baiter “Nellie,” on which the babyish was to accept been begin according to the 13th and aftermost bribe agenda handed to Dr. Condon at the time he paid the bribe money to “John.” Annal of cemetery advisers who were active in assorted cemeteries in assertive sections of New York City and abreast Hopewell, New Jersey, were examined. Advice accumulated in assorted added kidnapping and extortion cases handled by the FBI was advised in abutting detail and advised with accurate advertence to any abode they ability accept aloft the band-aid of the Lindbergh case. Hundreds of photographs and anecdotic abstracts of accepted abyss of all types and added accessible suspects were apparent to the few eye-witnesses in this case in an endeavor to analyze the abstruse “John.”

On May 2, 1933, the Federal Reserve Coffer of New York apparent 296 ten-dollar gold certificates, and one $20 gold certificate, all Lindbergh bribe notes. These bills were included amid the bill accustomed at the Federal Reserve Coffer on May 1, 1933, and allegedly had been fabricated in one deposit. Anon aloft the assay of these bills, drop tickets at the Federal Reserve Coffer for May 1, 1933, were examined. One was begin abode the name and abode of “J.J. Faulkner, 537 West 149th Street,” and had apparent afterwards “gold certificates,” “$10 and $20” in the bulk of $2,980. Despite all-encompassing investigation, this depositor was never located.

Examination of the bribe addendum by autography experts resulted in a about accepted assessment that all the addendum were accounting by the aforementioned actuality and that the biographer was of German allegiance but had spent some time in America. Dr. Condon declared “John” as Scandinavian, and assertive he could analyze the man, spent ample time in assay the abundant photographs of accessible suspects and accepted criminals. In this connection, the FBI retained the casework of an artisan to adapt a account of “John” from descriptions furnished by Dr. Condon and Joseph Perrone, the auto cab disciplinarian who had delivered one of the bribe belletrist to Dr. Condon.

In a added endeavor to analyze the alone who accustomed the bribe payment, assembly of the New York City Bureau Office affianced Dr. Condon to adapt a archetype of all conversations had by him with “John” on March 12 and April 2, 1932, the dates on which Dr. Condon alone contacted the kidnapper in adjustment to accommodate the acknowledgment of the adolescent and the acquittal of the ransom. These conversations were, during March, 1934, transcribed in detail on phonograph annal by Dr. Condon who apish the pronunciations and accent of “John.” In this abode the nationality, education, mentality, and actualization of the kidnapper were added acutely authentic and assuredly preserved for approaching use.

Another absorbing attack to analyze the kidnapper centered about the ladder acclimated in the crime. Badge bound accomplished that it was abominably built, but congenital nonetheless by addition accustomed with copse who was mechanically inclined. The ladder had been thoroughly advised for fingerprints and had been apparent to builders, carpenters, and neighbors of the Lindberghs in vain. Slivers of the ladder alike had been analyzed, and the types of copse acclimated in the ladder had been identified. Perhaps a complete assay of the ladder by itself by a copse able would crop added clues, and in aboriginal 1933, such an able was declared in—Arthur Koehler of the Forest Service, United States Administration of Agriculture.

Koehler disassembled the ladder and agilely articular the types of copse acclimated and advised apparatus marks. He additionally looked at the arrangement fabricated by nailholes, for it appeared acceptable that some copse had been acclimated afore in calm construction. Koehler fabricated acreage trips to the Lindbergh acreage and to factories to trace some of the wood. He abbreviated his allegation in a report, and afterwards played a analytical role in the balloon of the kidnapper.

Hauptmann is Located

A alternation of bribe addendum afterward the kidnapping led to a affair amid Dr. John Condon, a adumbrative of the Lindbergh family, and a abstruse man alleged “John.” An artisan account of “John” was developed from the exact description of Dr. Condon and accepted to be actual agnate to Bruno Richard Hauptmann (right), who was arrested on September 19, 1934.

For a aeon of seven months above-mentioned to August 20, 1934, no gold certificates were apparent except for those accustomed in the Federal Reserve Bank, ahead mentioned. Starting on August 20, 1934, and extending into September, a absolute of 16 gold certificates were discovered, best of them in the around of Yorkville and Harlem. The long-awaited befalling had assuredly arrived. As anniversary bill was recovered, a black pin actualization the area of the recovered bill was amid in a ample map of the Metropolitan Area, appropriately advertence the movements of the alone or individuals who ability be casual the bribe money. Back the aboriginal few fabricated their appearance, it was absitively to apply on gold certificates, as acquaintance had accurate the futility of archetype the accustomed bill included in the bribe money. In befitting with the accommodating action ahead accustomed with the New Jersey Accompaniment Badge and the New York City Badge Department, teams composed of a adumbrative of anniversary of these badge agencies and a appropriate abettor of the Bureau were organized to alone acquaintance all banks in Greater New York and Westchester County. As a result, the assorted adjacency banks apparent the bills abutting to the point at which they were passed, and it afresh became accessible for the lath to trace the bills to the actuality who had originally anesthetized them. For the aboriginal time in the history of the case, the lath succeeded in award that the description of the alone casual these bills fit absolutely that of “John” as declared by Dr. Condon. It was bent through the assay that the bills were actuality anesthetized principally at bend aftermath stores.

About 1:20 p.m. on September 18, 1934, the abettor administrator of the Corn Barter Coffer and Assurance Company, at 125th Street and Esplanade Avenue, New York City, telephoned the New York City Bureau Office to admonish that a $10 gold affidavit had been apparent a few account ahead by one of the tellers in that bank. It was anon absolute that this bill had been accustomed at the coffer from a gasoline base amid at 127th Street and Lexington Avenue, New York City. On September 15, 1934, an active accessory had accustomed a bill in acquittal for bristles gallons of gasoline from a man whose description adapted carefully that of the alone who had anesthetized added bills in contempo weeks. The bushing base attendant, actuality apprehensive of the $10 gold certificate, recorded on the bill the authorization cardinal of the auto apprenticed by the purchaser. This authorization cardinal was issued to Bruno Richard Hauptmann, 1279 East 222nd Street, Bronx, New York.

Hauptmann’s abode was carefully surveilled by federal and bounded authorities throughout the night of September 18, 1934, until at about 9:00 a.m. on September 19, 1934, an individual, carefully applicable the description of “John,” as supplied by Dr. Condon, and the description of the client of the gasoline, as supplied by the account base attendant, larboard his abode and entered his auto anchored nearby. He was promptly taken into aegis by assembly of the three absorbed agencies.

After some investigating, he was begin to be Bruno Richard Hauptmann, the alone to whom the auto authorization had been issued, a German carpenter who had been in this country for about 11 years. A $20 gold bribe affidavit was begin on his person. His description adapted altogether that of “John” as declared by Dr. Condon, and in his abode was begin a brace of shoes which had been purchased with a $20 bribe bill recovered on September 8, 1934. Hauptmann accepted several added purchases which had been fabricated with bribe certificates. On the night of September 19, 1934, he was absolutely articular by Joseph Perrone as the alone from whom he had accustomed the fifth bribe agenda to be delivered to Dr. Condon. The afterward day, bribe certificates in balance of $13,000 were begin buried in the barn of Hauptmann’s residence. Shortly thereafter, he was articular by Dr. Condon as “John” to whom the bribe had been paid. It was additionally absolute that he was in control of a Dodge auto auto which answered the description of that apparent in the around of the Lindbergh home the day above-mentioned to the kidnapping. 

A assiduous assay of Hauptmann’s autography by the Bureau’s new abomination lab showed a arresting affinity amid the book of the columnist of the bribe addendum and of Hauptmann.

Shortly afterwards his apprehension, specimens of Hauptmann’s autography were aureate to Washington, D.C., area a abstraction was fabricated of them in the FBI Laboratory. A allegory of the autograph actualization on the bribe addendum with that of the specimens appear arresting similarities in inconspicuous, claimed characteristics and autograph habits, which resulted in a absolute identification by the autography experts of the Laboratory. Aloft the alarm of Hauptmann, it was begin that he bore a arresting affinity to the account of “John” which had ahead been able from descriptions furnished by Dr. Condon and Joseph Perrone.

Further assay developed that Hauptmann, 35 years old, was a built-in of Saxony, Germany. He had a bent almanac for robbery and had spent time in prison. Aboriginal in July 1923, he stowed abroad aboard the SSHanover at Bremen, Germany, and accustomed in the Port of New York City on July 13, 1923. He was arrested and abandoned immediately. Afterwards addition bootless attack at access in August, Hauptman auspiciously entered the United States in November 1923, on lath the George Washington. On October 10, 1925, Hauptmann affiliated Anna Schoeffler, a New York City waitress. A son, Manfried, was built-in to them in 1933. During his actionable break in New York City and until the bounce of 1932, Hauptmann followed his activity of carpenter. However, a abbreviate while afterwards March 1, 1932, the date of the kidnapping, Hauptmann began to barter rather abundantly in stocks and never formed again.

Indictment, Trial, and Execution

Hauptmann was accusable in the Supreme Court, Bronx County, New York, on accuse of extortion on September 26, 1934, and on October 8, 1934, in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, he was accusable for murder. Two canicule later, the Governor of the Accompaniment of New York accustomed the application of the Governor of the Accompaniment of New Jersey for the abandonment of Bruno Richard Hauptmann and on October 19, 1934, he was removed to the Hunterdon County Jail, Flemington, New Jersey, to anticipate trial.

The balloon of Hauptmann began on January 3, 1935, at Flemington, New Jersey, and lasted bristles weeks. The case adjoin him was based on amplified evidence. Apparatus marks on the ladder akin accoutrement endemic by Hauptmann. Copse in the ladder was begin to bout copse acclimated as attic in his attic. Dr. Condon’s blast cardinal and abode were begin cacographic on a aperture anatomy central a closet. Autography on the bribe addendum akin samples of Hauptmann’s handwriting. 

Lindbergh takes the attestant angle during the 1935 balloon of Hauptmann in Flemington, New Jersey. Photo address of the Library of Congress.

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