Japanese Volitional Form Five Common Mistakes Everyone Makes In Japanese Volitional Form

Hopper and Thompson (1980:251) altercate that transitivity ”the effectiveness with which an activity takes place” is a accent universal, discourse-oriented acreage such that aerial transitivity is activated with foregrounding and low transitivity with backgrounding. However Iwasaki (1993) claims that transitivity in Japanese is bent by the speaker’s adeptness to control the activity and his/her volition, thus, aboriginal being acquaintance descriptions use college transitivity while added descriptions use lower transitivity. However this assay fails to adumbrate the actual degrees of transitivity with giving and accepting verbs – _ageru_ ‘give1’, _kureru_ ‘give2’ and _morau_ ‘receive’. Consider the afterward examples:



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1. ‘I give1 you.’  Watasi  ga anata ni ageru.     ‘I’ ‘Nom’ ‘you’ ‘Dat’ 2. ‘You give2 me.’  Anata  ga watasi ni kureru. 3. ‘I accept from you.’ Watasi  ga anata kara/ni morau.        ‘Loc/Inst’



_Ageru_ presupposes both volitionality and controllability, but _kureru_ dosage not accept that the apostle has an ambition to act or any ascendancy over the act. _Morau_ can booty on acute or alternative anatomy – _morae_ and _moraoo_, respectively. Appropriately _ageru_ and _morau_ are [ ] in both [volition] and [control] while _kureru_ is [-] in both features. Hence according to Iwasaki’s analysis, _morau_ is college in transitivity than _kureru_. However this is incorrect. Two agents are complex with _morau_ (Shibatani 1979), the almsman and the giver: One is about a ‘passive’ abettor and the added the anarchic agent. But, clashing _kureru_, _morau_ dosage not mark this abettor as nominative. Appropriately the transitivity of _morau_ charge be lower than for _kureru_.

If our affirmation is correct, we can adumbrate the degrees of acceptability of clauses afflicted by ’empathy shifting’. Empathy is one of the three types of ‘viewpoint’ – Empathy, Agentive, and Subjective – (Kozai to appear) aural the Mental Space framework (Fauconnier 1994, 1997). Angle is the conceptual angle on the contest presented in a discourse. The Agentive refers to instigator(s) of an event, the Subjective indicates the volitionality of the abettor while Empathy (Kuno 1987 and Wetzel 1985) refers to the speaker’s identification with the participant(s). These viewpoints accept a appropriate administration with anniversary verb and the administration can clarify the botheration of transitivity:



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 Japanese Volitional Verb - japanese volitional form

1′. ‘I give1 you.’  Watasi  ga anata  ni ageru.     Emp/Sub/Agt 2′. ‘You give2 me.’  Anata  ga watasi  ni kureru.     Agt  Emp 3′. ‘I accept from you.’ Watasi  ga anata  kara/ni morau.     Emp/Sub/Agt Agt

Empathy can be confused to addition NP in assertive contexts. In the above examples, if we exchanged the giver and the recipient, the Empathy would be confused back the aboriginal being actor charge accept it. Such sentences are not consistently absolutely acceptable. The degrees of acceptability turns out to be bent by the administration of angle and correlates with degrees of transitivity. It is in the adjustment of _morau_, _kureru_, and _ageru_, which bent by the angle administration – whether there is another accessible angle armpit and whether the aboriginal armpit of Empathy is still abounding with added viewpoint(s). These degrees associate to the degrees of transitivity, i.e. the college the transitivity, the lower the acceptability. Also, afterwards the Empathy shift, the alternation amid transitivity and the angle administration is confirmed. _Kureru_ is accomplished in transitivity because the administration is best abiding – the Agentive and Empathy viewpoints are with the giver in nominative case. _Ageru_ is college than _morau_ because although the administration is beneath stable, Agentive and Subjective viewpoints break with the giver; and the anarchic abettor of _morau_ is consistently in angled case. Therefore, angle administration predicts amount of transitivity.  

References

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Fauconnier, Gilles.  1994.  Mental Spaces.  Cambridge Univ. Press: Cambridge.

___.  1997.  Mappings in Thought and Language.  Cambridge Univ. Press: Cambridge.

Hopper, Paul. J. and S. Thompson.  ”Transitivity in Grammar and Discourse.”  Accent 56(2):251-299.

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Iwasaki, Shoichi.  1993.  Subjectivity in Grammar and Discourse.  John Benjamins: Philadelphia.

Kozai, Soichi.  to appear.  ”Three Types of Angle – Empathy, Subjective, and Agentive: A Case Study from Japanese Giving and Receiving Verbs.”  In the Proceedings of Desert Accent and Linguistic Society Symposium.  Brigham Young University: Utah.

Kuno, Susumu.  1987.  Functional Syntax.  Univ. of Chicago Press: Chicago.

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Shibatani, Masayoshi.  1979. ”Where Analogical Patterning Fails.” Papers in Japanese Linguistics  6:287-307.

Wetzel, Patricia. J.  1985. ”In-Group/Out-Group Deixis: Situational Variation in the Verbs of Giving and Accepting in Japanese”  In J. Forgas, ed., Accent and Social Situation 141-157.   Springer:  NY.

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